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Original Article
Guideline/Fact Sheet
Insulin Fact Sheet in Type 1 and 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Trends of Antidiabetic Medication Use in Insulin Users with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: 2002 to 2019
Jiyun Park, Gyuri Kim, Bong-Sung Kim, Kyung-Do Han, So Yoon Kwon, So Hee Park, You-Bin Lee, Sang-Man Jin, Jae Hyeon Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(2):211-219.   Published online February 7, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0346
  • 1,872 View
  • 183 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM
Background
This study investigated the trends of insulin use among Korean patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Changes in prescription of antidiabetic medications in T2DM patients taking insulin therapy were evaluated.
Methods
We analyzed data from the National Health Insurance Service database in Korea to evaluate the prevalence of insulin users and trends of insulin use in T1DM and T2DM patients from January 2002 to December 2019. We also investigated numbers and types of antidiabetic medications in insulin users with T2DM.
Results
The overall total number of insulin users increased from 2002 to 2019, reaching 348,254 for T2DM and 20,287 for T1DM in 2019 compared with 109,974 for T2DM and 34,972 for T1DM in 2002. The proportion of patients using basal analogs and short acting analogs have increased and those using human insulin, premixed insulin, or biphasic human insulin have decreased (rapid acting analogs: 71.85% and 24.12% in T1DM and T2DM, respectively, in 2019; basal analogs: 76.75% and 75.09% in T1DM and T2DM, respectively, in 2019). The use of other antidiabetic medication in addition to insulin increased for T2DM, especially in dual therapy, reaching up to 52.35% in 2019 compared with 16.72% in 2002.
Conclusion
The proportion of the patients using basal or rapid acting analogs increased among all insulin users in both T1DM and T2DM patients. Among patients with T2DM, the proportion of patients using antidiabetic medications in addition to insulin was significantly increased compared to those who used insulin alone.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Evaluation of pharmacokinetic interactions between lobeglitazone, empagliflozin, and metformin in healthy subjects
    Heeyoung Kim, Choon Ok Kim, Hyeonsoo Park, Min Soo Park, Dasohm Kim, Taegon Hong, Yesong Shin, Byung Hak Jin
    Translational and Clinical Pharmacology.2023; 31(1): 59.     CrossRef
Reviews
Guideline/Fact Sheet
Evaluation and Management of Patients with Diabetes and Heart Failure: A Korean Diabetes Association and Korean Society of Heart Failure Consensus Statement
Kyu-Sun Lee, Junghyun Noh, Seong-Mi Park, Kyung Mook Choi, Seok-Min Kang, Kyu-Chang Won, Hyun-Jai Cho, Min Kyong Moon, The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines, Korean Diabetes Association and Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines, Korean Society of Heart Failure
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(1):10-26.   Published online January 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0420
  • 2,629 View
  • 314 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM
Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for the development of heart failure. Furthermore, the prognosis of heart failure is worse in patients with diabetes mellitus than in those without it. Therefore, early diagnosis and proper management of heart failure in patients with diabetes mellitus are important. This review discusses the current criteria for diagnosis and screening tools for heart failure and the currently recommended pharmacological therapies for heart failure. We also highlight the effects of anti-diabetic medications on heart failure.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Comparison of the effects of gemigliptin versus glimepiride on cardiac function in patients with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled with metformin: The gemi‐heart study
    Seung Min Chung, Jun Sung Moon, Jun Hwa Hong, In‐Chang Hwang, Soo Lim
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2023; 25(8): 2181.     CrossRef
Guideline/Fact Sheet
Lipid Management in Korean People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Korean Diabetes Association and Korean Society of Lipid and Atherosclerosis Consensus Statement
Ye Seul Yang, Hack-Lyoung Kim, Sang-Hyun Kim, Min Kyong Moon, on Behalf of Committee of Clinical Practice Guideline, Korean Diabetes Association and Clinical Practice Guideline Committee, Korean Society of Lipid and Atherosclerosis
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(1):1-9.   Published online January 20, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0448
  • 2,203 View
  • 306 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM
Dyslipidemia in patients with diabetes is an important treatment target as a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although the primary treatment goal for dyslipidemia is to control low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), achieving this goal remains suboptimal according to recent studies. It is important to set the target goal for LDL-C control based on an accurate risk assessment for CVD. Here, we summarize the latest evidence on lipid management in patients with diabetes and present a consensus of the Korean Diabetes Association and Korean Society of Lipid and Atherosclerosis on the treatment goals of LDL-C according to the duration of diabetes, presence of CVD, target organ damage, or major cardiovascular risk factors. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and CVD, an LDL-C goal of <55 mg/dL and a reduction in LDL-C level by 50% or more from the baseline is recommended. For the primary prevention of CVD in patients with T2DM with a duration of diabetes ≥10 years, major cardiovascular risk factors, or target organ damage, an LDL-C goal of <70 mg/dL is recommended. In patients with T2DM with a duration of diabetes <10 years and no major cardiovascular risk factors, an LDL-C goal of <100 mg/dL is recommended.
Guideline/Fact Sheet
Screening for Prediabetes and Diabetes in Korean Nonpregnant Adults: A Position Statement of the Korean Diabetes Association, 2022
Kyung Ae Lee, Dae Jung Kim, Kyungdo Han, Suk Chon, Min Kyong Moon, on Behalf of the Committee of Clinical Practice Guideline of Korean Diabetes Association
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(6):819-826.   Published online November 24, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0364
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  • 236 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM
Diabetes screening serves to identify individuals at high-risk for diabetes who have not yet developed symptoms and to diagnose diabetes at an early stage. Globally, the prevalence of diabetes is rapidly increasing. Furthermore, obesity and/or abdominal obesity, which are major risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), are progressively increasing, particularly among young adults. Many patients with T2DM are asymptomatic and can accompany various complications at the time of diagnosis, as well as chronic complications develop as the duration of diabetes increases. Thus, proper screening and early diagnosis are essential for diabetes care. Based on reports on the changing epidemiology of diabetes and obesity in Korea, as well as growing evidence from new national cohort studies on diabetes screening, the Korean Diabetes Association has updated its clinical practice recommendations regarding T2DM screening. Diabetes screening is now recommended in adults aged ≥35 years regardless of the presence of risk factors, and in all adults (aged ≥19) with any of the risk factors. Abdominal obesity based on waist circumference (men ≥90 cm, women ≥85 cm) was added to the list of risk factors.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Cumulative muscle strength and risk of diabetes: A prospective cohort study with mediation analysis
    Shanhu Qiu, Xue Cai, Yan Liang, Wenji Chen, Duolao Wang, Zilin Sun, Bo Xie, Tongzhi Wu
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2023; 197: 110562.     CrossRef
  • Revisiting the Diabetes Crisis in Korea: Call for Urgent Action
    Jun Sung Moon
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2023; 24(1): 1.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Guideline/Fact Sheet
Diabetes Fact Sheet in Korea 2021
Jae Hyun Bae, Kyung-Do Han, Seung-Hyun Ko, Ye Seul Yang, Jong Han Choi, Kyung Mook Choi, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Kyu Chang Won, on Behalf of the Committee of Media-Public Relation of the Korean Diabetes Association
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(3):417-426.   Published online May 25, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0106
  • 9,743 View
  • 1,396 Download
  • 53 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM
Background
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and management of diabetes mellitus, risk-factor control, and comorbidities among Korean adults.
Methods
We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to assess the prevalence, treatment, risk factors, comorbidities, and self-management behaviors of diabetes mellitus from 2019 to 2020. We also analyzed data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service to evaluate the use of antidiabetic medications in people with diabetes mellitus from 2002 through 2018.
Results
Among Korean adults aged 30 years or older, the estimated prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 16.7% in 2020. From 2019 through 2020, 65.8% of adults with diabetes mellitus were aware of the disease and treated with antidiabetic medications. The percentage of adults with diabetes mellitus who achieved glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <6.5% was 24.5% despite the increased use of new antidiabetic medications. We found that adults with diabetes mellitus who achieved all three goals of HbA1c <6.5%, blood pressure (BP) <140/85 mm Hg, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <100 mg/dL were 9.7%. The percentage of self-management behaviors was lower in men than women. Excess energy intake was observed in 16.7% of adults with diabetes mellitus.
Conclusion
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus among Korean adults remained high. Only 9.7% of adults with diabetes mellitus achieved all glycemic, BP, and lipid controls from 2019 to 2020. Continuous evaluation of national diabetes statistics and a national effort to increase awareness of diabetes mellitus and improve comprehensive diabetes care are needed.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Risk of Pancreatic Cancer and Use of Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Inhibitors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Propensity Score-Matching Analysis
    Mee Kyoung Kim, Kyungdo Han, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Soon Jib Yoo
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(4): 426.     CrossRef
  • Diabetes screening in South Korea: a new estimate of the number needed to screen to detect diabetes
    Kyoung Hwa Ha, Kyung Ae Lee, Kyung-Do Han, Min Kyong Moon, Dae Jung Kim
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2023; 38(1): 93.     CrossRef
  • Sex differences in the impact of diabetes mellitus on tuberculosis recurrence: a retrospective national cohort study
    Dararat Eksombatchai, Dawoon Jeong, Jeongha Mok, Doosoo Jeon, Hee-Yeon Kang, Hee Jin Kim, Hee-Sun Kim, Hongjo Choi, Young Ae Kang
    International Journal of Infectious Diseases.2023; 127: 1.     CrossRef
  • Response to Letter to the Editor From Han and Xu: “Association Between DPP4 Inhibitor Use and the Incidence of Cirrhosis, ESRD, and Some Cancers in Patients With Diabetes”
    Dae Ho Lee
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2023; 108(4): e58.     CrossRef
  • Lipid Management in Korean People With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Korean Diabetes Association and Korean Society of Lipid and Atherosclerosis Consensus Statement
    Ye Seul Yang, Hack-Lyoung Kim, Sang-Hyun Kim, Min Kyong Moon
    Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis.2023; 12(1): 12.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation and Management of Patients With Diabetes and Heart Failure: A Korean Diabetes Association and Korean Society of Heart Failure Consensus Statement
    Kyu-Sun Lee, Junghyun Noh, Seong-Mi Park, Kyung Mook Choi, Seok-Min Kang, Kyu-Chang Won, Hyun-Jai Cho, Min Kyong Moon
    International Journal of Heart Failure.2023; 5(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Lipid Management in Korean People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Korean Diabetes Association and Korean Society of Lipid and Atherosclerosis Consensus Statement
    Ye Seul Yang, Hack-Lyoung Kim, Sang-Hyun Kim, Min Kyong Moon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation and Management of Patients with Diabetes and Heart Failure: A Korean Diabetes Association and Korean Society of Heart Failure Consensus Statement
    Kyu-Sun Lee, Junghyun Noh, Seong-Mi Park, Kyung Mook Choi, Seok-Min Kang, Kyu-Chang Won, Hyun-Jai Cho, Min Kyong Moon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(1): 10.     CrossRef
  • Risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in catholic priests compared with general public
    Youngmi Eun, Sun Myeong Ock, Se-Hong Kim, Ju Hye Chung, Se Jin Park, Churlmin Kim, Min-Kyun Im, Kyung-do Han
    Acta Diabetologica.2023; 60(5): 655.     CrossRef
  • Blood pressure control and its associated factors in patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes
    Anan S Jarab, Walid Al-Qerem, Salam Alqudah, Shrouq R Abu Heshmeh, Tareq L Mukattash, Karem H Alzoubi
    Electronic Journal of General Medicine.2023; 20(3): em477.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and associated factors of diabetes mellitus among patients with tuberculosis in South Korea from 2011 to 2018: a nationwide cohort study
    Dawoon Jeong, Jeongha Mok, Doosoo Jeon, Hee-Yeon Kang, Hee Jin Kim, Hee-Sun Kim, Jeong Mi Seo, Hongjo Choi, Young Ae Kang
    BMJ Open.2023; 13(3): e069642.     CrossRef
  • The association between nutrition label utilization and disease management education among hypertension or diabetes diagnosed in Korea using 2018 Community Health Survey: a cross-sectional study
    Miran Jin, Jayeun Kim, Kyuhyun Yoon
    Korean Journal of Community Nutrition.2023; 28(1): 38.     CrossRef
  • Insulin Fact Sheet in Type 1 and 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Trends of Antidiabetic Medication Use in Insulin Users with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: 2002 to 2019
    Jiyun Park, Gyuri Kim, Bong-Sung Kim, Kyung-Do Han, So Yoon Kwon, So Hee Park, You-Bin Lee, Sang-Man Jin, Jae Hyeon Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(2): 211.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of Operational Definition of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Based on Data from Korean National Health Insurance Service and Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Jong Ha Baek, Yong-Moon Park, Kyung Do Han, Min Kyong Moon, Jong Han Choi, Seung-Hyun Ko
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(2): 201.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of pharmacokinetic interactions between lobeglitazone, empagliflozin, and metformin in healthy subjects
    Heeyoung Kim, Choon Ok Kim, Hyeonsoo Park, Min Soo Park, Dasohm Kim, Taegon Hong, Yesong Shin, Byung Hak Jin
    Translational and Clinical Pharmacology.2023; 31(1): 59.     CrossRef
  • Vascular and metabolic effects of ipragliflozin versus sitagliptin (IVS) in type 2 diabetes treated with sulphonylurea and metformin: IVS study
    Seon Mee Kang, Han Mi Yun, Minji Sohn, Soo Lim
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2023; 25(7): 1922.     CrossRef
  • Diabetes and Skin Disease
    Jungah Lim
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2023; 24(1): 29.     CrossRef
  • Revisiting the Diabetes Crisis in Korea: Call for Urgent Action
    Jun Sung Moon
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2023; 24(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Association between Sleep Duration and Incident Diabetes Mellitus in Healthy Subjects: A 14-Year Longitudinal Cohort Study
    Jin ha Jang, Wonjin Kim, Jin Sil Moon, Eun Roh, Jun Goo Kang, Seong Jin Lee, Sung-Hee Ihm, Ji Hye Huh
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2023; 12(8): 2899.     CrossRef
  • Exercise Frequency Reduction Is Associated With Higher Risk of Infection in Newly Diagnosed Diabetes: A Nationally Representative Cohort Study
    Yohwan Lim, Hye Jun Kim, Sung Soo Yoon, Sang Jun Lee, Myeong Hoon Lee, Hyewon Park, Sun Jae Park, Seogsong Jeong, Hyun Wook Han
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effects of Consuming Heat-Treated Dodamssal Brown Rice Containing Resistant Starch on Glucose Metabolism in Humans
    Jiyoung Park, Sea-Kwan Oh, Miae Doo, Hyun-Jung Chung, Hyun-Jin Park, Hyejin Chun
    Nutrients.2023; 15(10): 2248.     CrossRef
  • Opening the Precision Diabetes Care through Digital Healthcare
    Joonyub Lee, Jin Yu, Kun-Ho Yoon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(3): 307.     CrossRef
  • Fatty Liver & Diabetes Statistics in Korea: Nationwide Data 2009 to 2017
    Eugene Han, Kyung-Do Han, Yong-ho Lee, Kyung-Soo Kim, Sangmo Hong, Jung Hwan Park, Cheol-Young Park
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(3): 347.     CrossRef
  • Trends in the Quality of Primary Care and Acute Care in Korea From 2008 to 2020: A Cross-sectional Study
    Yeong Geun Gwon, Seung Jin Han, Kyoung Hoon Kim
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2023; 56(3): 248.     CrossRef
  • Development and Validation of Multiple Equations for Low-Density Lipoprotein and Apolipoprotein B in Korean Patients Visiting Local Clinics and Hospitals
    Rihwa Choi, Sang Gon Lee, Eun Hee Lee
    Nutrients.2023; 15(12): 2786.     CrossRef
  • The role of retinal vessel geometry as an indicator of systemic arterial stiffness assessed by cardio-ankle vascular index
    Dae Joong Ma, Heesun Lee, Ji Min Choi, Hyo Eun Park, Su-Yeon Choi, Hyuk Jin Choi
    Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and depression among Korean midlife women: a cross-sectional analysis study
    You Lee Yang, Eun-Ok Im, Yunmi Kim
    BMC Nursing.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Associations of updated cardiovascular health metrics, including sleep health, with incident diabetes and cardiovascular events in older adults with prediabetes: A nationwide population-based cohort study
    Kyoung Hwa Ha, Dae Jung Kim, Seung Jin Han
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2023; 203: 110820.     CrossRef
  • Paradigm Shift in Management of Hyperglycemia in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Glucocentric versus Organ Protection
    Jong Chul Won
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2023; 24(2): 59.     CrossRef
  • Medical nutrition therapy for diabetes mellitus
    Suk Chon
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2023; 66(7): 421.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and treatment status of diabetes mellitus in Korea
    Hyuk-Sang Kwon
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2023; 66(7): 404.     CrossRef
  • The impact of diabetes status on total and site-specific cancer risk in the elderly population: A nationwide cohort study
    Kyuho Kim, Bongseong Kim, Hyunho Kim, Hyung Soon Park, Yu-Bae Ahn, Seung-Hyun Ko, Kyungdo Han, Jae-Seung Yun
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2023; 203: 110866.     CrossRef
  • Response to comments of Lai et al. “Proposal of one option for patient-centered, heterogeneous selection of antidiabetic drug”
    Sunyoung Kim, Sang Youl Rhee
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2023; 203: 110864.     CrossRef
  • Association of Dental Diseases and Oral Hygiene Care With the Risk of Heart Failure in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Nationwide Cohort Study
    Youn Huh, Jung Eun Yoo, Sang‐Hyun Park, Kyungdo Han, Seon Mee Kim, Hye Soon Park, Kyung Hwan Cho, Jin‐Soo Ahn, Sang Ho Jun, Ga Eun Nam
    Journal of the American Heart Association.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Bidirectional associations between periodontal disease and systemic diseases: a nationwide population-based study in Korea
    Salma Nabila, Jaesung Choi, Ji-Eun Kim, Seokyung Hahn, In-Kyung Hwang, Tae-Il Kim, Hee-Kyung Park, Ji-Yeob Choi
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Long-term Effectiveness of the National Diabetes Quality Assessment Program in South Korea
    Ji Hye Huh, Serim Kwon, Gui Ok Kim, Bo Yeon Kim, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Dae Jung Kim
    Diabetes Care.2023; 46(9): 1700.     CrossRef
  • Refined Diagnostic Protocol for Diabetic Polyneuropathy: Paving the Way for Timely Detection
    Byung-Mo Oh
    Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine.2023; 47(4): 234.     CrossRef
  • Analysis of difference in body fluid composition and dietary intake between Korean adults with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Yu-Gyeong Kim, Ha-Neul Choi, Jung-Eun Yim
    Journal of Nutrition and Health.2023; 56(4): 377.     CrossRef
  • The associations between changes in hepatic steatosis and heart failure and mortality: a nationwide cohort study
    Jiyun Park, Gyuri Kim, Hasung Kim, Jungkuk Lee, Sang-Man Jin, Jae Hyeon Kim
    Cardiovascular Diabetology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Severe hypoglycemia as a risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes: is it preventable?
    Seung-Hyun Ko
    Cardiovascular Prevention and Pharmacotherapy.2022; 4(3): 106.     CrossRef
  • Current Trends of Big Data Research Using the Korean National Health Information Database
    Mee Kyoung Kim, Kyungdo Han, Seung-Hwan Lee
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(4): 552.     CrossRef
  • Current status of obesity treatment in Korea: based on the 2020 Korean Society for the Study of Obesity guidelines for obesity management
    Eun-Jung Rhee
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2022; 65(7): 388.     CrossRef
  • 젊은 2형 당뇨병 환자의 관리
    재현 배
    Public Health Weekly Report.2022; 15(35): 2474.     CrossRef
  • Analysis of the Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Renal Function in Middle-Aged Patients with Diabetes
    Yoonjin Park, Su Jung Lee
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(18): 11832.     CrossRef
  • The Degree of Glycemic Control for the First Three Months Determines the Next Seven Years
    Nami Lee, Dae Jung Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Blood Pressure Target in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Hyun-Jin Kim, Kwang-il Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(5): 667.     CrossRef
  • Association Between DPP4 Inhibitor Use and the Incidence of Cirrhosis, ESRD, and Some Cancers in Patients With Diabetes
    Yewon Na, Soo Wan Kim, Ie Byung Park, Soo Jung Choi, Seungyoon Nam, Jaehun Jung, Dae Ho Lee
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2022; 107(11): 3022.     CrossRef
  • Education for Insulin Injection in Elderly Diabetic Patients
    Gi Yeon Lee
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2022; 23(3): 201.     CrossRef
  • Recent Updates on Phytoconstituent Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors: An Approach towards the Treatment of Type Two Diabetes
    Hamdy Kashtoh, Kwang-Hyun Baek
    Plants.2022; 11(20): 2722.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiological characteristics of diabetes mellitus in Korea
    Soon Young Lee
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2022; 65(10): 640.     CrossRef
  • Screening for Prediabetes and Diabetes in Korean Nonpregnant Adults: A Position Statement of the Korean Diabetes Association, 2022
    Kyung Ae Lee, Dae Jung Kim, Kyungdo Han, Suk Chon, Min Kyong Moon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(6): 819.     CrossRef
  • Oldies but Goodies: Thiazolidinedione as an Insulin Sensitizer with Cardioprotection
    Eun-Hee Cho
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(6): 827.     CrossRef
  • The Mediating Effect of Acceptance Action in the Relationship between Diabetes Distress and Self-stigma among Old Adults with Diabetes in South Korea
    Hyesun Kim, Kawoun Seo
    Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing.2022; 33(4): 446.     CrossRef
Guideline/Fact Sheet
Diabetes Fact Sheets in Korea, 2020: An Appraisal of Current Status
Chan-Hee Jung, Jang Won Son, Shinae Kang, Won Jun Kim, Hun-Sung Kim, Hae Soon Kim, Mihae Seo, Hye-Jung Shin, Seong-Su Lee, Su Jin Jeong, Yongin Cho, Seung Jin Han, Hyang Mi Jang, Mira Rho, Shinbi Lee, Mihyun Koo, Been Yoo, Jung-Wha Moon, Hye Young Lee, Jae-Seung Yun, Sun Young Kim, Sung Rae Kim, In-Kyung Jeong, Ji-Oh Mok, Kun Ho Yoon
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(1):1-10.   Published online January 13, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0254
  • 17,773 View
  • 1,062 Download
  • 142 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM
Background
This study aimed to investigate the recent prevalence, management, and comorbidities of diabetes among Korean adults aged ≥30 years by analyzing nationally representative data.
Methods
This study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2016 to 2018, and the percentage and total number of people ≥30 years of age with diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) were estimated.
Results
In 2018, 13.8% of Korean adults aged ≥30 years had diabetes, and adults aged ≥65 years showed a prevalence rate of 28%. The prevalence of IFG was 26.9% in adults aged ≥30 years. From 2016 to 2018, 35% of the subjects with diabetes were not aware of their condition. Regarding comorbidities, 53.2% and 61.3% were obese and hypertensive, respectively, and 72% had hypercholesterolemia as defined by low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥100 mg/dL in people with diabetes. Of the subjects with diabetes, 43.7% had both hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. With regard to glycemic control, only 28.3% reached the target level of <6.5%. Moreover, only 11.5% of subjects with diabetes met all three targets of glycosylated hemoglobin, blood pressure, and LDL-C. The percentage of energy intake from carbohydrates was higher in diabetes patients than in those without diabetes, while that from protein and fat was lower in subjects with diabetes.
Conclusion
The high prevalence and low control rate of diabetes and its comorbidities in Korean adults were confirmed. More stringent efforts are needed to improve the comprehensive management of diabetes to reduce diabetes-related morbidity and mortality.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Exposure to Bisphenol A, S, and F and its Association with Obesity and Diabetes Mellitus in General Adults of Korea: Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2015–2017
    Min Kyong Moon, Min Joo Kim, Inae Lee, Sunmi Kim, Sohyeon Choi, Jeongim Park, Yoon Hee Cho, Sooyeon Hong, Jiyoung Yoo, Hyunwoong Park, Gi Jeong Cheon, Young Joo Park, Kyungho Choi
    Exposure and Health.2023; 15(1): 53.     CrossRef
  • The evolution and future of diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus
    Eun-Jung Rhee
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2023; 66(7): 409.     CrossRef
  • Efficacy of intermittent short‐term use of a real‐time continuous glucose monitoring system in non‐insulin–treated patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized controlled trial
    Sun Joon Moon, Kyung‐Soo Kim, Woo Je Lee, Mi Yeon Lee, Robert Vigersky, Cheol‐Young Park
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2023; 25(1): 110.     CrossRef
  • Ocular motility disorders following coronavirus disease-19 vaccination
    Kyung-Ah Park, Hyeshin Jeon, Dong Gyu Choi, Jae Ho Jung, Hyun-Jin Shin, Byung Joo Lee, Yeji Moon, Se-Youp Lee, Dong Cheol Lee, Soon Young Cho, Seong-Joon Kim, Sei Yeul Oh, Sunghyuk Moon, Shin Yeop Oh, Daye Diana Choi, Mi Young Choi, Won Jae Kim, Ungsoo Sa
    Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology.2023; 261(4): 1127.     CrossRef
  • Comorbidities associated with high-risk obstructive sleep apnea based on the STOP-BANG questionnaire: a nationwide population-based study
    Gene Huh, Kyoung do Han, Yong-Moon Park, Chan-Soon Park, Kyu-na Lee, Eun Young Lee, Jung-Hae Cho
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2023; 38(1): 80.     CrossRef
  • Low Skeletal Muscle Mass Accompanied by Abdominal Obesity Additively Increases the Risk of Incident Type 2 Diabetes
    Ji Eun Jun, Seung-Eun Lee, You-Bin Lee, Gyuri Kim, Sang-Man Jin, Jae Hwan Jee, Jae Hyeon Kim
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2023; 108(5): 1173.     CrossRef
  • Threshold dose–response association between smoking pack-years and the risk of gallbladder cancer: A nationwide cohort study
    Joo-Hyun Park, Jung Yong Hong, Kyungdo Han
    European Journal of Cancer.2023; 180: 99.     CrossRef
  • Diabetes screening in South Korea: a new estimate of the number needed to screen to detect diabetes
    Kyoung Hwa Ha, Kyung Ae Lee, Kyung-Do Han, Min Kyong Moon, Dae Jung Kim
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Brief Reports
Complications
Trends in Cardiovascular Complications and Mortality among Patients with Diabetes in South Korea
Jung Hwan Park, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Bo Yeon Kim, Jae Hyuk Lee, Dae Jung Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(1):120-124.   Published online December 9, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0175
Correction in: Diabetes Metab J 2021;45(2):283
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  • 33 Citations
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM
We investigated the cardiovascular complications and mortality rates of patients with diabetes in South Korea. The rates of hospitalization due to cardiovascular complications and mortality were analyzed using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. From 2006 to 2015, the rates of hospitalization due to major cardiovascular complications decreased, while those due to heart failure (from 72 to 146 and 124 to 161 per 10,000 men and women, respectively) and peripheral artery disease (from 39 to 55 and 19 to 35 per 10,000 men and women, respectively) increased. In the period 2007 to 2015, the mortality rates for cancer, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, heart disease, and hypertensive disease all decreased. However, the mortality rate for pneumonia increased. We observed a continuous reduction in cardiovascular complications and mortality in adults with diabetes. However, with the increase in some diabetes complications, more efforts are needed to prevent diabetes complications.

Citations

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Complications
Status of Diabetic Neuropathy in Korea: A National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort Analysis (2006 to 2015)
Seong-Su Moon, Chong Hwa Kim, Seon Mee Kang, Eun Sook Kim, Tae Jung Oh, Jae-Seung Yun, Ho Chan Cho, Dae Jung Kim, Tae Sun Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(1):115-119.   Published online December 18, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0120
  • 5,948 View
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  • 9 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM
This report presents the status of diabetic neuropathy (DN) in Korea as determined using a National Health Insurance ServiceNational Sample Cohort (NHIS-NSC). Annual prevalences of DN were estimated by age and gender using descriptive statistics. Pharmacological treatments for DN were also analyzed. The annual prevalence of DN increased from 24.9% in 2006 to 26.6% in 2007, and thereafter, gradually subsided to 20.8% in 2015. In most cases, pharmacological treatments involved a single drug, which accounted for 91.6% of total prescriptions in 2015. The most commonly used drugs (in decreasing order) were thioctic acid, an anti-convulsive agent, or a tricyclic antidepressant. In conclusion, the prevalence of DN decreased over the 10-year study period. Thioctic acid monotherapy was usually prescribed for DN. To reduce the socio-economic burden of DN, more attention should be paid to the diagnosis of this condition and to the appropriate management of patients.

Citations

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    K. A. Makhinov, P. R. Kamchatnov
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Complications
Trends in the Incidence, Prevalence, and Mortality of End-Stage Kidney Disease in South Korea
Min-Jeong Lee, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Dae Jung Kim, Inwhee Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(6):933-937.   Published online December 23, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0156
  • 4,993 View
  • 211 Download
  • 12 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM
Knowledge of the epidemiologic characteristics of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients is essential. The trends in the prevalence, incidence, and mortality rates of ESKD were analyzed retrospectively using the Korean National Health Insurance ServiceNational Sample Cohort database between 2006 and 2015. From 2006 to 2015, the incidence of ESKD decreased from 28.6 to 24.0 per 100,000 people and showed a decreasing pattern with or without diabetes mellitus. However, the incidence of those aged ≥75 years increased, as did the mean age at the onset of ESKD. From 2007 to 2015, the prevalence of ESKD increased in all age groups, but particularly in those aged ≥75 years. The prevalence of ESKD differed by sex and diabetes mellitus status and this gap widened over time. Mortality rates in ESKD patients remained relatively constant throughout the study period. However, mortality rates in ESKD without diabetes decreased over the same period.

Citations

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  • Waist circumference and end‐stage renal disease based on glycaemic status: National Health Insurance Service data 2009–2018
    Yun Kyung Cho, Ji Hye Huh, Shinje Moon, Yoon Jung Kim, Yang‐Hyun Kim, Kyung‐do Han, Jun Goo Kang, Seong Jin Lee, Sung‐Hee Ihm
    Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle.2023; 14(1): 585.     CrossRef
  • Usefulness of continuous glucose monitoring of blood glucose control in patients with diabetes undergoing hemodialysis: A pilot study
    Sua Lee, Soyoung Lee, Kyeong Min Kim, Jong Ho Shin
    Frontiers in Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association between N-Terminal Prohormone Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Decreased Skeletal Muscle Mass in a Healthy Adult Population: A Cross-Sectional Study
    Tae Kyung Yoo, Marie Yung-Chen Wu, Moon Soo Kim, Mi-Yeon Lee, Yong-Taek Lee, Kyung Jae Yoon, Chul-Hyun Park
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(2): 269.     CrossRef
  • Age at Mortality in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Who Underwent Kidney Transplantation: An Analysis of Data from the Korean National Health Insurance and Statistical Information Service, 2006 to 2018
    Sun Ok Song, Eugene Han, Kang Ju Son, Bong-Soo Cha, Byung-Wan Lee
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2023; 12(9): 3160.     CrossRef
  • Epigenome-wide association study of diabetic chronic kidney disease progression in the Korean population: the KNOW-CKD study
    Hye Youn Sung, Sangjun Lee, Miyeun Han, Woo Ju An, Hyunjin Ryu, Eunjeong Kang, Yong Seek Park, Seung Eun Lee, Curie Ahn, Kook-Hwan Oh, Sue K. Park, Jung-Hyuck Ahn
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effects of Dapagliflozin in Asian Patients With Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction in DAPA-HF
    Kieran F. Docherty, Inder S. Anand, Chern-En Chiang, Vijay K. Chopra, Akshay S. Desai, Masafumi Kitakaze, Subodh Verma, Pham N. Vinh, Silvio E. Inzucchi, Lars Køber, Mikhail N. Kosiborod, Felipe A. Martinez, Olof Bengtsson, Piotr Ponikowski, Marc S. Sabat
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    Hyo Jin Kim, Sang Soo Kim, Sang Heon Song
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    Nam Hoon Kim, Nan Hee Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(4): 543.     CrossRef
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    Jun Hyoung Kim, Heeseon Jang, Jung Ho Kim, Joon Young Song, Shin-Woo Kim, Sang Il Kim, Bo Youl Choi, Jun Yong Choi
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Complications
Diabetic Retinopathy and Related Clinical Practice for People with Diabetes in Korea: A 10-Year Trend Analysis
Yoo-Ri Chung, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Kihwang Lee, Dae Jung Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(6):928-932.   Published online July 10, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0096
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM

We performed a retrospective cohort study including people diagnosed with diabetes from 2006 to 2015 according to the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort database, to analyze the changes in the prevalence, screening rate, and treatment patterns for diabetic retinopathy (DR) over 10 years. The proportion of people who underwent fundus screening for DR steadily increased over the past decade. The prevalence of DR increased from 13.4% in 2006 to 15.9% in 2015, while that of proliferative DR steadily decreased from 1.29% in 2006 to 1.16% in 2015. The proportion of patients undergoing retinal photocoagulation constantly decreased. The prevalence of DR increased over the past decade, while its severity seemed to have improved, with a decreased rate of proliferative DR and retinal photocoagulation. A higher proportion of patients underwent ophthalmic screening using fundus examination, but still less than 30% of patients with diabetes underwent comprehensive examination in 2015.

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  • Chronic disease management program applied to type 2 diabetes patients and prevention of diabetic complications: a retrospective cohort study using nationwide data
    Min Kyung Hyun, Jang Won Lee, Seung-Hyun Ko
    BMC Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Sang-Yeob Kim, Byeong-Yeon Moon, Hyun-Gug Cho, Dong-Sik Yu
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    Han Na Jang, Min Kyong Moon, Bo Kyung Koo
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(4): 620.     CrossRef
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    Ihn Sook Jeong, Chan Mi Kang
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    Ja Young Jeon
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Reviews
Guideline/Fact Sheet
Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitor for Renal Function Preservation in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Korean Diabetes Association and Korean Society of Nephrology Consensus Statement
Tae Jung Oh, Ju-Young Moon, Kyu Yeon Hur, Seung Hyun Ko, Hyun Jung Kim, Taehee Kim, Dong Won Lee, Min Kyong Moon, The Committee of Clinical Practice Guideline, Korean Diabetes Association and Committee of the Cooperative Studies, Korean Society of Nephrology
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(4):489-497.   Published online August 21, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0172
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  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM

Diabetes is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Therefore, prevention of renal dysfunction is an important treatment goal in the management of diabetes. The data of landmark cardiovascular outcome trials of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor showed profound reno-protective effects. The Korean Diabetes Association and the Korean Society of Nephrology reviewed clinical trials and performed meta-analysis to assess the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on the preservation of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We limited the data of SGLT2 inhibitors which can be prescribed in Korea. Both eGFR value and its change from the baseline were significantly more preserved in the SGLT2 inhibitor treatment group compared to the control group after 156 weeks. However, some known adverse events were increased in SGLT2 inhibitor treatment, such as genital infection, diabetic ketoacidosis, and volume depletion. We recommend the long-term use SGLT2 inhibitor in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for attenuation of renal function decline. However, we cannot generalize our recommendation due to lack of long-term clinical trials testing reno-protective effects of every SGLT2 inhibitor in a broad range of patients with T2DM. This recommendation can be revised and updated after publication of several large-scale renal outcome trials.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Renoprotective Mechanism of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors: Focusing on Renal Hemodynamics
    Nam Hoon Kim, Nan Hee Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(4): 543.     CrossRef
  • Real-World Prescription Patterns and Barriers Related to the Use of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors among Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiovascular Disease
    Jong Ha Baek, Ye Seul Yang, Seung-Hyun Ko, Kyung Do Han, Jae Hyeon Kim, Min Kyong Moon, Jong Suk Park, Byung-Wan Lee, Tae Jung Oh, Suk Chon, Jong Han Choi, Kyu Yeon Hur
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(5): 701.     CrossRef
Guideline/Fact Sheet
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Position Statement of the Fatty Liver Research Group of the Korean Diabetes Association
Byung-Wan Lee, Yong-ho Lee, Cheol-Young Park, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee, Nan-Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Keun-Gyu Park, Yeon-Kyung Choi, Bong-Soo Cha, Dae Ho Lee, Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) Fatty Liver Research Group
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(3):382-401.   Published online May 11, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0010
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM

This clinical practice position statement, a product of the Fatty Liver Research Group of the Korean Diabetes Association, proposes recommendations for the diagnosis, progression and/or severity assessment, management, and follow-up of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients with both T2DM and NAFLD have an increased risk of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis and a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetic complications compared to those without NAFLD. With regards to the evaluation of patients with T2DM and NAFLD, ultrasonography-based stepwise approaches using noninvasive biomarker models such as fibrosis-4 or the NAFLD fibrosis score as well as imaging studies such as vibration-controlled transient elastography with controlled attenuation parameter or magnetic resonance imaging-proton density fat fraction are recommended. After the diagnosis of NAFLD, the stage of fibrosis needs to be assessed appropriately. For management, weight reduction achieved by lifestyle modification has proven beneficial and is recommended in combination with antidiabetic agent(s). Evidence that some antidiabetic agents improve NAFLD/NASH with fibrosis in patients with T2DM is emerging. However, there are currently no definite pharmacologic treatments for NAFLD in patients with T2DM. For specific cases, bariatric surgery may be an option if indicated.

Citations

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Original Articles
Epidemiology
Diabetes Fact Sheets in Korea, 2018: An Appraisal of Current Status
Bo-Yeon Kim, Jong Chul Won, Jae Hyuk Lee, Hun-Sung Kim, Jung Hwan Park, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Kyu Chang Won, Dae Jung Kim, Kyong Soo Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(4):487-494.   Published online July 17, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0067
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  • 97 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM
Background

The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence, management, and comorbidities of diabetes among Korean adults aged 30 years and older.

Methods

This study used 2013 to 2016 data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally-representative survey of the Korean population. Diabetes was defined as fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, current use of antidiabetic medication, a previous history of diabetes, or glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥6.5%.

Results

In 2016, 14.4% (approximately 5.02 million) of Korean adults had diabetes. The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was 25.3% (8.71 million). From 2013 to 2016, the awareness, control, and treatment rates for diabetes were 62.6%, 56.7%, and 25.1%, respectively. People with diabetes had the following comorbidities: obesity (50.4%), abdominal obesity (47.8%), hypertension (55.3%), and hypercholesterolemia (34.9%). The 25.1%, 68.4%, and 44.2% of people with diabetes achieved HbA1c <6.5%, blood pressure <140/85 mm Hg, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol <100 mg/dL. Only 8.4% of people with diabetes had good control of all three targets.

Conclusion

This study confirms that diabetes is as an important public health problem. Efforts should be made to increase awareness, detection, and comprehensive management of diabetes to reduce diabetes-related morbidity and mortality.

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Epidemiology
Diabetes Fact Sheet in Korea, 2016: An Appraisal of Current Status
Jong Chul Won, Jae Hyuk Lee, Jae Hyeon Kim, Eun Seok Kang, Kyu Chang Won, Dae Jung Kim, Moon-Kyu Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(5):415-424.   Published online August 9, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0017
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Background

This report presents the recent prevalence and comorbidities related to diabetes in Korea by analyzing the nationally representative data.

Methods

Using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2013 to 2014, the percentages and the total number of subjects over the age of 30 years with diabetes and prediabetes were estimated and applied to the National Population Census in 2014. Diagnosis of diabetes was based on fasting plasma glucose (≥126 mg/dL), current taking of antidiabetic medication, history of previous diabetes, or glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥6.5%. Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) was defined by fasting plasma glucose in the range of 100 to 125 mg/dL among those without diabetes.

Results

About 4.8 million (13.7%) Korean adults (≥30 years old) had diabetes, and about 8.3 million (24.8%) Korean adults had IFG. However, 29.3% of the subjects with diabetes are not aware of their condition. Of the subjects with diabetes, 48.6% and 54.7% were obese and hypertensive, respectively, and 31.6% had hypercholesterolemia. Although most subjects with diabetes (89.1%) were under medical treatment, and mostly being treated with oral hypoglycemic agents (80.2%), 10.8% have remained untreated. With respect to overall glycemic control, 43.5% reached the target of HbA1c <7%, whereas 23.3% reached the target when the standard was set to HbA1c <6.5%, according to the Korean Diabetes Association guideline.

Conclusion

Diabetes is a major public health threat in Korea, but a significant proportion of adults were not controlling their illness. We need comprehensive approaches to overcome the upcoming diabetes-related disease burden in Korea.

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Review
Clinical Diabetes & Therapeutics
Past and Current Status of Adult Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Management in Korea: A National Health Insurance Service Database Analysis
Seung-Hyun Ko, Kyungdo Han, Yong-ho Lee, Junghyun Noh, Cheol-Young Park, Dae-Jung Kim, Chang Hee Jung, Ki-Up Lee, Kyung-Soo Ko
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(2):93-100.   Published online April 19, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.42.2.93
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   CrossRef-TDMCrossref - TDM

Korea's National Healthcare Program, the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS), a government-affiliated agency under the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare, covers the entire Korean population. The NHIS supervises all medical services in Korea and establishes a systematic National Health Information database (DB). A health information DB system including all of the claims, medications, death information, and health check-ups, both in the general population and in patients with various diseases, is not common worldwide. On June 9, 2014, the NHIS signed a memorandum of understanding with the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) to provide limited open access to its DB. By October 31, 2017, seven papers had been published through this collaborative research project. These studies were conducted to investigate the past and current status of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications and management in Korea. This review is a brief summary of the collaborative projects between the KDA and the NHIS over the last 3 years. According to the analysis, the national health check-up DB or claim DB were used, and the age category or study period were differentially applied.

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    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(2): 327.     CrossRef
  • Synergistic association between underweight and type 2 diabetes on the development of laryngeal cancer: a national population-based retrospective cohort study
    Oh. Hyeong Lee, Yong-Moon Park, Seung-Hyun Ko, Kyuna Lee, Yeonji Kim, Kyungdo Han, Jung-Hae Cho
    BMC Cancer.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cardiovascular Implications of the 2021 KDIGO Blood Pressure Guideline for Adults With Chronic Kidney Disease
    Hyeok-Hee Lee, Hokyou Lee, Raymond R. Townsend, Dong-Wook Kim, Sungha Park, Hyeon Chang Kim
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology.2022; 79(17): 1675.     CrossRef
  • Cumulative Exposure to High γ-Glutamyl Transferase Level and Risk of Diabetes: A Nationwide Population-Based Study
    Ji-Yeon Park, Kyungdo Han, Hun-Sung Kim, Jae-Hyoung Cho, Kun-Ho Yoon, Mee Kyoung Kim, Seung-Hwan Lee
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2022; 37(2): 272.     CrossRef
  • Skin accumulation of advanced glycation end products and cardiovascular risk in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Lee-Seoul Choi, Kainat Ahmed, Young-Seol Kim, Jung-Eun Yim
    Heliyon.2022; 8(6): e09571.     CrossRef
  • Risk for Behçet’s disease gauged via high-density lipoprotein cholesterol: a nationwide population-based study in Korea
    Yeong Ho Kim, Hyun Jee Kim, Jin Woo Park, Kyung Do Han, Yong Gyu Park, Young Bok Lee, Ji Hyun Lee
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association between the Diabetes Drug Cost and Cardiovascular Events and Death in Korea: A National Health Insurance Service Database Analysis
    Seung Min Chung, Ji-In Lee, Eugene Han, Hyun-Ae Seo, Eonju Jeon, Hye Soon Kim, Ji Sung Yoon
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2022; 37(5): 759.     CrossRef
  • Remnant cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes: a nationwide longitudinal cohort study
    Ji Hye Huh, Kyung-do Han, Yun Kyung Cho, Eun Roh, Jun Goo Kang, Seong Jin Lee, Sung-Hee Ihm
    Cardiovascular Diabetology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Associations between migraine and major cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Dae Young Cheon, Kyungdo Han, Ye Seul Yang, Yerim Kim, Sang-Hwa Lee, Chulho Kim, Jong-Hee Sohn, Mi Sun Oh, Byung-Chul Lee, Minwoo Lee, Kyung-Ho Yu
    Cardiovascular Diabetology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Efficacy and Safety of Treatment with Quadruple Oral Hypoglycemic Agents in Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Multi-Center, Retrospective, Observational Study
    Jun Sung Moon, Sunghwan Suh, Sang Soo Kim, Heung Yong Jin, Jeong Mi Kim, Min Hee Jang, Kyung Ae Lee, Ju Hyung Lee, Seung Min Chung, Young Sang Lyu, Jin Hwa Kim, Sang Yong Kim, Jung Eun Jang, Tae Nyun Kim, Sung Woo Kim, Eonju Jeon, Nan Hee Cho, Mi-Kyung Ki
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2021; 45(5): 675.     CrossRef
  • Umbilical Cord-Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Conditioned Medium Improves Insulin Resistance in C2C12 Cell
    Kyung-Soo Kim, Yeon Kyung Choi, Mi Jin Kim, Jung Wook Hwang, Kyunghoon Min, Sang Youn Jung, Soo-Kyung Kim, Yong-Soo Choi, Yong-Wook Cho
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2021; 45(2): 260.     CrossRef
  • Associations of general obesity and central obesity with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in a Korean population: A national population‐based cohort study
    Seawon Hwang, Yong‐Moon Park, Kyung‐Do Han, Jae‐Seung Yun, Seung‐Hyun Ko, Yu‐Bae Ahn, Jae Hyun Han
    International Journal of Cancer.2021; 148(5): 1144.     CrossRef
  • Glycaemic control with add‐on thiazolidinedione or a sodium‐glucose co‐transporter‐2 inhibitor in patients with type 2 diabetes after the failure of an oral triple antidiabetic regimen: A 24‐week, randomized controlled trial
    Jaehyun Bae, Ji Hye Huh, Minyoung Lee, Yong‐Ho Lee, Byung‐Wan Lee
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2021; 23(2): 609.     CrossRef
  • Metabolic Dysfunction-Associated Fatty Liver Disease and Incident Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Nationwide Cohort Study
    Hokyou Lee, Yong-ho Lee, Seung Up Kim, Hyeon Chang Kim
    Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.2021; 19(10): 2138.     CrossRef
  • Severe hypoglycemia as a preventable risk factor for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Soo-Yeon Choi, Seung-Hyun Ko
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2021; 36(2): 263.     CrossRef
  • Changes in metabolic syndrome status affect the incidence of end-stage renal disease in the general population: a nationwide cohort study
    Eun Sil Koh, Kyung Do Han, Mee Kyoung Kim, Eun Sook Kim, Min-Kyung Lee, Ga Eun Nam, Oak-Kee Hong, Hyuk-Sang Kwon
    Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Status of Diabetic Neuropathy in Korea: A National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort Analysis (2006 to 2015)
    Seong-Su Moon, Chong Hwa Kim, Seon Mee Kang, Eun Sook Kim, Tae Jung Oh, Jae-Seung Yun, Ho Chan Cho, Dae Jung Kim, Tae Sun Park
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2021; 45(1): 115.     CrossRef
  • Thirty-six Year Trends in Mortality from Diseases of Circulatory System in Korea
    Jongmin Baek, Hokyou Lee, Hyeok-Hee Lee, Ji Eun Heo, So Mi Jemma Cho, Hyeon Chang Kim
    Korean Circulation Journal.2021; 51(4): 320.     CrossRef
  • Severe hypoglycemia and the risk of end stage renal disease in type 2 diabetes
    Jae-Seung Yun, Yong-Moon Park, Kyungdo Han, Hyung-Wook Kim, Seon-Ah Cha, Yu-Bae Ahn, Seung-Hyun Ko
    Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Adherence to Antihypertensive Medication and Incident Cardiovascular Events in Young Adults With Hypertension
    Hokyou Lee, Yuichiro Yano, So Mi Jemma Cho, Ji Eun Heo, Dong-Wook Kim, Sungha Park, Donald M. Lloyd-Jones, Hyeon Chang Kim
    Hypertension.2021; 77(4): 1341.     CrossRef
  • Cumulative exposure to impaired fasting glucose and future risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Mee Kyoung Kim, Kyungdo Han, Eun Sil Koh, Oak-Kee Hong, Ki-Hyun Baek, Ki-Ho Song, Hyuk-Sang Kwon
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2021; 175: 108799.     CrossRef
  • Association between toothbrushing and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
    Ji-Youn Kim, Yong-Moon Park, Gyu-Na Lee, Hyun Chul Song, Yu-Bae Ahn, Kyungdo Han, Seung-Hyun Ko, Houkai Li
    PLOS ONE.2021; 16(5): e0243686.     CrossRef
  • Weight change and microvascular outcomes in patients with new-onset diabetes: a nationwide cohort study
    Eun Sil Koh, Kyung Do Han, Mee Kyoung Kim, Eun Sook Kim, Min-Kyung Lee, Ga Eun Nam, Hyuk-Sang Kwon
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2021; 36(4): 932.     CrossRef
  • Current utilization patterns for long-acting insulin analogues including biosimilars among selected Asian countries and the implications for the future
    Brian Godman, Mainul Haque, Santosh Kumar, Salequl Islam, Jaykaran Charan, Farhana Akter, Amanj Kurdi, Eleonora Allocati, Muhammed Abu Bakar, Sagir Abdur Rahim, Nusrat Sultana, Farzana Deeba, M. A. Halim Khan, A. B. M Muksudul Alam, Iffat Jahan, Zubair Ma
    Current Medical Research and Opinion.2021; 37(9): 1529.     CrossRef
  • Development and Validation of a Deep Learning Based Diabetes Prediction System Using a Nationwide Population-Based Cohort
    Sang Youl Rhee, Ji Min Sung, Sunhee Kim, In-Jeong Cho, Sang-Eun Lee, Hyuk-Jae Chang
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2021; 45(4): 515.     CrossRef
  • Cardiovascular Safety of Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors as Add-on to Metformin Monotherapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Ja Young Jeon, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Dae Jung Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2021; 45(4): 505.     CrossRef
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the risk of insulin-requiring gestational diabetes
    Sang Youn You, Kyungdo Han, Seung-Hawn Lee, Mee Kyoung Kim
    Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • On-Treatment Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Adults With Hypertension and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy
    Hyeok-Hee Lee, Hokyou Lee, So Mi Jemma Cho, Dong-Wook Kim, Sungha Park, Hyeon Chang Kim
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology.2021; 78(15): 1485.     CrossRef
  • The Effects of Glucose Lowering Agents on the Secondary Prevention of Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
    Inha Jung, Hyemi Kwon, Se Eun Park, Kyung-Do Han, Yong-Gyu Park, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2021; 36(5): 977.     CrossRef
  • Changes in metabolic syndrome and its components and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a nationwide cohort study
    Min-Kyung Lee, Kyungdo Han, Mee Kyoung Kim, Eun Sil Koh, Eun Sook Kim, Ga Eun Nam, Hyuk-Sang Kwon
    Scientific Reports.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Obesity and metabolic health status are determinants for the clinical expression of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
    Jun-Bean Park, Da Hye Kim, Heesun Lee, In-Chang Hwang, Yeonyee E Yoon, Hyo Eun Park, Su-Yeon Choi, Yong-Jin Kim, Goo-Yeong Cho, Kyungdo Han, Steve R Ommen, Hyung-Kwan Kim
    European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.2020; 27(17): 1849.     CrossRef
  • Clinical Characteristics and Prevalence of Comorbidities according to Metformin Use in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
    Sang Ouk Chin, In Gyoon Ha, Sang Youl Rhee, Su Jin Jeong, Suk Chon, Sung Hoon Kim, Kyu Jeung Ahn, Sei Hyun Baik, Yongsoo Park, Moon Suk Nam, Kwan Woo Lee, Jeong Taek Woo
    International Journal of Endocrinology.2020; 2020: 1.     CrossRef
  • Impact of Mean and Variability of High‐Density Lipoprotein‐Cholesterol on the Risk of Myocardial Infarction, Stroke, and Mortality in the General Population
    Byung‐Hun Han, Kyungdo Han, Kun‐Ho Yoon, Mee Kyoung Kim, Seung‐Hwan Lee
    Journal of the American Heart Association.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and esophageal, stomach, or colorectal cancer: National population-based cohort study
    Jung-Min Lee, Yong-Moon Park, Jae-Seung Yun, Yu-Bae Ahn, Kang-Moon Lee, Dae Bum Kim, Ji Min Lee, Kyungdo Han, Seung-Hyun Ko, Ming-Lung Yu
    PLOS ONE.2020; 15(1): e0226351.     CrossRef
  • Outcomes for Inappropriate Renal Dose Adjustment of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Population-Based Study
    Sangmo Hong, Kyungdo Han, Cheol-Young Park
    Mayo Clinic Proceedings.2020; 95(1): 101.     CrossRef
  • Association Between Glycemic Status and the Risk of Parkinson Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Study
    Sang Youl Rhee, Kyung-Do Han, Hyemi Kwon, Se-Eun Park, Yong-Gyu Park, Yang-Hyun Kim, Soon-Jip Yoo, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee
    Diabetes Care.2020; 43(9): 2169.     CrossRef
  • A model to predict risk of stroke in middle-aged adults with type 2 diabetes generated from a nationwide population-based cohort study in Korea
    Mee-Kyoung Kim, Kyungdo Han, Jae-Hyoung Cho, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Kun-Ho Yoon, Seung-Hwan Lee
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2020; 163: 108157.     CrossRef
  • Diabetic Retinopathy and Related Clinical Practice for People with Diabetes in Korea: A 10-Year Trend Analysis
    Yoo-Ri Chung, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Kihwang Lee, Dae Jung Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2020; 44(6): 928.     CrossRef
  • Prepregnancy smoking and the risk of gestational diabetes requiring insulin therapy
    Mee Kyoung Kim, Kyungdo Han, Sang Youn You, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Kun-Ho Yoon, Seung-Hwan Lee
    Scientific Reports.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cardiovascular Risk of Isolated Systolic or Diastolic Hypertension in Young Adults
    Hokyou Lee, Yuichiro Yano, So Mi Jemma Cho, Jong Heon Park, Sungha Park, Donald M. Lloyd-Jones, Hyeon Chang Kim
    Circulation.2020; 141(22): 1778.     CrossRef
  • Middle-aged men with type 2 diabetes as potential candidates for pancreatic cancer screening: a 10-year nationwide population-based cohort study
    Dong-Hoe Koo, Kyung-Do Han, Hong Joo Kim, Cheol-Young Park
    Acta Diabetologica.2020; 57(2): 197.     CrossRef
  • Predicting the Development of Myocardial Infarction in Middle-Aged Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Risk Model Generated from a Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study in Korea
    Seung-Hwan Lee, Kyungdo Han, Hun-Sung Kim, Jae-Hyoung Cho, Kun-Ho Yoon, Mee Kyoung Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2020; 35(3): 636.     CrossRef
  • Fasting plasma glucose level and the risk of open angle glaucoma: Nationwide population-based cohort study in Korea
    Jin A. Choi, Yong-Moon Park, Kyungdo Han, Jiyoung Lee, Jae-Seung Yun, Seung-Hyun Ko, Bang V Bui
    PLOS ONE.2020; 15(9): e0239529.     CrossRef
  • Effect of Variability in Blood Pressure, Glucose and Cholesterol Concentrations, and Body Weight on Emergency Hospitalization and 30‐Day Mortality in the General Population
    Seung‐Hwan Lee, Kyungdo Han, Hyuk‐Sang Kwon, Kun‐Ho Yoon, Mee Kyoung Kim
    Journal of the American Heart Association.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Does Diabetes Increase the Risk of Contracting COVID-19? A Population-Based Study in Korea
    Sung-Youn Chun, Dong Wook Kim, Sang Ah Lee, Su Jung Lee, Jung Hyun Chang, Yoon Jung Choi, Seong Woo Kim, Sun Ok Song
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2020; 44(6): 897.     CrossRef
  • Appropriate Medical Technology in the Era of the 4th Industrial Revolution
    Sang Youl Rhee
    The Korean Journal of Medicine.2019; 94(5): 387.     CrossRef
  • Second-line glucose-lowering drugs added to metformin and the risk of hospitalization for heart failure: A nationwide cohort study
    Su Jin Lee, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Jung Hyun Lee, Hokyou Lee, Dae Jung Kim, Hyeon Chang Kim, Tatsuo Shimosawa
    PLOS ONE.2019; 14(2): e0211959.     CrossRef
  • 2017 ACC/AHA Blood Pressure Classification and Cardiovascular Disease in 15 Million Adults of Age 20–94 Years
    Lee, Cho, Park, Park, Kim
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2019; 8(11): 1832.     CrossRef
  • Management of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Elderly Diabetes Mellitus Patients
    Sung Hoon Yu
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2019; 20(4): 233.     CrossRef
  • Cholesterol levels and development of cardiovascular disease in Koreans with type 2 diabetes mellitus and without pre-existing cardiovascular disease
    Mee Kyoung Kim, Kyungdo Han, Han Na Joung, Ki-Hyun Baek, Ki-Ho Song, Hyuk-Sang Kwon
    Cardiovascular Diabetology.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Comprehensive Efforts Are Needed to Improve the Quality of Primary Diabetes Care in Korea
    Chan-Hee Jung
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2019; 34(3): 265.     CrossRef
  • Blood Pressure and Development of Cardiovascular Disease in Koreans With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Mee Kyoung Kim, Kyungdo Han, Eun Sil Koh, Eun Sook Kim, Min-Kyung Lee, Ga Eun Nam, Hyuk-Sang Kwon
    Hypertension.2019; 73(2): 319.     CrossRef
  • Weight change and mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with new-onset diabetes mellitus: a nationwide cohort study
    Mee Kyoung Kim, Kyungdo Han, Eun Sil Koh, Eun Sook Kim, Min-Kyung Lee, Ga Eun Nam, Hyuk-Sang Kwon
    Cardiovascular Diabetology.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Letter: Comparison of the Efficacy of Rosuvastatin Monotherapy 20 mg with Rosuvastatin 5 mg and Ezetimibe 10 mg Combination Therapy on Lipid Parameters in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J2019;43:582–9)
    Tae Seo Sohn
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2019; 43(6): 909.     CrossRef
  • Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors versus Other Antidiabetic Drugs Added to Metformin Monotherapy in Diabetic Retinopathy Progression: A Real World-Based Cohort Study
    Yoo-Ri Chung, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Hyeon Chang Kim, Sang Jun Park, Kihwang Lee, Dae Jung Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2019; 43(5): 640.     CrossRef
  • The Need to Improve the Quality of Diabetes Care in Korea
    Seung Jin Han, Dae Jung Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Chasms in Achievement of Recommended Diabetes Care among Geographic Regions in Korea
    Sanghyun Cho, Ji-Yeon Shin, Hyun Joo Kim, Sang Jun Eun, Sungchan Kang, Won Mo Jang, Hyemin Jung, Yoon Kim, Jin Yong Lee
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • An Age of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitor Priority: Are We Ready?
    Ji A Seo
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2019; 43(5): 578.     CrossRef
  • National trends in metformin-based combination therapy of oral hypoglycaemic agents for type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Jisu Kim, Susin Park, Hyunsoo Kim, Nam Kyung Je
    European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.2019; 75(12): 1723.     CrossRef
  • HDL-Cholesterol, Its Variability, and the Risk of Diabetes: A Nationwide Population-Based Study
    Seung-Hwan Lee, Hun-Sung Kim, Yong-Moon Park, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Kun-Ho Yoon, Kyungdo Han, Mee Kyoung Kim
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2019; 104(11): 5633.     CrossRef
  • Current Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Primary Care Clinics in Korea
    Da Hea Seo, Shinae Kang, Yong-ho Lee, Jung Yoon Ha, Jong Suk Park, Byoung-Wan Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong-Soo Cha
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2019; 34(3): 282.     CrossRef
  • Heritability estimation of dichotomous phenotypes using a liability threshold model on ascertained family‐based samples
    Wonji Kim, Soo Heon Kwak, Sungho Won
    Genetic Epidemiology.2019; 43(7): 761.     CrossRef
  • Letter: Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors versus Other Antidiabetic Drugs Added to Metformin Monotherapy in Diabetic Retinopathy Progression: A Real World-Based Cohort Study (Diabetes Metab J 2019;43:640–8)
    Jun Sung Moon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2019; 43(6): 911.     CrossRef

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal