Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal

Search
OPEN ACCESS

Articles

Page Path
HOME > Diabetes Metab J > Volume 43(4); 2019 > Article
Review
Clinical Care/Education 2019 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Korea
Mee Kyoung Kim1orcid, Seung-Hyun Ko2, Bo-Yeon Kim3, Eun Seok Kang4, Junghyun Noh5, Soo-Kyung Kim6, Seok-O Park7, Kyu Yeon Hur8, Suk Chon9, Min Kyong Moon10, Nan-Hee Kim11, Sang Yong Kim12, Sang Youl Rhee9, Kang-Woo Lee13, Jae Hyeon Kim8, Eun-Jung Rhee14, SungWan Chun15, Sung Hoon Yu16, Dae Jung Kim17, Hyuk-Sang Kwon1orcid, Kyong Soo Park18,19, Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines, Korean Diabetes Association
Diabetes & Metabolism Journal 2019;43(4):398-406.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0137
Published online: August 20, 2019
  • 16,269 Views
  • 477 Download
  • 160 Web of Science
  • 171 Crossref
  • 161 Scopus

1Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Yeouido St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

2Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Vincent's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon, Korea.

3Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon, Korea.

4Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

5Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, Korea.

6Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, Korea.

7Gwangmyeong Sungae Hospital, Gwangmyeong, Korea.

8Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

9Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

10Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

11Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan, Korea.

12Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju, Korea.

13Sejong St. Mary's Diabetes and Endocrine Clinic, Sejong, Korea.

14Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

15Department of Internal Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan, Korea.

16Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri, Korea.

17Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.

18Department of Molecular Medicine and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

19Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Corresponding author: Hyuk-Sang Kwon. Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Yeouido St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 10 63-ro, Yeongdeungpo-gu, Seoul 07345, Korea. drkwon@catholic.ac.kr
• Received: July 16, 2019   • Accepted: July 22, 2019

Copyright © 2019 Korean Diabetes Association

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  • The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association revised and updated the 6th Clinical Practice Guidelines in 2019. Targets of glycemic, blood pressure, and lipid control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were updated. The obese and overweight population is increasing steadily in Korea, and half of the Koreans with diabetes are obese. Evidence-based recommendations for weight-loss therapy for obesity management as treatment for hyperglycemia in T2DM were provided. In addition, evidence from large clinical studies assessing cardiovascular outcomes following the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists in patients with T2DM were incorporated into the recommendations.
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Korea is estimated to be 14.4% (in those over 30 years of age), according to a report by the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011 to 2016 [1]. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) increased in both men and women as age increased and the prevalence of DM exceeded 10% for men in their 40s and 10% for women in their 50s. The obese and overweight population is also increasing steadily in Korea. Half of the people with DM are obese; class II obesity (body mass index [BMI] 30.0 to 34.9) is 8.4% and class III obesity (BMI ≥35.0) is 1.8% in people with DM [1]. Thus the early detection and prevention of T2DM are major health concerns for Koreans and the government. The diagnosis and appropriate treatment for T2DM are very important issues in establishing and implementing high-priority health policies in Korea.
The diagnostic criteria for T2DM are based on the plasma glucose, either the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or the 2-hour plasma glucose during a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) value (Table 1). The HbA1c test should be performed using a method that is certified by the National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program (NGSP) and standardized or traceable to the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) reference assay [2]. In Korea, HbA1c standardization has been widely performed since 2007 [3], and since 2011, HbA1c has been included as a diagnostic criterion for the Korean Diabetes Association clinical practice guidelines [3]. Unless there is a clear diagnosis (classic symptoms of DM with a random plasma glucose 200 mg/dL), diagnosis requires two abnormal test results from the same sample or in two separate samples. If two different tests (HbA1c and FPG) are both above the diagnostic criteria when analyzed from the same sample or same day, this confirms the diagnosis of DM. According to the study of 4,481 Korean people with HbA1c and FPG, but with no diabetic medications in the Korean National and Nutritional Examination Survey, the HbA1c levels corresponding to the FPG of 100 and 126 mg/dL were 5.75% and 6.42%, respectively [4]. Therefore, the suitable cutoff value of HbA1c for the diagnosis of DM in the Korean population is 6.5%, as suggested by the American Diabetes Association (ADA). When 4,610 individuals with data from a 75-g OGTT and no previous history of DM were analyzed, individuals with impaired fasting glucose were classified into FPG 100 to 109 mg/dL and 110 to 125 mg/dL levels [5]. More individuals with FPG 110 to 125 mg/dL were diagnosed with DM as determined by a 2-hour plasma glucose result ≥200 mg/dL [5]. Therefore, to detect more cases of DM, the 75-g OGTT is recommended for all individuals with FPG 110 to 125 mg/dL.
In the Kumamoto study [6] and the UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) study [7], intensive glycemic control proved to be effective in preventing microvascular complications, and long-term follow-up of UKPDS cohorts [7] showed enduring effects of early glycemic control on microvascular complications. In the Kumamoto study [6], the goal of the intensive glucose control group was to maintain the blood glucose control as close as possible to FPG <140 mg/dL, 2-hour post-prandial blood glucose <200 mg/dL, and HbA1c <7%. The actual HbA1c level achieved was 7.1%. During the 6-year study period, retinopathy decreased by 69%, nephropathy decreased by 70%, and nerve conduction velocity improved in the intensive glycemic control group [6]. The researchers suggested that the glycemic threshold to prevent the onset and progression of microvascular complications was indicated as follows: HbA1c <6.5%, FPG <110 mg/dL, and 2-hour post-prandial blood glucose <180 mg/dL [6]. Many meta-analyses consistently provided evidence for the clinical benefits of achieving and maintaining intensive glycemic control to prevent diabetic complications. Therefore, optimal HbA1c target for patients with T2DM is recommended to be <6.5% (Table 2), especially in the recently diagnosed, young patients with T2DM without severe complications or hypoglycemia, through lifestyle modification (LSM) and glucose-lowering agents, including insulin. However, the glycemic target should be individualized based on patient characteristics and preference. In patients with a history of severe hypoglycemia or advanced diabetic complications, short life expectancy, or advanced age, the glycemic target must be individualized with consideration of risks of complications such as hypoglycemia. The recommended glycemic target for type 1 DM is an HbA1c concentration of <7.0%.
The ADA recommends that the intensity of statin should be determined by the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or the presence of CVD without setting a low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) target [8]. However, the LDL-C-lowering effect of statins in the Asian population can be more prominent than in Western populations [9]. Clinical trials did not include enough Asian populations, so it is unreasonable to apply the ADA guidelines in Korea. However, multiple clinical trials have demonstrated the beneficial effects of statin therapy on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) outcomes in subjects with and without CVD [10]. In a study of patients with acute coronary syndrome or previous CVD, the use of high-dose statins to reduce LDL-C to less than 70 mg/dL significantly reduced the risk of subsequent CVD [11]. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials demonstrated the benefits of statins in people without established CVD but with cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. The goal of LDL-C concentration is graded according to the risk level, and diabetic patients with CVD are classified as very high risk and should target LDL-C <70 mg/dL. In diabetic patients with target organ damages (albuminuria or glomerular filtration rate [GFR] <60 mL/min/1.73 m2) or CVD risk factors (hypertension, smoking, family history of premature ASCVD), LDL-C target of <70 mg/dL should be considered. In diabetic patients without CVD, the recommended target for LDL-C is <100 mg/dL.
In the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Blood Pressure (ACCORD-BP) study [12], an intensive blood pressure (BP) control strategy to achieve a systolic BP (SBP) <120 mm Hg did not significantly reduce the composite of CVD death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke compared with a standard SBP control goal of <140 mm Hg. In contrast, the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) found a significant reduction in the number of CVD events with intensive BP control to a goal SBP of <120 mm Hg but excluded those patients with T2DM [13]. It was reported that intensive BP control to a goal SBP of <120 mm Hg significantly reduced the risk of CVD outcomes in SPRINT-eligible ACCORD-BP participants [14]. Participants with DM in that study were eligible for the analysis if they were in the standard glucose control arm of ACCORD-BP and had the additional CVD risk factors required for SPRINT. According to the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guideline for the management of high BP in adults, in adults with DM and hypertension, antihypertensive drug treatment should be initiated at a BP of 130/80 mm Hg or higher with a treatment goal of less than 130/80 mm Hg [15].
The risk and incidence of CVD in the Asian population are different from those in Western populations [16]. For Asian populations, the risk of stroke compared with coronary artery disease is higher. In addition, the relationship between BP levels and stoke incidence is stronger in Asian populations, and the slope of association between BP levels and stroke events has also been shown to be steeper in Asians than in Western populations. The recent study of Korean cohort data among patients with T2DM without underlying CVD at baseline showed that a BP <130/80 mm Hg was associated with further lowering of the risk of CV events [16], but an SBP <110 mm Hg or diastolic BP (DBP) <75 mm Hg was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality. However, there is no definitive study comparing the effect of lowering SBP to below 130 mm Hg as opposed to less than 140 mm Hg in diabetic patients without CVD, and most of the studies mentioned earlier have been conducted in diabetic patients with CVD or with many CV risk factors. Therefore, there is no clear evidence to maintain SBP below 130 mm Hg in diabetic patients without CVD. In a sub-analysis of the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) study, DBP control goals were divided into three groups, of 90, 85, and 80 mm Hg [17]. Unlike hypertensive patients without DM, hypertensive patients with DM recognized CV benefits when lower DBP was achieved, and the actual DBP was 81 mm Hg in the group aiming at less than 80 mm Hg. The target BP for diabetic patients is recommended <140/85 mm Hg. However, the target BP for diabetic patients with CVD should be considered <130/80 mm Hg.
According to the 2018 Korean Society for the Study of Obesity guidelines [18], the classification of obesity into classes I, II, and III relies on adult BMI, in accordance with WHO guidelines for the Asia-Pacific region. Class I obesity is defined as BMI 25 kg/m2 to less than 30 kg/m2, class II obesity is defined as BMI 30 kg/m2 to less than 35 kg/m2, and class III obesity was newly defined in 2018 as greater than 35 kg/m2. If a patient with T2DM and BMI >25 kg/m2 (class I) fails to lose weight with diet, physical activity, and behavior counseling, weight-loss medications may be considered.
Bariatric surgery should be considered in patients with T2DM if BMI ≥35 kg/m2 (class III obesity). Bariatric surgery may be considered in patients with T2DM ≥BMI 30 kg/m2 (class II obesity) if nonsurgical treatment fails to result in weight loss or glycemic control. A substantial body of evidence has now been accumulated, including data from randomized controlled clinical trials, demonstrating that bariatric surgery achieves superior glycemic control and reduction of CV risk factors in patients with T2DM and obesity compared with various medical interventions [19]. However, it is also reported that 35% to 50% of patients who initially achieve remission of DM after bariatric surgery eventually experience recurrence [20]. Regardless of remission of DM, nearly all patients with T2DM and obesity who undergo bariatric surgery maintain significant improvements of glycemic control and other CV risk factors. Thus, it is important to recognize bariatric surgery as one treatment for the management of obesity and DM rather than focusing on the remission of DM after bariatric surgery.
LSM is an essential component of treatment for all patients with T2DM and should be initiated promptly and simultaneously with antihyperglycemic agents. Patients' education within a structured program should be provided from a health care professional at the time of diagnosis and then followed up with regular reinforcement checks. For patients with newly diagnosed T2DM, LSM that includes medical nutrition therapy, weight control, physical activity, smoking cessation, and avoidance of alcohol abuse should be initiated.
As an initial therapy for newly diagnosed patients with an HbA1c <7.5%, metformin must first be considered as first-line oral therapy but other drugs can be considered based on patient status [21]. If metformin is not tolerable or is contraindicated, the alternative choices for monotherapy include dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), sulfonylureas (SUs), glinides, α-glucosidase inhibitors, and insulin according to patient circumstances. In the Practical Evidence of Antidiabetic Monotherapy (PEAM) study, the glucose-lowering efficacies of SUs, metformin, and TZDs as antidiabetic monotherapies administered for 48 weeks were similar in drug-naïve Korean patients diagnosed with T2DM [22].
If the initial HbA1c level of a patient is ≥7.5% or the HbA1c target is not achieved within three months of initiating monotherapy, dual combination therapy can be considered. If the HbA1c target is not achieved within 3 months of initiating dual therapy, a third agent with a complementary mechanism of action can be added for triple combination therapy. The early combination therapy is preferred over maximizing the dosage of a single agent when considering glucose-lowering efficacy and side effects. Although there is no particular order of preference, efficacy, risk of hypoglycemia, weight gain, CV benefits, and presence of clinical data in the Korean population should be considered for this arrangement (Fig. 1) [23]. Metformin is maintained as background therapy during dual or triple combination therapy.
In the Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients-Removing Excess Glucose (EMPA-REG OUTCOME) trial, empagliflozin added to the standard of care reduced the risk of three-point major adverse cardiovascular events (three-point MACE: composite of CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke) by 14%, CV death by 38%, hospitalization for heart failure by 35%, and all-cause mortality by 32% in patients with T2DM and established CVD [24]. When the effects of empagliflozin in Asian patients were investigated (n=1,517), empagliflozin reduced the risk of three-point MACE by 32% (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.48 to 0.95) [25]. The effects of empagliflozin on the components of MACE, all-cause mortality, and heart failure outcomes in Asian patients were consistent with the overall population [25]. Therefore, for patients with established ASCVD, the SGLT2 inhibitors with proven CV benefits should first be considered.
The GLP-1 RAs with proven CV benefits should be considered [2627]. The GLP-1 RAs can be used in monotherapy or in combination with oral hypoglycemic agents other than DPP-4 inhibitors or in combination with basal insulin. Especially, the GLP-1 RAs with proven CV benefits should be considered in T2DM patients with established CVD [2627]. Both liraglutide and semaglutide significantly reduced a composite three-point MACE outcome and mortality compared with placebo-treated group [2627]. For patients with T2DM who fail to achieve the glycemic target with adequate treatment with oral antihyperglycemic agents, proceed to insulin injection therapy. The addition of a GLP-1 RA or switching to a premixed insulin regimen could be another option depending on the patient's clinical situation (Fig. 2). The initiation of insulin should be considered in patients with newly-diagnosed T2DM if the initial HbA1c level is >9.0% and symptomatic hyperglycemia or metabolic decompensation is present. Insulin also should be considered when adequate glycemic control is not obtained in patients with decompensated hepatic or renal insufficiency and when patients have suffered from myocardial infarction, stoke, or a major operation [28].
It is recommended that urinary albumin excretion and estimated GFR should be assessed at least once a year. A urine albumin-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g is generally defined as albuminuria, and decreased GFR is defined as GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists are recommended as first-line medications for BP control in diabetic patients with albuminuria. Glycemic control has been shown to be effective to slow the progression of nephropathy in patients with early diabetic nephropathy. Recently, several hypoglycemic agents demonstrated beneficial effects on the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Empagliflozin showed a significantly lower risk of albuminuria progression or renal outcomes, such as a doubling of the serum creatinine level and initiation of renal-replacement therapy, than the placebo group [29]. Some GLP-1 RAs also demonstrated a renal protective effect in the Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results (LEADER) and the Preapproval Trial to Evaluate Cardiovascular and Other Long-term Outcomes with Semaglutide in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes (SUSTAIN-6) trials [2630]. However, their renal outcome was studied as a secondary outcome. Recently, in T2DM with renal disease, canagloflozin lowered the risk of kidney failure or renal death about 30% than in the placebo group [31].
Appropriate clinical practice guidelines customized for Korean people with T2DM have been developed and updated to provide better glycemic control and favorable clinical outcomes. More evidence and clinical trials should be undertaken, especially in Asia, including Korea.
Acknowledgements
None

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST: No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

  • 1. Won JC, Lee JH, Kim JH, Kang ES, Won KC, Kim DJ, Lee MK. Diabetes fact sheet in Korea, 2016: an appraisal of current status. Diabetes Metab J 2018;42:415-424. ArticlePubMedPMCPDF
  • 2. American Diabetes Association. 10. Cardiovascular disease and risk management: standards of medical care in diabetes-2019. Diabetes Care 2019;42:S103-S123. ArticlePubMedPDF
  • 3. Ko SH, Kim SR, Kim DJ, Oh SJ, Lee HJ, Shim KH, Woo MH, Kim JY, Kim NH, Kim JT, Kim CH, Kim HJ, Jeong IK, Hong EK, Cho JH, Mok JO, Yoon KH. Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines, Korean Diabetes Association. 2011 Clinical practice guidelines for type 2 diabetes in Korea. Diabetes Metab J 2011;35:431-436. ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 4. Hong S, Kang JG, Kim CS, Lee SJ, Lee CB, Ihm SH. Fasting plasma glucose concentrations for specified HbA1c goals in Korean populations: data from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V-2, 2011). Diabetol Metab Syndr 2016;8:62ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 5. Oh JY, Lim S, Kim DJ, Kim NH, Kim DJ, Moon SD, Jang HC, Cho YM, Song KH, Ahn CW, Sung YA, Park JY, Shin C, Lee HK, Park KS. Committee of the Korean Diabetes Association on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. A report on the diagnosis of intermediate hyperglycemia in Korea: a pooled analysis of four community-based cohort studies. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2008;80:463-468. ArticlePubMed
  • 6. Ohkubo Y, Kishikawa H, Araki E, Miyata T, Isami S, Motoyoshi S, Kojima Y, Furuyoshi N, Shichiri M. Intensive insulin therapy prevents the progression of diabetic microvascular complications in Japanese patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a randomized prospective 6-year study. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1995;28:103-117. ArticlePubMed
  • 7. Holman RR, Paul SK, Bethel MA, Matthews DR, Neil HA. 10-Year follow-up of intensive glucose control in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008;359:1577-1589. ArticlePubMed
  • 8. American Diabetes Association. 2. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes: standards of medical care in diabetes-2019. Diabetes Care 2019;42:S13-S28. ArticlePubMedPDF
  • 9. Naito R, Miyauchi K, Daida H. Racial differences in the cholesterol-lowering effect of statin. J Atheroscler Thromb 2017;24:19-25. ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 10. Brugts JJ, Yetgin T, Hoeks SE, Gotto AM, Shepherd J, Westendorp RG, de Craen AJ, Knopp RH, Nakamura H, Ridker P, van Domburg R, Deckers JW. The benefits of statins in people without established cardiovascular disease but with cardiovascular risk factors: meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 2009;338:b2376. ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 11. Ahmed S, Cannon CP, Murphy SA, Braunwald E. Acute coronary syndromes and diabetes: is intensive lipid lowering beneficial? Results of the PROVE IT-TIMI 22 trial. Eur Heart J 2006;27:2323-2329. ArticlePubMed
  • 12. ACCORD Study Group. Cushman WC, Evans GW, Byington RP, Goff DC Jr, Grimm RH Jr, Cutler JA, Simons-Morton DG, Basile JN, Corson MA, Probstfield JL, Katz L, Peterson KA, Friedewald WT, Buse JB, Bigger JT, Gerstein HC, Ismail-Beigi F. Effects of intensive blood-pressure control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 2010;362:1575-1585. ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 13. SPRINT Research Group. Wright JT Jr, Williamson JD, Whelton PK, Snyder JK, Sink KM, Rocco MV, Reboussin DM, Rahman M, Oparil S, Lewis CE, Kimmel PL, Johnson KC, Goff DC Jr, Fine LJ, Cutler JA, Cushman WC, Cheung AK, Ambrosius WT. A randomized trial of intensive versus standard blood-pressure control. N Engl J Med 2015;373:2103-2116. ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 14. Buckley LF, Dixon DL, Wohlford GF 4th, Wijesinghe DS, Baker WL, Van Tassell BW. Intensive versus standard blood pressure control in SPRINT-eligible participants of ACCORD-BP. Diabetes Care 2017;40:1733-1738. ArticlePubMedPDF
  • 15. Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, Casey DE Jr, Collins KJ, Dennison Himmelfarb C, DePalma SM, Gidding S, Jamerson KA, Jones DW, MacLaughlin EJ, Muntner P, Ovbiagele B, Smith SC Jr, Spencer CC, Stafford RS, Taler SJ, Thomas RJ, Williams KA Sr, Williamson JD, Wright JT Jr. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Hypertension 2018;71:e13-e115. ArticlePubMed
  • 16. Kim MK, Han K, Koh ES, Kim ES, Lee MK, Nam GE, Kwon HS. Blood pressure and development of cardiovascular disease in Koreans with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hypertension 2019;73:319-326. ArticlePubMed
  • 17. Hansson L, Zanchetti A, Carruthers SG, Dahlof B, Elmfeldt D, Julius S, Menard J, Rahn KH, Wedel H, Westerling S. Effects of intensive blood-pressure lowering and low-dose aspirin in patients with hypertension: principal results of the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) randomised trial. HOT Study Group. Lancet 1998;351:1755-1762. PubMed
  • 18. Seo MH, Lee WY, Kim SS, Kang JH, Kang JH, Kim KK, Kim BY, Kim YH, Kim WJ, Kim EM, Kim HS, Shin YA, Shin HJ, Lee KR, Lee KY, Lee SY, Lee SK, Lee JH, Lee CB, Chung S, Cho YH, Choi KM, Han JS, Yoo SJ. Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines, Korean Society for the Study of Obesity (KSSO). 2018 Korean Society for the Study of Obesity guideline for the management of obesity in Korea. J Obes Metab Syndr 2019;28:40-45. ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 19. Schauer PR, Bhatt DL, Kirwan JP, Wolski K, Aminian A, Brethauer SA, Navaneethan SD, Singh RP, Pothier CE, Nissen SE, Kashyap SR. STAMPEDE Investigators. Bariatric surgery versus intensive medical therapy for diabetes: 5-year outcomes. N Engl J Med 2017;376:641-651. ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 20. Sjostrom L, Peltonen M, Jacobson P, Ahlin S, Andersson-Assarsson J, Anveden A, Bouchard C, Carlsson B, Karason K, Lonroth H, Naslund I, Sjostrom E, Taube M, Wedel H, Svensson PA, Sjoholm K, Carlsson LM. Association of bariatric surgery with long-term remission of type 2 diabetes and with microvascular and macrovascular complications. JAMA 2014;311:2297-2304. ArticlePubMed
  • 21. Ko SH, Hur KY, Rhee SY, Kim NH, Moon MK, Park SO, Lee BW, Kim HJ, Choi KM, Kim JH. Committee of Clinical Practice Guideline of Korean Diabetes Association. Antihyperglycemic agent therapy for adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus 2017: a position statement of the Korean Diabetes Association. Diabetes Metab J 2017;41:337-348. ArticlePubMedPMCPDF
  • 22. Yoon KH, Shin JA, Kwon HS, Lee SH, Min KW, Ahn YB, Yoo SJ, Ahn KJ, Park SW, Lee KW, Sung YA, Park TS, Kim MS, Kim YK, Nam MS, Kim HS, Park IeB, Park JS, Woo JT, Son HY. Comparison of the efficacy of glimepiride, metformin, and rosiglitazone monotherapy in Korean drug-naïve type 2 diabetic patients: the Practical Evidence of Antidiabetic Monotherapy study. Diabetes Metab J 2011;35:26-33. ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 23. Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. Drug information cited 2019 Jul 16. Available from: https://nedrug.mfds.go.kr.
  • 24. Zinman B, Wanner C, Lachin JM, Fitchett D, Bluhmki E, Hantel S, Mattheus M, Devins T, Johansen OE, Woerle HJ, Broedl UC, Inzucchi SE. EMPA-REG OUTCOME Investigators. Empagliflozin, cardiovascular outcomes, and mortality in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2015;373:2117-2128. ArticlePubMed
  • 25. Kaku K, Lee J, Mattheus M, Kaspers S, George J, Woerle HJ. EMPA-REG OUTCOME(R) Investigators. Empagliflozin and cardiovascular outcomes in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease: results from EMPA-REG OUTCOME(R). Circ J 2017;81:227-234. ArticlePubMed
  • 26. Marso SP, Bain SC, Consoli A, Eliaschewitz FG, Jodar E, Leiter LA, Lingvay I, Rosenstock J, Seufert J, Warren ML, Woo V, Hansen O, Holst AG, Pettersson J, Vilsboll T. SUSTAIN-6 Investigators. Semaglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2016;375:1834-1844. ArticlePubMed
  • 27. Marso SP, Daniels GH, Brown-Frandsen K, Kristensen P, Mann JF, Nauck MA, Nissen SE, Pocock S, Poulter NR, Ravn LS, Steinberg WM, Stockner M, Zinman B, Bergenstal RM, Buse JB. LEADER Steering Committee. LEADER Trial Investigators. Liraglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2016;375:311-322. ArticlePubMedPMC
  • 28. Malmberg K, Norhammar A, Wedel H, Ryden L. Glycometabolic state at admission: important risk marker of mortality in conventionally treated patients with diabetes mellitus and acute myocardial infarction: long-term results from the Diabetes and Insulin-Glucose Infusion in Acute Myocardial Infarction (DIGAMI) study. Circulation 1999;99:2626-2632. ArticlePubMed
  • 29. Wanner C, Inzucchi SE, Lachin JM, Fitchett D, von Eynatten M, Mattheus M, Johansen OE, Woerle HJ, Broedl UC, Zinman B. EMPA-REG OUTCOME Investigators. Empagliflozin and progression of kidney disease in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2016;375:323-334. ArticlePubMed
  • 30. Mann JFE, Orsted DD, Brown-Frandsen K, Marso SP, Poulter NR, Rasmussen S, Tornoe K, Zinman B, Buse JB. LEADER Steering Committee and Investigators. Liraglutide and renal outcomes in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2017;377:839-848. ArticlePubMed
  • 31. Perkovic V, Jardine MJ, Neal B, Bompoint S, Heerspink HJL, Charytan DM, Edwards R, Agarwal R, Bakris G, Bull S, Cannon CP, Capuano G, Chu PL, de Zeeuw D, Greene T, Levin A, Pollock C, Wheeler DC, Yavin Y, Zhang H, Zinman B, Meininger G, Brenner BM, Mahaffey KW. CREDENCE Trial Investigators. Canagliflozin and renal outcomes in type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. N Engl J Med 2019;380:2295-2306. ArticlePubMed
Fig. 1

Antihyperglycemic therapy algorithm for adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The algorithm stratifies the choice of medications for T2DM based on initial glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and demonstrates drug arrangement in a centrifugal direction. This algorithm includes only U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved classes of medications for T2DM that are prescribed in Korea. For newly diagnosed T2DM, begin with lifestyle modification (LSM) at the time of diagnosis and maintain these changes subsequently for the duration of treatment. The HbA1c target is <6.5%; if this is not achieved within 3 months after implementing LSM, then the use of an antihyperglycemic agent should be initiated promptly. If the HbA1c level is <7.5%, metformin monotherapy is the preferred choice for pharmacotherapy in conjunction with LSM. If there are contraindications for metformin or side effects, then consider other monotherapy options such as a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4i), sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT2i), thiazolidinedione (TZD), glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), sulfonylurea (SU), α-glucosidase inhibitor (α-Gi), or insulin as the initial therapy according to the patient's condition. If the initial HbA1c level is ≥7.5% or the HbA1c target is not achieved within 3 months of monotherapy, dual combination therapy can be considered. In this case, a second-line drug is added to metformin; however, any other combination of drugs with different mechanisms of action can be used depending on the patient's clinical characteristics. If the HbA1c target is not achieved within 3 months after commencing dual therapy, then proceed to triple combination therapy. In no particular order of preference, efficacy, cardiovascular benefit, risk of hypoglycemia, impact of body weight, and presence of clinical data in the Korean population should be considered for this arrangement. To aid the physician's choice, the characteristics of antihyperglycemic agent classes are shown as a bar scale. Efficacy (green), CV benefit (blue), hypoglycemia risk (red), and body weight changes (yellow) were assigned ratings of low, intermediate, or high (body weight changes; decrease, neutral, or increase) based on recently published studies identified in an extensive literature review; the scale bar is not constructed according to strict definitions but should be used as a guide for clinical decisions. This figure was illustrated based on the drugs' approval by the Korea Food and Drug Administration (http://www.mfds.go.kr/eng) in April 2019 [23]. GLN, glinide. aBody weight changes: decrease, neutral, or increase, bGLN can be used as dual combination therapy with metformin, TZD, α-Gi, or insulin or as a triple combination therapy with metformin and α-Gi, metformin and TZD, or metformin and insulin.

dmj-43-398-g001.jpg
Fig. 2

Treatment algorithm for injectable therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). (Left) Initiation of insulin treatment. If the initial glycated hemoglobin (HA1c) level is >9.0% and symptomatic hyperglycemia or metabolic decompensation is present, insulin therapy can be initiated with or without oral antihyperglycemic agents (OHAs) in patients with newly diagnosed T2DM. If the HA1c target range is not achieved after implementing a basal insulin regimen, then proceed to intensification treatment, for example, addition of a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) or a prandial insulin or switching to a premixed insulin regimen. (Right) For adult patients with T2DM who have not achieved their glycemic target following adequate treatment using OHAs. When OHAs fail, proceed to basal insulin either with or without OHAs. The addition of a GLP-1 RA or switching to a premixed insulin regimen could be another option depending on the patient's clinical situation. The width of each black line reflects the strength of the expert consensus recommendations. In patients above the HbA1c target on basal insulin or premixed insulin once or twice daily, further intensification outlined in this algorithm may be considered.

dmj-43-398-g002.jpg
Table 1

Diagnostic criteria for type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korea

dmj-43-398-i001.jpg
1. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥6.5% (HbA1c concentration must be measured through a standardized method)a or
2. Eight-hour fasting plasma glucose of ≥126 mg/dLa or
3. Plasma glucose concentration of ≥200 mg/dL at 2 hours after a 75-g oral glucose tolerance testa or
4. Classic symptoms of diabetes (polyuria, polydipsia, unexplained weight loss) with a random plasma glucose concentration of ≥200 mg/dL

aDiagnosis must be confirmed through a repeat test on a different day. However, if more than two criteria are met on the same day, a definite diagnosis can be made.

Table 2

Targets of glycemic, blood pressure, and lipid control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

dmj-43-398-i002.jpg
Cardiovascular diseases Present Absent
HbA1c, % <6.5
Blood pressure, mm Hg <130/80 <140/85
Lipid profiles
 LDL-C, mg/dL <70 <100a
 Triglycerides, mg/dL <150
 HDL-C, mg/dL >40 (men)
>50 (women)

HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; LDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol; HDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol.

aTarget LDL-C is <70 mg/dL in the presence of target organ damage or cardiovascular risk factors.

Figure & Data

References

    Citations

    Citations to this article as recorded by  
    • Serum-based ATR-FTIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis for the diagnosis of pre-diabetes and diabetes
      Weiyi Pang, Yu Xing, Camilo L. M. Morais, Qiufeng Lao, Shengle Li, Zipeng Qiao, You Li, Maneesh N. Singh, Valério G. Barauna, Francis L. Martin, Zhiyong Zhang
      The Analyst.2024; 149(2): 497.     CrossRef
    • Fruits and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: The Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study Cohort
      Hojun Yu, Cheol Min Lee, Seung-Won Oh
      Korean Journal of Family Medicine.2024; 45(1): 44.     CrossRef
    • Effectiveness and Safety of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors Added to Dual or Triple Treatment in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
      Yesol Hong, Yoomin Jeon, Yoona Choi, Tae Kyu Chung, Howard Lee
      Diabetes Therapy.2024; 15(2): 487.     CrossRef
    • Risk factors for carotid plaque formation in type 2 diabetes mellitus
      Jin Chen, Wenwen Li, Jingzhu Cao, Yuhan Lu, Chaoqun Wang, Jin Lu
      Journal of Translational Medicine.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Cumulative exposure to impaired fasting glucose and gastrointestinal cancer risk: A nationwide cohort study
      Byeong Yun Ahn, Bokyung Kim, Sanghyun Park, Sang Gyun Kim, Kyungdo Han, Soo‐Jeong Cho
      Cancer.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Effects of a Health Partnership Program Using Mobile Health Application for Male Workers with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Small and Medium Enterprises: A Randomized Controlled Trial
      Eun Jin Kim, Seon Young Hwang
      Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing.2024; 54(1): 44.     CrossRef
    • The clinical relevance of a polygenic risk score for type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Korean population
      Na Yeon Kim, Haekyung Lee, Sehee Kim, Ye-Jee Kim, Hyunsuk Lee, Junhyeong Lee, Soo Heon Kwak, Seunggeun Lee
      Scientific Reports.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Real-World Outcomes of Individualized Targeted Therapy with Insulin Glargine 300 Units/mL in Insulin-Naïve Korean People with Type 2 Diabetes: TOBE Study
      Eun-Gyoung Hong, Kyung-Wan Min, Jung Soo Lim, Kyu-Jeung Ahn, Chul Woo Ahn, Jae-Myung Yu, Hye Soon Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Won Kim, Dong Han Kim, Hak Chul Jang
      Advances in Therapy.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • The Potential Role of Presepsin in Predicting Severe Infection in Patients with Diabetic Foot Ulcers
      Eun Yeong Ha, Il Rae Park, Seung Min Chung, Young Nam Roh, Chul Hyun Park, Tae-Gon Kim, Woong Kim, Jun Sung Moon
      Journal of Clinical Medicine.2024; 13(8): 2311.     CrossRef
    • Safety of sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in Asian type 2 diabetes populations
      Jaime A Davidson, Norlela Sukor, Fen‐Lee Hew, Mafauzy Mohamed, Zanariah Hussein
      Journal of Diabetes Investigation.2023; 14(2): 167.     CrossRef
    • β-hydroxybutyrate as a biomarker of β-cell function in new-onset type 2 diabetes and its association with treatment response at 6 months
      Minyoung Lee, Yongin Cho, Yong-ho Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Bong-soo Cha, Byung-Wan Lee
      Diabetes & Metabolism.2023; 49(4): 101427.     CrossRef
    • Lipid Management in Korean People With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Korean Diabetes Association and Korean Society of Lipid and Atherosclerosis Consensus Statement
      Ye Seul Yang, Hack-Lyoung Kim, Sang-Hyun Kim, Min Kyong Moon
      Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis.2023; 12(1): 12.     CrossRef
    • Lipid Management in Korean People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Korean Diabetes Association and Korean Society of Lipid and Atherosclerosis Consensus Statement
      Ye Seul Yang, Hack-Lyoung Kim, Sang-Hyun Kim, Min Kyong Moon
      Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(1): 1.     CrossRef
    • Cardiovascular Outcomes according to Comorbidities and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Korean People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
      Min Kyong Moon, Junghyun Noh, Eun-Jung Rhee, Sang Hyun Park, Hyeon Chang Kim, Byung Jin Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Seonghoon Choi, Jin Oh Na, Young Youl Hyun, Bum Joon Kim, Kyung-Do Han, In-Kyung Jeong
      Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(1): 45.     CrossRef
    • Impaired ketogenesis is associated with metabolic-associated fatty liver disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes
      Sejeong Lee, Jaehyun Bae, Doo Ri Jo, Minyoung Lee, Yong-ho Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Bong-Soo Cha, Byung-Wan Lee
      Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Identifying the Associations of Nightly Fasting Duration and Meal Timing with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Using Data from the 2016–2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey
      Junkyung Kwak, Kyeong-A Jang, Haeng-Ran Kim, Min-Sook Kang, Kyung Won Lee, Dayeon Shin
      Nutrients.2023; 15(6): 1385.     CrossRef
    • Development and Adaptability of Smartphone-based Dietary Coaching Program for Patients Undergoing Diabetes and Prediabetes with Continuous Glucose Monitoring Device
      Myoung Soo Kim, Jung Mi Ryu, Minkyeong Kang, Jiwon Park, Yeh Chan Ahn, Yang Seok Kim
      Journal of Health Informatics and Statistics.2023; 48(1): 36.     CrossRef
    • Glucose Control in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus according to Body Mass Index
      Ye-lim Shin, Heesoh Yoo, Joo Young Hong, Jooeun Kim, Kyung-do Han, Kyu-Na Lee, Yang-Hyun Kim
      Journal of Obesity & Metabolic Syndrome.2023; 32(1): 55.     CrossRef
    • Diabetes severity is strongly associated with the risk of active tuberculosis in people with type 2 diabetes: a nationwide cohort study with a 6-year follow-up
      Ji Young Kang, Kyungdo Han, Seung-Hwan Lee, Mee Kyoung Kim
      Respiratory Research.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Developing a Classification Algorithm for Prediabetes Risk Detection From Home Care Nursing Notes
      Eunjoo Jeon, Aeri Kim, Jisoo Lee, Hyunsook Heo, Hana Lee, Kyungmi Woo
      CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing.2023; 41(7): 539.     CrossRef
    • Predictive value of the Framingham steatosis index for cardiovascular risk: a nationwide population-based cohort study
      Yun Kyung Cho, Myungjin Kim, Ye-Jee Kim, Chang Hee Jung, Woo Je Lee, Joong-Yeol Park
      Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Association of low muscle strength with metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease: A nationwide study
      Gyu Bae Lee, Youn Huh, Sang Hyun Lee, Byoungduck Han, Yang-Hyun Kim, Do-Hoon Kim, Seon Mee Kim, Youn Seon Choi, Kyung Hwan Cho, Ga Eun Nam
      World Journal of Gastroenterology.2023; 29(45): 5962.     CrossRef
    • Low fasting glucose‐to‐estimated average glucose ratio was associated with superior response to insulin degludec/aspart compared with basal insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes
      Han Na Jang, Ye Seul Yang, Tae Jung Oh, Bo Kyung Koo, Seong Ok Lee, Kyong Soo Park, Hak Chul Jang, Hye Seung Jung
      Journal of Diabetes Investigation.2022; 13(1): 85.     CrossRef
    • Relationship between the early initiation of insulin treatment and diabetic complications in patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korea: A nationwide cohort study
      Ha‐Lim Jeon, Won Kim, Bongseong Kim, Ju‐Young Shin
      Journal of Diabetes Investigation.2022; 13(5): 830.     CrossRef
    • Relationship of the Triglyceride-Glucose Index with Subclinical White Matter Hypersensitivities of Presumed Vascular Origin Among Community-Dwelling Koreans
      Dong-Hyuk Jung, Byoungjin Park, Yong-Jae Lee
      International Journal of General Medicine.2022; Volume 15: 603.     CrossRef
    • Prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency and its association with metformin-treated type 2 diabetic patients: A cross sectional study
      Shaimaa B. Almatrafi, El-Sayed H. Bakr, Asem A. Almatrafi, Manal M. Altayeb
      Human Nutrition & Metabolism.2022; 27: 200138.     CrossRef
    • Retinal Vascular Caliber Changes in Early Type 2 Diabetic Patients without Retinopathy
      Jeong Woo Park, Jeong Hun Bae, Su Jeong Song, Joon Mo Kim
      Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society.2022; 63(1): 20.     CrossRef
    • Renal Tubular Damage Marker, Urinary N-acetyl-β-D-Glucosaminidase, as a Predictive Marker of Hepatic Fibrosis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
      Hae Kyung Kim, Minyoung Lee, Yong-ho Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Bong-Soo Cha, Byung-Wan Lee
      Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(1): 104.     CrossRef
    • Efficacy and Safety of Self-Titration Algorithms of Insulin Glargine 300 units/mL in Individuals with Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (The Korean TITRATION Study): A Randomized Controlled Trial
      Jae Hyun Bae, Chang Ho Ahn, Ye Seul Yang, Sun Joon Moon, Soo Heon Kwak, Hye Seung Jung, Kyong Soo Park, Young Min Cho
      Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(1): 71.     CrossRef
    • Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitor-Related Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Accuracy Verification of Operational Definition
      Dong Yoon Kang, Hyunah Kim, SooJeong Ko, HyungMin Kim, Jiwon Shinn, Min-Gyu Kang, Sun-ju Byeon, Jeong-Hee Choi, Soo-Yong Shin, Hun-Sung Kim
      Journal of Korean Medical Science.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Relationship between the dynamics of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and incident diabetes mellitus
      Ji Eun Han, Han-Bit Shin, Young Hwan Ahn, Hyo Jung Cho, Jae Youn Cheong, Bumhee Park, Soon Sun Kim
      Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Position of Sulfonylureas in the Current ERA: Review of National and International Guidelines
      Viswanathan Mohan, Banshi Saboo, Jabbar Khader, Kirtikumar D Modi, Sushil Jindal, Subhash Kumar Wangnoo, Sugumaran Amarnath
      Clinical Medicine Insights: Endocrinology and Diabetes.2022; 15: 117955142210746.     CrossRef
    • Real-world comparison of mono and dual combination therapies of metformin, sulfonylurea, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors using a common data model
      Kyung Ae Lee, Heung Yong Jin, Yu Ji Kim, Sang Soo Kim, Eun-Hee Cho, Tae Sun Park
      Medicine.2022; 101(8): e28823.     CrossRef
    • Atherogenic Index of Plasma and Its Association with Risk Factors of Coronary Artery Disease and Nutrient Intake in Korean Adult Men: The 2013–2014 KNHANES
      Hye Ran Shin, SuJin Song, Jin Ah Cho, Sun Yung Ly
      Nutrients.2022; 14(5): 1071.     CrossRef
    • Sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors do not increase the risk of fractures in real‐world clinical practice in Korea: A national observational cohort study
      Kyoung Hwa Ha, Dae Jung Kim, Yong Jun Choi
      Journal of Diabetes Investigation.2022; 13(6): 986.     CrossRef
    • Performance of Diabetes and Kidney Disease Screening Scores in Contemporary United States and Korean Populations
      Liela Meng, Keun-Sang Kwon, Dae Jung Kim, Yong-ho Lee, Jeehyoung Kim, Abhijit V. Kshirsagar, Heejung Bang
      Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(2): 273.     CrossRef
    • Integrated metagenomics and metabolomics analysis illustrates the systemic impact of the gut microbiota on host metabolism after bariatric surgery
      Yeyoung Han, Gihyeon Kim, Eunyong Ahn, Sunhee Jung, Youngae Jung, Yunjae Kim, Eunyoung Ha, Yoonseok Heo, Do Hyun Ryu, Hansoo Park, Geum‐Sook Hwang
      Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2022; 24(7): 1224.     CrossRef
    • The use of complex marketing analysis and QSPR methodology for the necessity of a drug development grounding for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus with increased bioavailability
      Inna Kovalevska, Olena Ruban, Alina Volkova, Alla Kotvitska, Alina Cherkashyna
      Pharmacia.2022; 69(2): 303.     CrossRef
    • Comparative Study of Ex Vivo Antiplatelet Activity of Aspirin and Cilostazol in Patients with Diabetes and High Risk of Cardiovascular Disease
      Sangmo Hong, Woo Je Lee, Cheol-Young Park
      Endocrinology and Metabolism.2022; 37(2): 233.     CrossRef
    • Long-term effect of the eradication of Helicobacter pylori on the hemoglobin A1c in type 2 diabetes or prediabetes patients
      Won Seok Kim, Yonghoon Choi, Nayoung Kim, Seon Hee Lim, Gitark Noh, Ki Wook Kim, Jaehyung Park, Hyeongho Jo, Hyuk Yoon, Cheol Min Shin, Young Soo Park, Dong Ho Lee
      The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2022; 37(3): 579.     CrossRef
    • Novel Glycemic Index Based on Continuous Glucose Monitoring to Predict Poor Clinical Outcomes in Critically Ill Patients: A Pilot Study
      Eun Yeong Ha, Seung Min Chung, Il Rae Park, Yin Young Lee, Eun Young Choi, Jun Sung Moon
      Frontiers in Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Understanding and Utilizing Claim Data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) and Health Insurance Review & Assessment (HIRA) Database for Research
      Dae-Sung Kyoung, Hun-Sung Kim
      Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis.2022; 11(2): 103.     CrossRef
    • Association of the atherogenic index of plasma with cardiovascular risk beyond the traditional risk factors: a nationwide population-based cohort study
      Si Hyoung Kim, Yun Kyung Cho, Ye-Jee Kim, Chang Hee Jung, Woo Je Lee, Joong-Yeol Park, Ji Hye Huh, Jun Goo Kang, Seong Jin Lee, Sung-Hee Ihm
      Cardiovascular Diabetology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Current Status of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Target Achievement in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Korea Compared with Recent Guidelines
      Soo Jin Yun, In-Kyung Jeong, Jin-Hye Cha, Juneyoung Lee, Ho Chan Cho, Sung Hee Choi, SungWan Chun, Hyun Jeong Jeon, Ho-Cheol Kang, Sang Soo Kim, Seung-Hyun Ko, Gwanpyo Koh, Su Kyoung Kwon, Jae Hyuk Lee, Min Kyong Moon, Junghyun Noh, Cheol-Young Park, Sung
      Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(3): 464.     CrossRef
    • Sodium Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors as an Add-on Therapy to Metformin Plus Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
      Jaehyun Bae, Young-eun Kim, Minyoung Lee, Yong-ho Lee, Byung-Wan Lee, Bong-Soo Cha, Eun Seok Kang
      Yonsei Medical Journal.2022; 63(6): 539.     CrossRef
    • Predictors for successful weight reduction during treatment with Dapagliflozin among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in primary care
      Youn Huh, Young Sik Kim
      BMC Primary Care.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Implications of the heterogeneity between guideline recommendations for the use of low dose aspirin in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease
      Xiao-Ying Li, Li Li, Sang-Hoon Na, Francesca Santilli, Zhongwei Shi, Michael Blaha
      American Journal of Preventive Cardiology.2022; 11: 100363.     CrossRef
    • Factors Influencing the Utilization of Diabetes Complication Tests Under the COVID-19 Pandemic: Machine Learning Approach
      Haewon Byeon
      Frontiers in Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Effects of exercise initiation and smoking cessation after new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus on risk of mortality and cardiovascular outcomes
      Mee Kyoung Kim, Kyungdo Han, Bongsung Kim, Jinyoung Kim, Hyuk-Sang Kwon
      Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Improvement in Age at Mortality and Changes in Causes of Death in the Population with Diabetes: An Analysis of Data from the Korean National Health Insurance and Statistical Information Service, 2006 to 2018
      Eugene Han, Sun Ok Song, Hye Soon Kim, Kang Ju Son, Sun Ha Jee, Bong-Soo Cha, Byung-Wan Lee
      Endocrinology and Metabolism.2022; 37(3): 466.     CrossRef
    • Analysis of Continuity of Care and Its Related Factors in Diabetic Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study
      Ji Yeh Shin, Ha Jin Kim, BeLong Cho, Yun Jun Yang, Jae Moon Yun
      Korean Journal of Family Medicine.2022; 43(4): 246.     CrossRef
    • Development of Various Diabetes Prediction Models Using Machine Learning Techniques
      Juyoung Shin, Jaewon Kim, Chanjung Lee, Joon Young Yoon, Seyeon Kim, Seungjae Song, Hun-Sung Kim
      Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(4): 650.     CrossRef
    • A causal relationship between alcohol intake and type 2 diabetes mellitus: A two-sample Mendelian randomization study
      Meiling Liu, Sunmin Park
      Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases.2022; 32(12): 2865.     CrossRef
    • Early glycaemic variability increases 28-day mortality and prolongs intensive care unit stay in critically ill patients with pneumonia
      Seong Ho Kim, Ji Young Kim, Eun Song Kim, Il Rae Park, Eun Yeong Ha, Seung Min Chung, Jun Sung Moon, Ji Sung Yoon, Kyu Chang Won, Hyoung Woo Lee
      Annals of Medicine.2022; 54(1): 2724.     CrossRef
    • Association of the Estimated Pulse Wave Velocity with Cardio-Vascular Disease Outcomes among Men and Women Aged 40–69 Years in the Korean Population: An 18-Year Follow-Up Report on the Ansung–Ansan Cohort in the Korean Genome Environment Study
      Byung Sik Kim, Yonggu Lee, Jin-Kyu Park, Young-Hyo Lim, Jeong-Hun Shin
      Journal of Personalized Medicine.2022; 12(10): 1611.     CrossRef
    • Perfluorinated compounds in adults and their association with fasting glucose and incident diabetes: a prospective cohort study
      Seung Min Chung, Dong-Gyu Heo, Ju-Hyun Kim, Ji Sung Yoon, Hyoung Woo Lee, Jong-Yeon Kim, Jun Sung Moon, Kyu Chang Won
      Environmental Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Differences in health behavior and nutrient intake status between diabetes-aware and unaware Korean adults based on the Korea national health and nutrition examination survey 2016–18 data: A cross-sectional study
      Anshul Sharma, Chen Lulu, Kee-Ho Song, Hae-Jeung Lee
      Frontiers in Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Improving Machine Learning Diabetes Prediction Models for the Utmost Clinical Effectiveness
      Juyoung Shin, Joonyub Lee, Taehoon Ko, Kanghyuck Lee, Yera Choi, Hun-Sung Kim
      Journal of Personalized Medicine.2022; 12(11): 1899.     CrossRef
    • Does Pitavastatin Therapy for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Dyslipidemia Affect Serum Adiponectin Levels and Insulin Sensitivity?
      Jeongmin Lee, Min-Hee Kim, Jung-Min Lee, Sang-Ah Chang
      Journal of Clinical Medicine.2022; 11(22): 6756.     CrossRef
    • Comparative Efficacy of Lobeglitazone Versus Pioglitazone on Albuminuria in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
      Kyung-Soo Kim, Sangmo Hong, Hong-Yup Ahn, Cheol-Young Park
      Diabetes Therapy.2021; 12(1): 171.     CrossRef
    • Efficacy and Safety of Once Weekly Dulaglutide in East Asian Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Subgroup Analysis by Potential Influential Factors
      Jianhua Ma, Bin Zhang, Jianing Hou, Yongde Peng
      Diabetes Therapy.2021; 12(1): 211.     CrossRef
    • Early combination versus initial metformin monotherapy in the management of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: AnEast Asianperspective
      Linong Ji, Juliana C. N. Chan, Miao Yu, Kun Ho Yoon, Sin Gon Kim, Sung Hee Choi, Chien‐Ning Huang, Shih Te Tu, Chih‐Yuan Wang, Päivi Maria Paldánius, Wayne H. H. Sheu
      Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2021; 23(1): 3.     CrossRef
    • Effectiveness and safety of sodium‐glucose co‐transporter‐2 inhibitors compared with dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 inhibitors in older adults with type 2 diabetes: A nationwide population‐based study
      Seung Jin Han, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Nami Lee, Dae Jung Kim
      Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2021; 23(3): 682.     CrossRef
    • Glucodynamics and glucocracy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: clinical evidence and practice-based opinion on modern sulfonylurea use, from an International Expert Group (South Asia, Middle East & Africa) via modified Delphi method
      Sanjay Kalra, Das A. K., Fariduddin Md., Shaikh K., Shah P., Rehim A. A., John M., Shaikh S., Orabi A., Saraswati M. R., Shahjada Selim, Baruah M. P., K. K. Gangopadhyay, Langi Y. A., Nair T., Dhanwal D., Thapa S. D., Deshmukh V., D. Dutta, Khalfan H., Ma
      Current Medical Research and Opinion.2021; 37(3): 403.     CrossRef
    • The association between lipoprotein (a) and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes without pre-existing cardiovascular disease: A cross-sectional study
      Ji Eun Jun, Hongsun Kang, You-Cheol Hwang, Kyu Jeung Ahn, Ho-Yeon Chung, In-Kyung Jeong
      Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2021; 171: 108622.     CrossRef
    • Glycaemic control with add‐on thiazolidinedione or a sodium‐glucose co‐transporter‐2 inhibitor in patients with type 2 diabetes after the failure of an oral triple antidiabetic regimen: A 24‐week, randomized controlled trial
      Jaehyun Bae, Ji Hye Huh, Minyoung Lee, Yong‐Ho Lee, Byung‐Wan Lee
      Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2021; 23(2): 609.     CrossRef
    • Effect of Tai Chi on Quality of Life, Body Mass Index, and Waist-Hip Ratio in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
      Jiawei Qin, Yannan Chen, Shuai Guo, Yue You, Ying Xu, Jingsong Wu, Zhizhen Liu, Jia Huang, Lidian Chen, Jing Tao
      Frontiers in Endocrinology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Severe hypoglycemia as a preventable risk factor for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
      Soo-Yeon Choi, Seung-Hyun Ko
      The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2021; 36(2): 263.     CrossRef
    • Diabetes Fact Sheets in Korea, 2020: An Appraisal of Current Status
      Chan-Hee Jung, Jang Won Son, Shinae Kang, Won Jun Kim, Hun-Sung Kim, Hae Soon Kim, Mihae Seo, Hye-Jung Shin, Seong-Su Lee, Su Jin Jeong, Yongin Cho, Seung Jin Han, Hyang Mi Jang, Mira Rho, Shinbi Lee, Mihyun Koo, Been Yoo, Jung-Wha Moon, Hye Young Lee, Ja
      Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2021; 45(1): 1.     CrossRef
    • Estimation of sodium‐glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor–related genital and urinary tract infections via electronic medical record–based common data model
      SooJeong Ko, HyungMin Kim, Jiwon Shinn, Sun‐ju Byeon, Jeong‐Hee Choi, Hun‐Sung Kim
      Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics.2021; 46(4): 975.     CrossRef
    • Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Comparison of Two Formulations of a Fixed-Dose Combination of Gemigliptin/Rosuvastatin 50/20 mg: A Randomized, Open-Label, Single-Dose, Two-Way Crossover Study
      Eunsol Yang, Hyounggyoon Yoo, In-Jin Jang, Kyung-Sang Yu, SeungHwan Lee
      Drug Design, Development and Therapy.2021; Volume 15: 651.     CrossRef
    • Severe hypoglycemia and the risk of end stage renal disease in type 2 diabetes
      Jae-Seung Yun, Yong-Moon Park, Kyungdo Han, Hyung-Wook Kim, Seon-Ah Cha, Yu-Bae Ahn, Seung-Hyun Ko
      Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Long-term HbA1c variability and the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy in subjects with type 2 diabetes
      Han Ul Kim, Sung Pyo Park, Yong-Kyu Kim
      Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Impaired fasting glucose levels in overweight or obese subjects for screening of type 2 diabetes in Korea
      Jin-Hee Lee, Suk Chon, Seon-Ah Cha, Sun-Young Lim, Kook-Rye Kim, Jae-Seung Yun, Sang Youl Rhee, Kun-Ho Yoon, Yu-Bae Ahn, Jeong-Taek Woo, Seung-Hyun Ko
      The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2021; 36(2): 382.     CrossRef
    • Simple Sugar Intake in Diabetics and Non-Diabetic Patients Who Visit Primary Care Clinic
      Seo Young Park, Geun Bae Moon, Young Sik Kim, Seung Hee Kim
      Korean Journal of Family Practice.2021; 11(1): 29.     CrossRef
    • Effect of Teneligliptin versus Sulfonylurea on Major Adverse Cardiovascular Outcomes in People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Real-World Study in Korea
      Da Hea Seo, Kyoung Hwa Ha, So Hun Kim, Dae Jung Kim
      Endocrinology and Metabolism.2021; 36(1): 70.     CrossRef
    • Best Achievements in Clinical Medicine in Diabetes and Dyslipidemia in 2020
      Eun-Jung Rhee, Mee-Kyung Kim, Won-Young Lee
      Endocrinology and Metabolism.2021; 36(1): 41.     CrossRef
    • Factors Associated with Poor Glycemic Control Amongst Rural Residents with Diabetes in Korea
      Junhee Ahn, Youngran Yang
      Healthcare.2021; 9(4): 391.     CrossRef
    • Diabetes and Stroke
      Junghyun Noh
      The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2021; 22(1): 26.     CrossRef
    • Epidemiology of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in Korea
      Hyeon Chang Kim
      Global Health & Medicine.2021; 3(3): 134.     CrossRef
    • Cumulative exposure to impaired fasting glucose and future risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus
      Mee Kyoung Kim, Kyungdo Han, Eun Sil Koh, Oak-Kee Hong, Ki-Hyun Baek, Ki-Ho Song, Hyuk-Sang Kwon
      Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2021; 175: 108799.     CrossRef
    • No Relevant Pharmacokinetic Drug–Drug Interaction Between the Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter-2 Inhibitor Empagliflozin and Lobeglitazone, a Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Agonist, in Healthy Subjects
      Yu Kyong Kim, Jun Gi Hwang, Min Kyu Park
      Drug Design, Development and Therapy.2021; Volume 15: 1725.     CrossRef
    • Comparative Renal Effects of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors and Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors on Individual Outcomes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis
      Jae Hyun Bae, Eun-Gee Park, Sunhee Kim, Sin Gon Kim, Seokyung Hahn, Nam Hoon Kim
      Endocrinology and Metabolism.2021; 36(2): 388.     CrossRef
    • The Association Between Second-Line Oral Antihyperglycemic Medication on Types of Dementia in Type 2 Diabetes: A Nationwide Real-World Longitudinal Study
      Won Jun Kim, Jung Hyun Noh, Kyungdo Han, Cheol-Young Park
      Journal of Alzheimer's Disease.2021; 81(3): 1263.     CrossRef
    • Personalized Type 2 Diabetes Management Using a Mobile Application Integrated with Electronic Medical Records: An Ongoing Randomized Controlled Trial
      Eun-Young Lee, Jae-Seung Yun, Seon-Ah Cha, Sun-Young Lim, Jin-Hee Lee, Yu-Bae Ahn, Kun-Ho Yoon, Seung-Hyun Ko
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(10): 5300.     CrossRef
    • Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle-Containing Colorimetric Contact Lenses for Noninvasively Monitoring Human Tear Glucose
      Sijin Park, Juil Hwang, Hee-Jae Jeon, Woo Ri Bae, In-Kyung Jeong, Tae Gi Kim, Jaheon Kang, Young-Geun Han, Euiheon Chung, Dong Yun Lee
      ACS Applied Nano Materials.2021; 4(5): 5198.     CrossRef
    • Low nutritional status links to the prevalence of pre-metabolic syndrome and its cluster in metabolically high-risk Korean adults
      Jieun Kim, Kyoungsik Jeong, Siwoo Lee, Bok-Nam Seo, Younghwa Baek
      Medicine.2021; 100(20): e25905.     CrossRef
    • Dynamics of Serum Retinol and Alpha-Tocopherol Levels According to Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Status
      Dongsub Jeon, Minkook Son, Juhyun Shim
      Nutrients.2021; 13(5): 1720.     CrossRef
    • Classification and Prediction on the Effects of Nutritional Intake on Overweight/Obesity, Dyslipidemia, Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Using Deep Learning Model: 4–7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
      Hyerim Kim, Dong Hoon Lim, Yoona Kim
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(11): 5597.     CrossRef
    • Comparison of insulin glargine 300 U/mL versus glargine 100 U/mL on glycemic control and hypoglycemic events in East Asian patients with type 2 diabetes: A Patient-level meta-analysis of phase 3 studies
      Linong Ji, Yan Bi, Shandong Ye, Yun Huang, Xia Zhang, Shuhua Shang, Nan Cui, Huiqiu Yin, Minlu Zhang
      Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2021; 176: 108848.     CrossRef
    • Modifiable Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Korea and Japan
      Ahmed Arafa, Hyeok-Hee Lee, Ehab S. Eshak, Kokoro Shirai, Keyang Liu, Jiaqi Li, Naharin Sultana Anni, Sun Young Shim, Hyeon Chang Kim, Hiroyasu Iso
      Korean Circulation Journal.2021; 51(8): 643.     CrossRef
    • Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors Ameliorate Liver Enzyme Abnormalities in Korean Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
      Won Euh, Soo Lim, Jin-Wook Kim
      Frontiers in Endocrinology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Effect of serum isoniazid level on treatment outcomes among tuberculosis patients with slow response – A retrospective cohort study
      Hyung Woo Kim, Ah Young Shin, Jick Hwan Ha, Joong Hyun Ahn, Hye Seon Kang, Ju Sang Kim
      Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy.2021; 27(11): 1555.     CrossRef
    • Recent Perspective of Metformin
      Sangmo Hong
      The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2021; 22(2): 85.     CrossRef
    • Diabetes Monotherapies versus Metformin-Based Combination Therapy for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes
      Awadhesh K Singh, Ritu Singh, Partha Pratim Chakraborty
      International Journal of General Medicine.2021; Volume 14: 3833.     CrossRef
    • The Metabolic Score for Insulin Resistance (METS-IR) as a Predictor of Incident Ischemic Heart Disease: A Longitudinal Study among Korean without Diabetes
      Jihyun Yoon, Donghyuk Jung, Yongjae Lee, Byoungjin Park
      Journal of Personalized Medicine.2021; 11(8): 742.     CrossRef
    • Time to Reach Target Glycosylated Hemoglobin Is Associated with Long-Term Durable Glycemic Control and Risk of Diabetic Complications in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 6-Year Observational Study (Diabetes Metab J 2021;45:368-78)
      Ja Young Jeon
      Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2021; 45(4): 613.     CrossRef
    • 2021 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes Mellitus of the Korean Diabetes Association
      Kyu Yeon Hur, Min Kyong Moon, Jong Suk Park, Soo-Kyung Kim, Seung-Hwan Lee, Jae-Seung Yun, Jong Ha Baek, Junghyun Noh, Byung-Wan Lee, Tae Jung Oh, Suk Chon, Ye Seul Yang, Jang Won Son, Jong Han Choi, Kee Ho Song, Nam Hoon Kim, Sang Yong Kim, Jin Wha Kim,
      Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2021; 45(4): 461.     CrossRef
    • Time to Reach Target Glycosylated Hemoglobin Is Associated with Long-Term Durable Glycemic Control and Risk of Diabetic Complications in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 6-Year Observational Study (Diabetes Metab J 2021;45:368-78)
      Kyoung Jin Kim, Jimi Choi, Jae Hyun Bae, Kyeong Jin Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Ji A Seo, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Sin Gon Kim, Nam Hoon Kim
      Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2021; 45(4): 617.     CrossRef
    • Cardiovascular Safety of SGLT2 Inhibitors Compared to DPP4 Inhibitors and Sulfonylureas as the Second-Line of Therapy in T2DM Using Large, Real-World Clinical Data in Korea
      Kyuho Kim, Sung Hee Choi
      Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2021; 45(4): 502.     CrossRef
    • The Effects of Dietary Education Interventions on Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
      Juri Kim, Myung-Haeng Hur
      International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(16): 8439.     CrossRef
    • Treatment Patterns of Type 2 Diabetes Assessed Using a Common Data Model Based on Electronic Health Records of 2000–2019
      Kyung Ae Lee, Heung Yong Jin, Yu Ji Kim, Yong-Jin Im, Eun-Young Kim, Tae Sun Park
      Journal of Korean Medical Science.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and the risk of insulin-requiring gestational diabetes
      Sang Youn You, Kyungdo Han, Seung-Hawn Lee, Mee Kyoung Kim
      Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Comparison of the Effects of Various Antidiabetic Medication on Bone Mineral Density in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
      Jeonghoon Ha, Yejee Lim, Mee Kyoung Kim, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Ki-Ho Song, Seung Hyun Ko, Moo Il Kang, Sung Dae Moon, Ki-Hyun Baek
      Endocrinology and Metabolism.2021; 36(4): 895.     CrossRef
    • Non-Laboratory-Based Simple Screening Model for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Developed Using Multi-Center Cohorts
      Jiwon Kim, Minyoung Lee, Soo Yeon Kim, Ji-Hye Kim, Ji Sun Nam, Sung Wan Chun, Se Eun Park, Kwang Joon Kim, Yong-ho Lee, Joo Young Nam, Eun Seok Kang
      Endocrinology and Metabolism.2021; 36(4): 823.     CrossRef
    • High Fibrosis-4 Index Is Related with Worse Clinical Outcome in Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Diabetes Mellitus: A Multicenter Observational Study
      Sung-Woo Kim, Jae-Han Jeon, Jun Sung Moon, Mi Kyung Kim
      Endocrinology and Metabolism.2021; 36(4): 800.     CrossRef
    • Predictive Value of the Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP) for the Risk of Incident Ischemic Heart Disease among Non-Diabetic Koreans
      Julie J. Kim, Jihyun Yoon, Yong-Jae Lee, Byoungjin Park, Dong-Hyuk Jung
      Nutrients.2021; 13(9): 3231.     CrossRef
    • Quantity and quality of complementary and alternative medicine recommendations in clinical practice guidelines for type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review
      Jeremy Y. Ng, Kiran D. Verma, Kevin Gilotra
      Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases.2021; 31(11): 3004.     CrossRef
    • Framingham Risk Score Assessment in Subjects with Pre-diabetes and Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study in Korea
      Hyuk Sang Kwon, Kee Ho Song, Jae Myung Yu, Dong Sun Kim, Ho Sang Shon, Kyu Jeung Ahn, Sung Hee Choi, Seung Hyun Ko, Won Kim, Kyoung Hwa Lee, Il Seong Nam-Goong, Tae Sun Park
      Journal of Obesity & Metabolic Syndrome.2021; 30(3): 261.     CrossRef
    • Frequency of Exposure to Impaired Fasting Glucose and Risk of Mortality and Cardiovascular Outcomes
      Seung-Hwan Lee, Kyungdo Han, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Mee Kyoung Kim
      Endocrinology and Metabolism.2021; 36(5): 1007.     CrossRef
    • How Can We Adopt the Glucose Tolerance Test to Facilitate Predicting Pregnancy Outcome in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus?
      Kyeong Jin Kim, Nam Hoon Kim, Jimi Choi, Sin Gon Kim, Kyung Ju Lee
      Endocrinology and Metabolism.2021; 36(5): 988.     CrossRef
    • Symptom Clusters and Quality of Life in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
      Su-Yeon Hong, Yang-Sook Yoo
      Korean Journal of Adult Nursing.2021; 33(5): 498.     CrossRef
    • Long-term effectiveness and safety of quadruple combination therapy with empagliflozin versus dapagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes: 3-year prospective observational study
      Eu Jeong Ku, Dong-Hwa Lee, Hyun Jeong Jeon, Tae Keun Oh
      Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2021; 182: 109123.     CrossRef
    • Long-term effects of the mean hemoglobin A1c levels after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with diabetes
      Jaekyung Bae, Ji-Hyung Yoon, Jung-Hee Lee, Jong-Ho Nam, Chan-Hee Lee, Jang-Won Son, Ung Kim, Jong-Seon Park, Dong-Gu Shin
      The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2021; 36(6): 1365.     CrossRef
    • Role of Leptin with hypothyroidism in Iraqi diabetic type 2 patients
      Sulaiman M. Hasan
      Bionatura.2021; 6(4): 2274.     CrossRef
    • Impacts of statin and metformin on neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: Korean Health Insurance data
      Hong Ki Min, Se Hee Kim, Jong Han Choi, Kyomin Choi, Hae-Rim Kim, Sang-Heon Lee
      World Journal of Clinical Cases.2021; 9(33): 10198.     CrossRef
    • Muscle strength, an independent determinant of glycemic control in older adults with long-standing type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study
      Bo Kyung Koo, Seoil Moon, Min Kyong Moon
      BMC Geriatrics.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Comparisons of Neuropsychological Characteristics of Elderly Subjects With Versus Without History of Agent Orange Exposure
      Seunggyu Han, Jinhee Choi, Hyung Seok So, Hayun Choi, Hong Jin Jeon, Jinseob Kim, Kiwon Kim
      Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association.2021; 60(4): 346.     CrossRef
    • Uric Acid Variability as a Predictive Marker of Newly Developed Cardiovascular Events in Type 2 Diabetes
      Hae Kyung Kim, Minyoung Lee, Yong-ho Lee, Byung-Wan Lee, Bong-Soo Cha, Eun Seok Kang
      Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Metformin use and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease: a nationwide cohort study
      Min Ho Kim, Hyung Jung Oh, Soon Hyo Kwon, Jin Seok Jeon, Hyunjin Noh, Dong Cheol Han, Hyoungnae Kim, Dong-Ryeol Ryu
      Kidney Research and Clinical Practice.2021; 40(4): 660.     CrossRef
    • Sleep Duration and Its Associations with Mortality and Quality of Life in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Results from the 2007–2015 KNAHNES
      So Jeong Kim, Nakwon Kwak, Sun Mi Choi, Jinwoo Lee, Young Sik Park, Chang-Hoon Lee, Sang-Min Lee, Chul-Gyu Yoo, Jaeyoung Cho
      Respiration.2021; 100(11): 1043.     CrossRef
    • Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Position Statement of the Fatty Liver Research Group of the Korean Diabetes Association
      Byung-Wan Lee, Yong-ho Lee, Cheol-Young Park, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee, Nan-Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Keun-Gyu Park, Yeon-Kyung Choi, Bong-Soo Cha, Dae Ho Lee
      Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2020; 44(3): 382.     CrossRef
    • Effects of Co‐administration of Sulfonylureas and Antimicrobial Drugs on Hypoglycemia in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Using a Case‐Crossover Design
      Sera Lee, Miyoung Ock, Hun‐Sung Kim, Hyunah Kim
      Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy.2020; 40(9): 902.     CrossRef
    • Diabetic kidney disease: seven questions
      Dong Ho Yang, So-Young Lee
      Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2020; 63(1): 6.     CrossRef
    • Diabetes and Metabolism Journal in 2020: Good to Great
      In-Kyung Jeong
      Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2020; 44(1): 1.     CrossRef
    • The Use of Mobile Personal Health Records for Hemoglobin A1c Regulation in Patients With Diabetes: Retrospective Observational Study
      Dongjin Seo, Yu Rang Park, Yura Lee, Ji Young Kim, Joong-Yeol Park, Jae-Ho Lee
      Journal of Medical Internet Research.2020; 22(6): e15372.     CrossRef
    • Non-glucose risk factors in the pathogenesis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy
      Kyung Ae Lee, Tae Sun Park, Heung Yong Jin
      Endocrine.2020; 70(3): 465.     CrossRef
    • An Assessment of Pharmacokinetic Interaction Between Lobeglitazone and Sitagliptin After Multiple Oral Administrations in Healthy Men
      Seol Ju Moon, Kyung-Sang Yu, Min-Gul Kim
      Clinical Therapeutics.2020; 42(6): 1047.     CrossRef
    • The Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients with Moderate-to-Severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 Infection and Diabetes in Daegu, South Korea
      Mi Kyung Kim, Jae-Han Jeon, Sung-Woo Kim, Jun Sung Moon, Nan Hee Cho, Eugene Han, Ji Hong You, Ji Yeon Lee, Miri Hyun, Jae Seok Park, Yong Shik Kwon, Yeon-Kyung Choi, Ki Tae Kwon, Shin Yup Lee, Eon Ju Jeon, Jin-Woo Kim, Hyo-Lim Hong, Hyun Hee Kwon, Chi Yo
      Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2020; 44(4): 602.     CrossRef
    • The Risk of Diabetes on Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Retrospective Cohort Study
      Seung Min Chung, Yin Young Lee, Eunyeong Ha, Ji Sung Yoon, Kyu Chang Won, Hyoung Woo Lee, Jian Hur, Kyung Soo Hong, Jong Geol Jang, Hyun Jung Jin, Eun Young Choi, Kyeong-Cheol Shin, Jin Hong Chung, Kwan Ho Lee, June Hong Ahn, Jun Sung Moon
      Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2020; 44(3): 405.     CrossRef
    • A model to predict risk of stroke in middle-aged adults with type 2 diabetes generated from a nationwide population-based cohort study in Korea
      Mee-Kyoung Kim, Kyungdo Han, Jae-Hyoung Cho, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Kun-Ho Yoon, Seung-Hwan Lee
      Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2020; 163: 108157.     CrossRef
    • Effects of Cardiovascular Risk Factor Variability on Health Outcomes
      Seung-Hwan Lee, Mee Kyoung Kim, Eun-Jung Rhee
      Endocrinology and Metabolism.2020; 35(2): 217.     CrossRef
    • Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitor for Renal Function Preservation in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Korean Diabetes Association and Korean Society of Nephrology Consensus Statement
      Tae Jung Oh, Ju-Young Moon, Kyu Yeon Hur, Seung Hyun Ko, Hyun Jung Kim, Taehee Kim, Dong Won Lee, Min Kyong Moon
      Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2020; 44(4): 489.     CrossRef
    • Metformin Treatment for Patients with Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease: A Korean Diabetes Association and Korean Society of Nephrology Consensus Statement
      Kyu Yeon Hur, Mee Kyoung Kim, Seung Hyun Ko, Miyeun Han, Dong Won Lee, Hyuk-Sang Kwon
      Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2020; 44(1): 3.     CrossRef
    • Prevalence and Current Management of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Korean Adults Based on Fact Sheets
      Eun-Jung Rhee
      Endocrinology and Metabolism.2020; 35(1): 85.     CrossRef
    • Using adult stem cells to monitor endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus
      Rohit Jain, Hassan Awal, Sabyasachi Sen
      Journal of Diabetes and its Complications.2020; 34(7): 107588.     CrossRef
    • Fibrates Revisited: Potential Role in Cardiovascular Risk Reduction
      Nam Hoon Kim, Sin Gon Kim
      Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2020; 44(2): 213.     CrossRef
    • Metformin treatment for patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease: A Korean Diabetes Association and Korean Society of Nephrology consensus statement
      Kyu Yeon Hur, Mee Kyoung Kim, Seung Hyun Ko, Miyeun Han, Dong Won Lee, Hyuk-Sang Kwon
      Kidney Research and Clinical Practice.2020; 39(1): 32.     CrossRef
    • Generation of iPSC-derived insulin-producing cells from patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes compared with healthy control
      Min Jung Kim, Eun Young Lee, Young-Hye You, Hae Kyung Yang, Kun-Ho Yoon, Ji-Won Kim
      Stem Cell Research.2020; 48: 101958.     CrossRef
    • Glucose-Lowering Effect of Home-Delivered Therapeutic Meals in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
      Jong Han Choi, Se Hee Min, Kyeong Hye Lim, Uoon Jeong Shin, Min-Seon Kim
      The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2020; 21(1): 46.     CrossRef
    • Subclinical thyroid dysfunction in the first trimester of pregnancy: ‘Disease’ versus physiological (pulsatile) variation in TSH concentrations
      Krzysztof C. Lewandowski, Karolina Garnysz, Wojciech Horzelski, Joanna Kawalec, Karolina Budzen, Mariusz Grzesiak, Andrzej Lewinski
      Clinical Endocrinology.2020; 93(6): 739.     CrossRef
    • Usefulness of carotid ultrasonography and treatment of carotid disease
      Seung Min Kim, Yeon Jung Kim, Keonwoo Kim, Bum Joon Kim
      Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2020; 63(6): 342.     CrossRef
    • Clinical Characteristics and Prevalence of Comorbidities according to Metformin Use in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
      Sang Ouk Chin, In Gyoon Ha, Sang Youl Rhee, Su Jin Jeong, Suk Chon, Sung Hoon Kim, Kyu Jeung Ahn, Sei Hyun Baik, Yongsoo Park, Moon Suk Nam, Kwan Woo Lee, Jeong Taek Woo
      International Journal of Endocrinology.2020; 2020: 1.     CrossRef
    • Prepregnancy smoking and the risk of gestational diabetes requiring insulin therapy
      Mee Kyoung Kim, Kyungdo Han, Sang Youn You, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Kun-Ho Yoon, Seung-Hwan Lee
      Scientific Reports.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Use of SGLT-2 Inhibitors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Abdominal Obesity: An Asian Perspective and Expert Recommendations
      Wayne Huey-Herng Sheu, Siew Pheng Chan, Bien J. Matawaran, Chaicharn Deerochanawong, Ambrish Mithal, Juliana Chan, Ketut Suastika, Chin Meng Khoo, Huu Man Nguyen, Ji Linong, Andrea Luk, Kun-Ho Yoon
      Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2020; 44(1): 11.     CrossRef
    • Response: The Risk of Diabetes on Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Retrospective Cohort Study (Diabetes Metab J 2020;44:405–13)
      Seung Min Chung, June Hong Ahn, Jun Sung Moon
      Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2020; 44(4): 625.     CrossRef
    • Effect of roux-en Y gastric bypass surgery on patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
      Ke-Yan Chen, Ying-Li Liu, Jin-Cai Shang, De-Wang Su, Rong-Rong Yao, De-Zhi Ke, Hao Tian
      Medicine.2020; 99(23): e20382.     CrossRef
    • Comparison and Implication of the Contemporary Blood Pressure Guidelines on Korean Population
      So Mi Jemma Cho, Hokyou Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim
      Korean Circulation Journal.2020; 50(6): 485.     CrossRef
    • Efficacy and safety of evogliptin treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes: A multicentre, active‐controlled, randomized, double‐blind study with open‐label extension (the EVERGREEN study)
      Gyuri Kim, Soo Lim, Hyuk‐Sang Kwon, Ie B. Park, Kyu J. Ahn, Cheol‐Young Park, Su K. Kwon, Hye S. Kim, Seok W. Park, Sin G. Kim, Min K. Moon, Eun S. Kim, Choon H. Chung, Kang S. Park, Mikyung Kim, Dong J. Chung, Chang B. Lee, Tae H. Kim, Moon‐Kyu Lee
      Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2020; 22(9): 1527.     CrossRef
    • Beneficial effect of anti-diabetic drugs for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
      Kyung-Soo Kim, Byung-Wan Lee
      Clinical and Molecular Hepatology.2020; 26(4): 430.     CrossRef
    • Predicting the Development of Myocardial Infarction in Middle-Aged Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Risk Model Generated from a Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study in Korea
      Seung-Hwan Lee, Kyungdo Han, Hun-Sung Kim, Jae-Hyoung Cho, Kun-Ho Yoon, Mee Kyoung Kim
      Endocrinology and Metabolism.2020; 35(3): 636.     CrossRef
    • Fasting Plasma Glucose Level Independently Predicts the Mortality of Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 Infection: A Multicenter, Retrospective Cohort Study
      Min Cheol Chang, Jong-Moon Hwang, Jae-Han Jeon, Sang Gyu Kwak, Donghwi Park, Jun Sung Moon
      Endocrinology and Metabolism.2020; 35(3): 595.     CrossRef
    • Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor for renal function preservation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A Korean Diabetes Association and Korean Society of Nephrology consensus statement
      Tae Jung Oh, Ju-Young Moon, Kyu Yeon Hur, Seung Hyun Ko, Hyun Jung Kim, Taehee Kim, Dong Won Lee, Min Kyong Moon
      Kidney Research and Clinical Practice.2020; 39(3): 269.     CrossRef
    • Dynamic changes in nocturnal blood glucose levels are associated with sleep-related features in patients with obstructive sleep apnea
      Jung-Ick Byun, Kwang Su Cha, Ji Eun Jun, Tae-Joon Kim, Ki-Young Jung, In-Kyung Jeong, Won Chul Shin
      Scientific Reports.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Effect of Switching from Linagliptin to Teneligliptin Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors in Older Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus


      Eugene Han, Minyoung Lee, Yong-ho Lee, Hye Soon Kim, Byung-wan Lee, Bong-Soo Cha, Eun Seok Kang
      Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy.2020; Volume 13: 4113.     CrossRef
    • A prospective cohort study on effects of gemigliptin on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes (OPTIMUS study)
      Eun Heui Kim, Sang Soo Kim, Dong Jun Kim, Young Sik Choi, Chang Won Lee, Bon Jeong Ku, Kwang Soo Cha, Kee Ho Song, Dae Kyeong Kim, In Joo Kim
      Scientific Reports.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Effect of Variability in Blood Pressure, Glucose and Cholesterol Concentrations, and Body Weight on Emergency Hospitalization and 30‐Day Mortality in the General Population
      Seung‐Hwan Lee, Kyungdo Han, Hyuk‐Sang Kwon, Kun‐Ho Yoon, Mee Kyoung Kim
      Journal of the American Heart Association.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Systematic review of clinical practice guidelines to identify recommendations for sleep in type 2 diabetes mellitus management
      Aisling Smyth, Mark Jenkins, Melissa Dunham, Yvonne Kutzer, Shahrad Taheri, Lisa Whitehead
      Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2020; 170: 108532.     CrossRef
    • The risk factors for treatment-related mortality within first three months after kidney transplantation
      Ye Na Kim, Do Hyoung Kim, Ho Sik Shin, Sangjin Lee, Nuri Lee, Min-Jeong Park, Wonkeun Song, Seri Jeong, Robert Jeenchen Chen
      PLOS ONE.2020; 15(12): e0243586.     CrossRef
    • The triglyceride glucose index is a simple and low-cost marker associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: a population-based study
      Sangmo Hong, Kyungdo Han, Cheol-Young Park
      BMC Medicine.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • The triglyceride-glucose index predicts ischemic heart disease risk in Koreans: a prospective study using National Health Insurance Service data
      Byoungjin Park, Yong-Jae Lee, Hye Sun Lee, Dong-Hyuk Jung
      Cardiovascular Diabetology.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Increased Age of Death and Change in Causes of Death Among Persons With Diabetes Mellitus From the Korean National Health Insurance and Statistical Information Service, 2006 to 2018
      Eugene Han, Sun Ok Song, Hye Soon Kim, Kang Ju Son, Sun Ha Jee, Bong-Soo Cha, Byung-Wan Lee
      SSRN Electronic Journal .2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Letter: Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors versus Other Antidiabetic Drugs Added to Metformin Monotherapy in Diabetic Retinopathy Progression: A Real World-Based Cohort Study (Diabetes Metab J 2019;43:640–8)
      Jun Sung Moon
      Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2019; 43(6): 911.     CrossRef
    • Differences in prevalence of hypertension subtypes according to the 2018 Korean Society of Hypertension and 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007–2017 (
      So Mi Jemma Cho, Hokyou Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim
      Clinical Hypertension.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Adult Stem Cells: Beyond Regenerative Tool, More as a Bio-Marker in Obesity and Diabetes
      Sabyasachi Sen
      Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2019; 43(6): 744.     CrossRef
    • Cholesterol levels and development of cardiovascular disease in Koreans with type 2 diabetes mellitus and without pre-existing cardiovascular disease
      Mee Kyoung Kim, Kyungdo Han, Han Na Joung, Ki-Hyun Baek, Ki-Ho Song, Hyuk-Sang Kwon
      Cardiovascular Diabetology.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Management of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Elderly Diabetes Mellitus Patients
      Sung Hoon Yu
      The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2019; 20(4): 233.     CrossRef
    • Letter: Comparison of the Efficacy of Rosuvastatin Monotherapy 20 mg with Rosuvastatin 5 mg and Ezetimibe 10 mg Combination Therapy on Lipid Parameters in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J2019;43:582–9)
      Tae Seo Sohn
      Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2019; 43(6): 909.     CrossRef
    • An Age of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitor Priority: Are We Ready?
      Ji A Seo
      Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2019; 43(5): 578.     CrossRef
    • Association between Diabetes and the Use of Removable Dental Prostheses among the Korean Population
      Jae-Hyun Lee, Jung-Suk Han, Kyungdo Han, Su-Young Lee
      Journal of Korean Medical Science.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
    • Metabolic Surgery and Diabetes Mellitus: Its Effects and Side Effects
      Mee Kyoung Kim
      The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2019; 20(4): 205.     CrossRef

    • PubReader PubReader
    • Cite
      CITE
      export Copy
      Close
      Download Citation
      Download a citation file in RIS format that can be imported by all major citation management software, including EndNote, ProCite, RefWorks, and Reference Manager.

      Format:
      • RIS — For EndNote, ProCite, RefWorks, and most other reference management software
      • BibTeX — For JabRef, BibDesk, and other BibTeX-specific software
      Include:
      • Citation for the content below
      2019 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Korea
      Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(4):398-406.   Published online August 20, 2019
      Close
    • XML DownloadXML Download
    Figure
    Related articles

    Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal