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Volume 45(1); January 2021
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Original Article
Guideline/Fact Sheet
Diabetes Fact Sheets in Korea, 2020: An Appraisal of Current Status
Chan-Hee Jung, Jang Won Son, Shinae Kang, Won Jun Kim, Hun-Sung Kim, Hae Soon Kim, Mihae Seo, Hye-Jung Shin, Seong-Su Lee, Su Jin Jeong, Yongin Cho, Seung Jin Han, Hyang Mi Jang, Mira Rho, Shinbi Lee, Mihyun Koo, Been Yoo, Jung-Wha Moon, Hye Young Lee, Jae-Seung Yun, Sun Young Kim, Sung Rae Kim, In-Kyung Jeong, Ji-Oh Mok, Kun Ho Yoon
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(1):1-10.   Published online January 13, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0254
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  • 131 Web of Science
  • 160 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
This study aimed to investigate the recent prevalence, management, and comorbidities of diabetes among Korean adults aged ≥30 years by analyzing nationally representative data.
Methods
This study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2016 to 2018, and the percentage and total number of people ≥30 years of age with diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) were estimated.
Results
In 2018, 13.8% of Korean adults aged ≥30 years had diabetes, and adults aged ≥65 years showed a prevalence rate of 28%. The prevalence of IFG was 26.9% in adults aged ≥30 years. From 2016 to 2018, 35% of the subjects with diabetes were not aware of their condition. Regarding comorbidities, 53.2% and 61.3% were obese and hypertensive, respectively, and 72% had hypercholesterolemia as defined by low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥100 mg/dL in people with diabetes. Of the subjects with diabetes, 43.7% had both hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. With regard to glycemic control, only 28.3% reached the target level of <6.5%. Moreover, only 11.5% of subjects with diabetes met all three targets of glycosylated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and LDL-C. The percentage of energy intake from carbohydrates was higher in diabetes patients than in those without diabetes, while that from protein and fat was lower in subjects with diabetes.
Conclusion
The high prevalence and low control rate of diabetes and its comorbidities in Korean adults were confirmed. More stringent efforts are needed to improve the comprehensive management of diabetes to reduce diabetes-related morbidity and mortality.

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Reviews
Complications
Treatment of Diabetic Kidney Disease: Current and Future
Tomotaka Yamazaki, Imari Mimura, Tetsuhiro Tanaka, Masaomi Nangaku
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(1):11-26.   Published online January 22, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0217
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the major cause of end-stage kidney disease. However, only renin-angiotensin system inhibitor with multidisciplinary treatments is effective for DKD. In 2019, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor showed efficacy against DKD in Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation (CREDENCE) trial, adding a new treatment option. However, the progression of DKD has not been completely controlled. The patients with transient exposure to hyperglycemia develop diabetic complications, including DKD, even after normalization of their blood glucose. Temporary hyperglycemia causes advanced glycation end product (AGE) accumulations and epigenetic changes as metabolic memory. The drugs that improve metabolic memory are awaited, and AGE inhibitors and histone modification inhibitors are the focus of clinical and basic research. In addition, incretin-related drugs showed a renoprotective ability in many clinical trials, and these trials with renal outcome as their primary endpoint are currently ongoing. Hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors recently approved for renal anemia may be renoprotective since they improve tubulointerstitial hypoxia. Furthermore, NF-E2–related factor 2 activators improved the glomerular filtration rate of DKD patients in Bardoxolone Methyl Treatment: Renal Function in chronic kidney disease/Type 2 Diabetes (BEAM) trial and Phase II Study of Bardoxolone Methyl in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and Type 2 Diabetes (TSUBAKI) trial. Thus, following SGLT2 inhibitor, numerous novel drugs could be utilized in treating DKD. Future studies are expected to provide new insights.

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Complications
Lost in Translation? Measuring Diabetic Neuropathy in Humans and Animals
Heung Yong Jin, Seong-Su Moon, Nigel A. Calcutt
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(1):27-42.   Published online December 15, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0216
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
The worldwide diabetes epidemic is estimated to currently afflict almost 500 million persons. Long-term diabetes damages multiple organ systems with the blood vessels, eyes, kidneys and nervous systems being particularly vulnerable. These complications of diabetes reduce lifespan, impede quality of life and impose a huge social and economic burden on both the individual and society. Peripheral neuropathy is a debilitating complication that will impact over half of all persons with diabetes. There is no treatment for diabetic neuropathy and a disturbingly long history of therapeutic approaches showing promise in preclinical studies but failing to translate to the clinic. These failures have prompted re-examination of both the animal models and clinical trial design. This review focuses on the functional and structural parameters used as indices of peripheral neuropathy in preclinical and clinical studies and the extent to which they share a common pathogenesis and presentation. Nerve conduction studies in large myelinated fibers have long been the mainstay of preclinical efficacy screening programs and clinical trials, supplemented by quantitative sensory tests. However, a more refined approach is emerging that incorporates measures of small fiber density in the skin and cornea alongside these traditional assays at both preclinical and clinical phases.

Citations

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Editorial
The Role of Adipose Tissue Lipolysis in Diet-Induced Obesity: Focus on Vimentin
Eun Roh, Hye Jin Yoo
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(1):43-45.   Published online January 22, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0293
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Original Articles
Type 1 Diabetes
Age at Diagnosis and the Risk of Diabetic Nephropathy in Young Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
Jong Ha Baek, Woo Je Lee, Byung-Wan Lee, Soo Kyoung Kim, Gyuri Kim, Sang-Man Jin, Jae Hyeon Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(1):46-54.   Published online July 10, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0134
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background

The aim of this study was to evaluate characteristics and risk of diabetic complications according to age at diagnosis among young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).

Methods

A total of 255 T1DM patients aged less than 40 years were included. Patients were categorized into three groups (<20, 20 to 29, and 30 to 40 years) according to age at diagnosis. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) was defined when spot urine-albumin creatinine ratio was 300 mg/g or more and/or estimated glomerular filtration ratio (eGFR) level was 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or less.

Results

Median age at diagnosis was 25 years and disease duration was 14 years. Individuals diagnosed with T1DM at childhood/adolescent (age <20 years) had lower stimulated C-peptide levels. They received more intensive insulin treatment with higher total daily insulin doses compared to older onset groups. The prevalence of DN was higher in the childhood/adolescent-onset group than in older onset groups (25.3% vs. 15.3% vs. 9.6%, P=0.022). The eGFR was inversely associated with disease duration whilst the degree of decrease was more prominent in the childhood/adolescent-onset group than in the later onset group (aged 30 to 40 years; P<0.001). Childhood/adolescent-onset group was independently associated with the risk of DN compared to the older onset group (aged 30 to 40 years; odds ratio, 3.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.45 to 8.33; P=0.005).

Conclusion

In individuals with childhood/adolescent-onset T1DM, the reduction in renal function is more prominent with disease duration. Early age-onset T1DM is an independent risk of DN.

Citations

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Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Importance of Awareness and Treatment for Diabetes in Influenza Vaccination Coverage of Diabetic Patients under 65 Years: A Population-Based Study
Yu Mi Ko, Seung Hyun Ko, Kyoungdo Han, Yong-Moon Park, Joon Young Choi, Shin Young Kim, So Hyang Song, Chi Hong Kim, Sung Kyoung Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(1):55-66.   Published online May 29, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0189
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background

Influenza is a global public health problem causing considerable morbidity and mortality. Although vaccination is the most effective way to prevent infection, vaccination coverage is insufficient in people with chronic disease under 65 years, especially diabetes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate influenza vaccination coverage and identify factors associated with influenza vaccination in Korean diabetic adults under 65 years.

Methods

Data were obtained from 24,821 subjects in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2014 to 2017). Socioeconomic, health-related, and diabetic factors were investigated for their relations with influenza vaccination in diabetic patients under 65 years using univariate and multivariate analyses.

Results

Among 24,821 subjects, 1,185 were diabetic patients under 65 years and their influenza vaccination rate was 36.5%. Socioeconomic (older age, female gender, non-smoker, light alcohol drinker, lower educational level, and employed status), health-related factors (lower fasting glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level, good self-perceived health status, more comorbidities, recent health screening, more outpatient visits, and diet therapy), and diabetic factors (more awareness and getting treated) were associated with influenza vaccination. In multivariate analysis, more awareness and getting treated for diabetes were associated with influenza vaccination in diabetic patients under 65 years (odds ratio, 1.496 and 1.413; 95% confidence interval, 1.022 to 2.188 and 1.018 to 2.054, respectively).

Conclusion

Influenza vaccination rate was low in diabetic patients under 65 years, especially in those with unawareness and not getting treated for diabetes. Active screening and treatment for diabetes may be helpful to improve the influenza vaccination rate in these patients.

Citations

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    Xiangju Hu, Xin Fang, Minxia Wu
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Lifestyle
Persistent Anxiety Is Associated with Higher Glycemia Post-Transition to Adult Services in Asian Young Adults with Diabetes
Ling Zhu, Suresh Rama Chandran, Wee Boon Tan, Xiaohui Xin, Su-Yen Goh, Daphne Su-Lyn Gardner
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(1):67-76.   Published online June 15, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0226
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background

There is little longitudinal information on psychological burden and metabolic outcomes in young adults with diabetes (YAD) in Asia. We aimed to evaluate the association between psychological status and glycemia at baseline and 2 years following transition in a cohort of YAD in Singapore.

Methods

Subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), aged 17 to 25 years, were recruited from the YAD clinic in Singapore General Hospital. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression and Problem Areas for Diabetes scales were administered at transition (baseline) and at 18 to 24 months. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) assessed during routine visits was tracked longitudinally.

Results

A total of 98 T1DM (74.8%) and 33 T2DM (25.2%) subjects were recruited between January 2011 and November 2017. At baseline, mean HbA1c was 8.6%±1.7%. Only 26.0% achieved HbA1c of ≤7.5% and 16.8% achieved HbA1c of <7%. At baseline, prevalence of anxiety was 29.8%. At 24 months, 14.1% had persistent anxiety. Those with persistent anxiety had the highest mean HbA1c, particularly at 6 months (persistently anxious vs. persistently non-anxious: 9.9%±1.2% vs. 8.2%±1.9%, P=0.009). At baseline, 9.2% of subjects had depression. This group also had poorer glycemia at baseline (HbA1c of depressed vs non-depressed: 9.6%±2.1% vs. 8.5%±1.6%, P=0.04), which persisted up to 24 months.

Conclusion

The majority of YAD in Singapore have suboptimal glycemia. Psychological distress is a critical harbinger of poorer metabolic outcomes.

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Genetics
Metagenomic Analysis of the Gut Microbiome Reveals Enrichment of Menaquinones (Vitamin K2) Pathway in Diabetes Mellitus
Nihar Ranjan Dash, Mohammad Tahseen Al Bataineh
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(1):77-85.   Published online May 11, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0202
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic disease with a high prevalence worldwide, especially among overweight and obese populations. T2DM is multifactorial with several genetic and acquired risk factors that lead to insulin resistance. Mounting evidence indicates that alteration of gut microbiome composition contribute to insulin resistance and inflammation. However, the precise link between T2DM and gut microbiome role and composition remains unknown.

Methods

We evaluated the metabolic capabilities of the gut microbiome of twelve T2DM and six healthy individuals through shotgun metagenomics using MiSeq platform.

Results

We identified no significant differences in the overall taxonomic composition between healthy and T2DM subjects when controlling for differences in diet. However, results showed that T2DM enriched in metabolic pathways involved in menaquinone (vitamin K2) superpathway biosynthesis (PWY-5838) as compared to healthy individuals. Covariance analysis between the bacterial genera and metabolic pathways displaying difference in abundance (analysis of variance P<0.05) in T2DM as compared to healthy subjects revealed that genera belonging Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes phyla contribute significantly to vitamin K2 biosynthesis. Further, the microbiome corresponding to T2DM with high glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (>6.5%) exhibit high abundance of genes involved in lysine biosynthesis and low abundance of genes involved in creatinine degradation as compared to T2DM with lower HbA1c (<6.5%).

Conclusion

The identified differences in metabolic capabilities provide important information that may eventually lead to the development of novel biomarkers and more effective management strategies to treat T2DM.

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Basic Research
Notch1 Has an Important Role in β-Cell Mass Determination and Development of Diabetes
Young Sil Eom, A-Ryeong Gwon, Kyung Min Kwak, Jin-Young Youn, Heekyoung Park, Kwang-Won Kim, Byung-Joon Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(1):86-96.   Published online February 26, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0160
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background

Notch signaling pathway plays an important role in regulating pancreatic endocrine and exocrine cell fate during pancreas development. Notch signaling is also expressed in adult pancreas. There are few studies on the effect of Notch on adult pancreas. Here, we investigated the role of Notch in islet mass and glucose homeostasis in adult pancreas using Notch1 antisense transgenic (NAS).

Methods

Western blot analysis was performed for the liver of 8-week-old male NAS mice. We also conducted an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test in 8-week-old male NAS mice and male C57BL/6 mice (control). Morphologic observation of pancreatic islet and β-cell was conducted in two groups. Insulin secretion capacity in islets was measured by glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and perifusion.

Results

NAS mice showed higher glucose levels and lower insulin secretion in IPGTT than the control mice. There was no significant difference in insulin resistance. Total islet and β-cell masses were decreased in NAS mice. The number of large islets (≥250 µm) decreased while that of small islets (<250 µm) increased. Reduced insulin secretion was observed in GSIS and perifusion. Neurogenin3, neurogenic differentiation, and MAF bZIP transcription factor A levels increased in NAS mice.

Conclusion

Our study provides that Notch1 inhibition decreased insulin secretion and decreased islet and β-cell masses. It is thought that Notch1 inhibition suppresses islet proliferation and induces differentiation of small islets. In conclusion, Notch signaling pathway may play an important role in β-cell mass determination and diabetes.

Citations

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  • N6-methylation of RNA-bound adenosine regulator HNRNPC promotes vascular endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus by activating the PSEN1-mediated Notch pathway
    Ying Cai, Tao Chen, Mingzhu Wang, Lihua Deng, Cui Li, Siqian Fu, Kangling Xie
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    Yunqian Yao, Ling Wei, Zhenhua Chen, Hao Li, Jiao Qi, Qingfeng Wu, Xingtao Zhou, Yi Lu, Xiangjia Zhu
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    Yu‐Huan Peng, Ping Wang, Xiao‐Qun He, Ming‐Zhao Hong, Feng Liu
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  • Soluble T-cadherin promotes pancreatic β-cell proliferation by upregulating Notch signaling
    Tomonori Okita, Shunbun Kita, Shiro Fukuda, Keita Fukuoka, Emi Kawada-Horitani, Masahito Iioka, Yuto Nakamura, Yuya Fujishima, Hitoshi Nishizawa, Dan Kawamori, Taka-aki Matsuoka, Maeda Norikazu, Iichiro Shimomura
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  • Comparison of islet isolation result and clinical applicability according to GMP‐grade collagenase enzyme blend in adult porcine islet isolation and culture
    Kyungmin Kwak, Jae‐kyung Park, Joohyun Shim, Nayoung Ko, Hyoung‐Joo Kim, Yongjin Lee, Jun‐Hyeong Kim, Michael Alexander, Jonathan R. T. Lakey, Hyunil Kim, Kimyung Choi
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  • Genome-Wide Meta-analysis Identifies Genetic Variants Associated With Glycemic Response to Sulfonylureas
    Adem Y. Dawed, Sook Wah Yee, Kaixin Zhou, Nienke van Leeuwen, Yanfei Zhang, Moneeza K. Siddiqui, Amy Etheridge, Federico Innocenti, Fei Xu, Josephine H. Li, Joline W. Beulens, Amber A. van der Heijden, Roderick C. Slieker, Yu-Chuan Chang, Josep M. Mercade
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Basic Research
Vimentin Deficiency Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Mice
SeoYeon Kim, Inyeong Kim, Wonkyoung Cho, Goo Taeg Oh, Young Mi Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(1):97-108.   Published online June 15, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0198
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  • 18 Web of Science
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background

Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are world-wide health problems, and lack of understanding of their linking mechanism is one reason for limited treatment options. We determined if genetic deletion of vimentin, a type 3 intermediate filament, affects obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods

We fed vimentin-null (Vim−/−) mice and wild-type mice a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks and measured weight change, adiposity, blood lipids, and glucose. We performed intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests and measured CD36, a major fatty acid translocase, and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) in adipocytes from both groups of mice.

Results

Vim−/− mice fed an HFD showed less weight gain, less adiposity, improved glucose tolerance, and lower serum level of fasting glucose. However, serum triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acid levels were higher in Vim−/− mice than in wild-type mice. Vimentin-null adipocytes showed 41.1% less CD36 on plasma membranes, 27% less uptake of fatty acids, and 50.3% less GLUT4, suggesting defects in intracellular trafficking of these molecules.

Conclusion

We concluded that vimentin deficiency prevents obesity and insulin resistance in mice fed an HFD and suggest vimentin as a central mediator linking obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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Short Communication
COVID-19
Impact of Social Distancing Due to Coronavirus Disease 2019 on the Changes in Glycosylated Hemoglobin Level in People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Sung-Don Park, Sung-Woo Kim, Jun Sung Moon, Yin Young Lee, Nan Hee Cho, Ji-Hyun Lee, Jae-Han Jeon, Yeon-Kyung Choi, Mi Kyung Kim, Keun-Gyu Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(1):109-114.   Published online December 4, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0226
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
This study investigated the impact of social distancing due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We retrospectively analyzed the change in glycosylated hemoglobin level (ΔHbA1c) in people with T2DM who undertook social distancing because of COVID-19. We compared the ΔHbA1c between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 cohorts that were enrolled at the same time of year. The ΔHbA1c of the COVID-19 cohort was significantly higher than that of two non-COVID-19 cohorts. Subgroup analysis according to age and baseline HbA1c level showed that social distancing significantly increased the mean HbA1c level of participants of <50 years. The ΔHbA1c of participants of <50 years and with HbA1c <7.0% in the COVID-19 cohort showed larger changes than other subgroups. In adjusted model, adjusted ΔHbA1c levels in the COVID-19 cohort remained significantly higher than those in the two other cohorts. Social distancing negatively impacts blood glucose control in people with T2DM, especially those who are younger and have good blood glucose control.

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Brief Reports
Complications
Status of Diabetic Neuropathy in Korea: A National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort Analysis (2006 to 2015)
Seong-Su Moon, Chong Hwa Kim, Seon Mee Kang, Eun Sook Kim, Tae Jung Oh, Jae-Seung Yun, Ho Chan Cho, Dae Jung Kim, Tae Sun Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(1):115-119.   Published online December 18, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0120
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
This report presents the status of diabetic neuropathy (DN) in Korea as determined using a National Health Insurance ServiceNational Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC). Annual prevalences of DN were estimated by age and gender using descriptive statistics. Pharmacological treatments for DN were also analyzed. The annual prevalence of DN increased from 24.9% in 2006 to 26.6% in 2007, and thereafter, gradually subsided to 20.8% in 2015. In most cases, pharmacological treatments involved a single drug, which accounted for 91.6% of total prescriptions in 2015. The most commonly used drugs (in decreasing order) were thioctic acid, an anti-convulsive agent, or a tricyclic antidepressant. In conclusion, the prevalence of DN decreased over the 10-year study period. Thioctic acid monotherapy was usually prescribed for DN. To reduce the socio-economic burden of DN, more attention should be paid to the diagnosis of this condition and to the appropriate management of patients.

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    Ja Young Jeon
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Complications
Trends in Cardiovascular Complications and Mortality among Patients with Diabetes in South Korea
Jung Hwan Park, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Bo Yeon Kim, Jae Hyuk Lee, Dae Jung Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(1):120-124.   Published online December 9, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0175
Correction in: Diabetes Metab J 2021;45(2):283
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
We investigated the cardiovascular complications and mortality rates of patients with diabetes in South Korea. The rates of hospitalization due to cardiovascular complications and mortality were analyzed using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. From 2006 to 2015, the rates of hospitalization due to major cardiovascular complications decreased, while those due to heart failure (from 72 to 146 and 124 to 161 per 10,000 men and women, respectively) and peripheral artery disease (from 39 to 55 and 19 to 35 per 10,000 men and women, respectively) increased. In the period 2007 to 2015, the mortality rates for cancer, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, heart disease, and hypertensive disease all decreased. However, the mortality rate for pneumonia increased. We observed a continuous reduction in cardiovascular complications and mortality in adults with diabetes. However, with the increase in some diabetes complications, more efforts are needed to prevent diabetes complications.

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    Do Kyeong Song, Young Sun Hong, Yeon-Ah Sung, Hyejin Lee, Hidetaka Hamasaki
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Letter
Metformin Preserves Peripheral Nerve Damage with Comparable Effects to Alpha Lipoic Acid in Streptozotocin/High-Fat Diet Induced Diabetic Rats (Diabetes Metab J 2020;44:842-53)
Bo Kyung Koo
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(1):125-126.   Published online January 22, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0280
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Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Effect of Metformin on Chemotherapy-Induced Toxicities in Non-diabetic Breast Cancer Patients: A Randomised Controlled Study
    Manar A. Serageldin, Amira B. Kassem, Yasser El-Kerm, Maged W. Helmy, Mahmoud M. El-Mas, Noha A. El-Bassiouny
    Drug Safety.2023; 46(6): 587.     CrossRef
Response
Metformin Preserves Peripheral Nerve Damage with Comparable Effects to Alpha Lipoic Acid in Streptozotocin/High-Fat Diet Induced Diabetic Rats (Diabetes Metab J 2020;44:842-53)
Sun Hee Kim, Tae Sun Park, Heung Yong Jin
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(1):127-128.   Published online January 22, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0289
  • 3,427 View
  • 98 Download
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Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal