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Original Article
Complications
Does the Relationship of the Autonomic Symptoms Questionnaire COMPASS 31 with Cardiovascular Autonomic Tests Differ between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?
Ilenia D’Ippolito, Marika Menduni, Cinzia D’Amato, Aikaterini Andreadi, Davide Lauro, Vincenza Spallone
Received August 28, 2023  Accepted November 22, 2023  Published online February 26, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0301    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
The aim was to investigate if autonomic symptoms questionnaire Composite Autonomic Symptom Score (COMPASS) 31 has different association with cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) and diagnostic performance between type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods
Seventy-nine participants with T1DM and 140 with T2DM completed COMPASS 31 before cardiovascular reflex tests (CARTs) for CAN, and assessment of symptoms, signs, vibration, and thermal perception thresholds for diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) diagnosis.
Results
COMPASS 31 total weighted score (TWS) was similar in the two groups, but significantly associated with confirmed CAN only in T1DM (P=0.0056) and not T2DM group (P=0.1768) and correlated with CARTs score more strongly in T1DM (rho=0.356, P=0.0016) than in T2DM group (rho=0.084, P=0.3218) (P=0.016). Only in T1DM and not T2DM group, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) reached a fair diagnostic accuracy (>0.7) for confirmed CAN (0.73±0.07 vs. 0.61±0.08) and DPN (0.75±0.06 vs. 0.68±0.05), although without a significant difference. COMPASS 31 TWS (cut-off 16.44) reached acceptable diagnostic performance in T1DM, with sensitivity for confirmed CAN 81.2% and sensitivity and specificity for DPN 76.3% and 78%, compared to T2DM group (all <70%). AUC for DPN of orthostatic intolerance domain was higher in T1DM compared to T2DM group (0.73±0.05 vs. 0.58±0.04, P=0.027).
Conclusion
COMPASS 31 is more weakly related to CAN in T2DM than in T1DM, with a fair diagnostic accuracy for confirmed CAN only in T1DM. This difference supports a multifactorial origin of symptoms and should be considered when using COMPASS 31.
Reviews
Cardiovascular Risk/Epidemiology
The Role of Echocardiography in Evaluating Cardiovascular Diseases in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus
Sun Hwa Lee, Jae-Hyeong Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(4):470-483.   Published online July 27, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0036
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Patients with diabetes mellitus are highly susceptible to cardiovascular complications, which are directly correlated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In addition to coronary artery disease, there is growing awareness of the risk and prevalence of heart failure (HF) in patients with diabetes. Echocardiography is an essential diagnostic modality commonly performed in patients with symptoms suggestive of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), such as dyspnea or chest pain, to establish or rule out the cause of symptoms. Conventional echocardiographic parameters, such as left ventricular ejection fraction, are helpful not only for diagnosing CVD but also for determining severity, treatment strategy, prognosis, and response to treatment. Echocardiographic myocardial strain, a novel echocardiographic technique, enables the detection of early changes in ventricular dysfunction before HF symptoms develop. This article aims to review the role of echocardiography in evaluating CVD in patients with diabetes mellitus and how to use it in patients with suspected cardiac diseases.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Increased Blood Pressure Variability Over a 16-Year Period Is Associated With Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in a Population-Based Cohort
    Jae-Hyeong Park, Soon-Ki Ahn, Goo-Yeong Cho, Ki-Chul Sung, Seung Ku Lee, Seong Hwan Kim, Chol Shin
    American Journal of Hypertension.2024; 37(3): 168.     CrossRef
  • Biomarkers and subclinical left ventricular dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes without clinical manifestations of cardiovascular diseases
    T. G. Utina, D. U. Akasheva, D. V. Korsunsky, O. N. Dzhioeva, O. M. Drapkina
    Cardiovascular Therapy and Prevention.2024; 23(1): 3914.     CrossRef
  • Cardiovascular risk assessment in inflammatory bowel disease with coronary calcium score
    Waqar Arif Rasool Chaudhry, Muhammad Ashfaq, Parvinder Kaur, Mahendra Kumar, Maria Faraz, Jahanzeb Malik, Amin Mehmoodi
    Annals of Medicine & Surgery.2024; 86(3): 1496.     CrossRef
Guideline/Fact Sheet
Evaluation and Management of Patients with Diabetes and Heart Failure: A Korean Diabetes Association and Korean Society of Heart Failure Consensus Statement
Kyu-Sun Lee, Junghyun Noh, Seong-Mi Park, Kyung Mook Choi, Seok-Min Kang, Kyu-Chang Won, Hyun-Jai Cho, Min Kyong Moon, The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines, Korean Diabetes Association and Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines, Korean Society of Heart Failure
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(1):10-26.   Published online January 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0420
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  • 4 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for the development of heart failure. Furthermore, the prognosis of heart failure is worse in patients with diabetes mellitus than in those without it. Therefore, early diagnosis and proper management of heart failure in patients with diabetes mellitus are important. This review discusses the current criteria for diagnosis and screening tools for heart failure and the currently recommended pharmacological therapies for heart failure. We also highlight the effects of anti-diabetic medications on heart failure.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A Multicenter, Randomized, Open-Label Study to Compare the Effects of Gemigliptin Add-on or Escalation of Metformin Dose on Glycemic Control and Safety in Patients with Inadequately Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Treated with Metformin and SGLT-2 Inh
    Hae Jin Kim, Jung Hyun Noh, Min Kyong Moon, Sung Hee Choi, Seung-Hyun Ko, Eun-Jung Rhee, Kyu Yeon Hur, In-Kyung Jeong, Mark Yorek
    Journal of Diabetes Research.2024; 2024: 1.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of the effects of gemigliptin versus glimepiride on cardiac function in patients with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled with metformin: The gemi‐heart study
    Seung Min Chung, Jun Sung Moon, Jun Hwa Hong, In‐Chang Hwang, Soo Lim
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2023; 25(8): 2181.     CrossRef
  • Optimization of guideline-directed medical treatment for heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction
    Minjung Bak, Jin-Oh Choi
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2023; 38(5): 595.     CrossRef
Guideline/Fact Sheet
Screening for Prediabetes and Diabetes in Korean Nonpregnant Adults: A Position Statement of the Korean Diabetes Association, 2022
Kyung Ae Lee, Dae Jung Kim, Kyungdo Han, Suk Chon, Min Kyong Moon, on Behalf of the Committee of Clinical Practice Guideline of Korean Diabetes Association
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(6):819-826.   Published online November 24, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0364
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  • 5 Web of Science
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Diabetes screening serves to identify individuals at high-risk for diabetes who have not yet developed symptoms and to diagnose diabetes at an early stage. Globally, the prevalence of diabetes is rapidly increasing. Furthermore, obesity and/or abdominal obesity, which are major risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), are progressively increasing, particularly among young adults. Many patients with T2DM are asymptomatic and can accompany various complications at the time of diagnosis, as well as chronic complications develop as the duration of diabetes increases. Thus, proper screening and early diagnosis are essential for diabetes care. Based on reports on the changing epidemiology of diabetes and obesity in Korea, as well as growing evidence from new national cohort studies on diabetes screening, the Korean Diabetes Association has updated its clinical practice recommendations regarding T2DM screening. Diabetes screening is now recommended in adults aged ≥35 years regardless of the presence of risk factors, and in all adults (aged ≥19) with any of the risk factors. Abdominal obesity based on waist circumference (men ≥90 cm, women ≥85 cm) was added to the list of risk factors.

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  • Oxidative Balance Score and New-Onset Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Adults without Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study-Health Examinees (KoGES-HEXA) Cohort
    Mid-Eum Moon, Dong Hyuk Jung, Seok-Jae Heo, Byoungjin Park, Yong Jae Lee
    Antioxidants.2024; 13(1): 107.     CrossRef
  • Efficacy and Safety of Once-Weekly Semaglutide Versus Once-Daily Sitagliptin as Metformin Add-on in a Korean Population with Type 2 Diabetes
    Byung-Wan Lee, Young Min Cho, Sin Gon Kim, Seung-Hyun Ko, Soo Lim, Amine Dahaoui, Jin Sook Jeong, Hyo Jin Lim, Jae Myung Yu
    Diabetes Therapy.2024; 15(2): 547.     CrossRef
  • Triglyceride-glucose index predicts type 2 diabetes mellitus more effectively than oral glucose tolerance test-derived insulin sensitivity and secretion markers
    Min Jin Lee, Ji Hyun Bae, Ah Reum Khang, Dongwon Yi, Mi Sook Yun, Yang Ho Kang
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2024; 210: 111640.     CrossRef
  • Cumulative muscle strength and risk of diabetes: A prospective cohort study with mediation analysis
    Shanhu Qiu, Xue Cai, Yan Liang, Wenji Chen, Duolao Wang, Zilin Sun, Bo Xie, Tongzhi Wu
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2023; 197: 110562.     CrossRef
  • Revisiting the Diabetes Crisis in Korea: Call for Urgent Action
    Jun Sung Moon
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2023; 24(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • 2023 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes Mellitus of the Korean Diabetes Association
    Jong Han Choi, Kyung Ae Lee, Joon Ho Moon, Suk Chon, Dae Jung Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Ji A Seo, Mee Kyoung Kim, Jeong Hyun Lim, YoonJu Song, Ye Seul Yang, Jae Hyeon Kim, You-Bin Lee, Junghyun Noh, Kyu Yeon Hur, Jong Suk Park, Sang Youl Rhee, Hae J
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(5): 575.     CrossRef
  • 2023 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes
    Min Kyong Moon
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2023; 24(3): 120.     CrossRef
Original Article
Complications
Fatty Acid-Binding Protein 4 in Patients with and without Diabetic Retinopathy
Ping Huang, Xiaoqin Zhao, Yi Sun, Xinlei Wang, Rong Ouyang, Yanqiu Jiang, Xiaoquan Zhang, Renyue Hu, Zhuqi Tang, Yunjuan Gu
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(4):640-649.   Published online April 28, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0195
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) has been demonstrated to be a predictor of early diabetic nephropathy. However, little is known about the relationship between FABP4 and diabetic retinopathy (DR). This study explored the value of FABP4 as a biomarker of DR in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods
A total of 238 subjects were enrolled, including 20 healthy controls and 218 T2DM patients. Serum FABP4 levels were measured using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The grade of DR was determined using fundus fluorescence angiography. Based on the international classification of DR, all T2DM patients were classified into the following three subgroups: non-DR group, non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) group, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) group. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to assess the correlation between FABP4 levels and DR severity.
Results
FABP4 correlated positively with DR severity (r=0.225, P=0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to assess the diagnostic potential of FABP4 in identifying DR, with an area under the curve of 0.624 (37% sensitivity, 83.6% specificity) and an optimum cut-off value of 76.4 μg/L. Multivariate logistic regression model including FABP4 as a categorized binary variable using the cut-off value of 76.4 μg/L showed that the concentration of FABP4 above the cut-off value increased the risk of NPDR (odds ratio [OR], 3.231; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.574 to 6.632; P=0.001) and PDR (OR, 3.689; 95% CI, 1.306 to 10.424; P=0.014).
Conclusion
FABP4 may be used as a serum biomarker for the diagnosis of DR.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Circulating AFABP, FGF21, and PEDF Levels as Prognostic Biomarkers of Sight-threatening Diabetic Retinopathy
    Chi-Ho Lee, David Tak-Wai Lui, Chloe Yu-Yan Cheung, Carol Ho-Yi Fong, Michele Mae-Ann Yuen, Yu-Cho Woo, Wing-Sun Chow, Ian Yat-Hin Wong, Aimin Xu, Karen Siu-Ling Lam
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2023; 108(9): e799.     CrossRef
  • A Prediction Model for Sight-Threatening Diabetic Retinopathy Based on Plasma Adipokines among Patients with Mild Diabetic Retinopathy
    Yaxin An, Bin Cao, Kun Li, Yongsong Xu, Wenying Zhao, Dong Zhao, Jing Ke, Takayuki Masaki
    Journal of Diabetes Research.2023; 2023: 1.     CrossRef
Short Communication
Others
Comparison of Insulin-Treated Patients with Ambiguous Diabetes Type with Definite Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Subjects: A Clinical Perspective
Insa Laspe, Juris J. Meier, Michael A. Nauck
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(1):140-146.   Published online March 22, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0322
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
In clinical practice, the distinction between type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can be challenging, leaving patients with “ambiguous” diabetes type. Insulin-treated patients (n=115) previously diagnosed with T2DM had to be re-classified based on clinical phenotype and laboratory results, and were operationally defined as having an ambiguous diabetes type. They were compared against patients with definite T1DM and T2DM regarding 12 clinical and laboratory features typically different between diabetes types. Characteristics of patients with ambiguous diabetes type, representing approximately 6% of all patients with T1DM or T2DM seen at our specialized clinic, fell in between those of patients with definite T1DM and T2DM, both regarding individual features and with respect to a novel classification based on multi-variable regression analysis (P<0.0001). In conclusion, a substantial proportion of diabetes patients in a tertiary care centre presented with an “ambiguous” diabetes type. Their clinical characteristics fall in between those of definite T1DM or T2DM patients.
Reviews
Guideline/Fact Sheet
2021 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes Mellitus in Korea
Kyu Yeon Hur, Min Kyong Moon, Jong Suk Park, Soo-Kyung Kim, Seung-Hwan Lee, Jae-Seung Yun, Jong Ha Baek, Junghyun Noh, Byung-Wan Lee, Tae Jung Oh, Suk Chon, Ye Seul Yang, Jang Won Son, Jong Han Choi, Kee Ho Song, Nam Hoon Kim, Sang Yong Kim, Jin Wha Kim, Sang Youl Rhee, You-Bin Lee, Sang-Man Jin, Jae Hyeon Kim, Chong Hwa Kim, Dae Jung Kim, SungWan Chun, Eun-Jung Rhee, Hyun Min Kim, Hyun Jung Kim, Donghyun Jee, Jae Hyun Kim, Won Seok Choi, Eun-Young Lee, Kun-Ho Yoon, Seung-Hyun Ko, Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines, Korean Diabetes Association
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(4):461-481.   Published online July 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0156
  • 24,679 View
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  • 125 Web of Science
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.

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    Jin-Sung Yuk, Jung Min Kim
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Cardiovascular Risk/Epidemiology
Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Treatment of Heart Failure in Diabetes
Jin Joo Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(2):146-157.   Published online March 25, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0282
Correction in: Diabetes Metab J 2021;45(5):796
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  • 60 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
The cardiovascular disease continuum begins with risk factors such as diabetes mellitus (DM), progresses to vasculopathy and myocardial dysfunction, and finally ends with cardiovascular death. Diabetes is associated with a 2- to 4-fold increased risk for heart failure (HF). Moreover, HF patients with DM have a worse prognosis than those without DM. Diabetes can cause myocardial ischemia via micro- and macrovasculopathy and can directly exert deleterious effects on the myocardium. Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance can cause alterations in vascular homeostasis. Then, reduced nitric oxide and increased reactive oxygen species levels favor inflammation leading to atherothrombotic progression and myocardial dysfunction. The classification, diagnosis, and treatment of HF for a patient with and without DM remain the same. Until now, drugs targeting neurohumoral and metabolic pathways improved mortality and morbidity in HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Therefore, all HFrEF patients should receive guideline-directed medical therapy. By contrast, drugs modulating neurohumoral activity did not improve survival in HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) patients. Trials investigating whether sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors are effective in HFpEF are on-going. This review will summarize the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of HF in diabetes.

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Clinical Care/Education
2019 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Korea
Mee Kyoung Kim, Seung-Hyun Ko, Bo-Yeon Kim, Eun Seok Kang, Junghyun Noh, Soo-Kyung Kim, Seok-O Park, Kyu Yeon Hur, Suk Chon, Min Kyong Moon, Nan-Hee Kim, Sang Yong Kim, Sang Youl Rhee, Kang-Woo Lee, Jae Hyeon Kim, Eun-Jung Rhee, SungWan Chun, Sung Hoon Yu, Dae Jung Kim, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Kyong Soo Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(4):398-406.   Published online August 20, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0137
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association revised and updated the 6th Clinical Practice Guidelines in 2019. Targets of glycemic, blood pressure, and lipid control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were updated. The obese and overweight population is increasing steadily in Korea, and half of the Koreans with diabetes are obese. Evidence-based recommendations for weight-loss therapy for obesity management as treatment for hyperglycemia in T2DM were provided. In addition, evidence from large clinical studies assessing cardiovascular outcomes following the use of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists in patients with T2DM were incorporated into the recommendations.

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Complications
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Diabetes. Part I: Epidemiology and Diagnosis
Yong-ho Lee, Yongin Cho, Byung-Wan Lee, Cheol-Young Park, Dae Ho Lee, Bong-Soo Cha, Eun-Jung Rhee
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(1):31-45.   Published online December 17, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0011
Correction in: Diabetes Metab J 2019;43(5):731
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diabetes are common metabolic disorders whose prevalence rates are expected to rise worldwide, corresponding to aging and increasingly obese populations. Compared to the general population (around 25%), 50% to 70% of people with diabetes have NAFLD, and NAFLD severity (including fibrosis) tends to be worsened by the presence of diabetes. NAFLD is considered an emerging risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus and a contributor to the development of chronic diabetes-related complications. This reciprocal relationship demonstrates the importance of confirming suspected NAFLD in patients with diabetes. Due to the invasive nature of liver biopsy to assess NAFLD status, various alternative non-invasive modalities have been developed and validated. Here, we summarized the epidemiology of NAFLD in patients with diabetes and reviewed currently available imaging modalities and biomarker-based prediction models for their ability to detect liver steatosis and/or fibrosis.

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Complications
Update on the Impact, Diagnosis and Management of Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy in Diabetes: What Is Defined, What Is New, and What Is Unmet
Vincenza Spallone
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(1):3-30.   Published online November 2, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0259
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

The burden of diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is expected to increase due to the diabetes epidemic and its early and widespread appearance. CAN has a definite prognostic role for mortality and cardiovascular morbidity. Putative mechanisms for this are tachycardia, QT interval prolongation, orthostatic hypotension, reverse dipping, and impaired heart rate variability, while emerging mechanisms like inflammation support the pervasiveness of autonomic dysfunction. Efforts to overcome CAN under-diagnosis are on the table: by promoting screening for symptoms and signs; by simplifying cardiovascular reflex tests; and by selecting the candidates for screening. CAN assessment allows for treatment of its manifestations, cardiovascular risk stratification, and tailoring therapeutic targets. Risk factors for CAN are mainly glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and, in addition, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and obesity in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while preliminary data regard glycaemic variability, vitamin B12 and D changes, oxidative stress, inflammation, and genetic biomarkers. Glycaemic control prevents CAN in T1DM, whereas multifactorial intervention might be effective in T2DM. Lifestyle intervention improves autonomic function mostly in pre-diabetes. While there is no conclusive evidence for a disease-modifying therapy, treatment of CAN manifestations is available. The modulation of autonomic function by SGLT2i represents a promising research field with possible clinical relevance.

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Original Article
Epidemiology
Discrepancies between Glycosylated Hemoglobin and Fasting Plasma Glucose for Diagnosing Impaired Fasting Glucose and Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Youth and Young Adults
Jieun Lee, Young Ah Lee, Jae Hyun Kim, Seong Yong Lee, Choong Ho Shin, Sei Won Yang
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(2):174-182.   Published online November 2, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0046
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) has been recommended as a diagnostic test for prediabetes and diabetes. Here, we evaluated the level of agreement between diagnoses based on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) versus HbA1c levels and determined optimal HbA1c cutoff values for these diseases in youth and young adults.

Methods

The study included 7,332 subjects (n=4,129, aged 10 to 19 years in youth group; and n=3,203 aged 20 to 29 years in young adult group) from the 2011 to 2016 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Prediabetes and diabetes were defined as 100 to 125 mg/dL (impaired fasting glucose [IFG]) and ≥126 mg/dL for FPG (diabetes mellitus [DM] by FPG [DMFPG]), and 5.7% to 6.4% and ≥6.5% for HbA1c, respectively.

Results

In the youth group, 32.5% with IFG had an HbA1c level of 5.7% to 6.4%, and 72.2% with DMFPG had an HbA1c ≥6.5%. In the young adult group, 27.5% with IFG had an HbA1c level of 5.7% to 6.4%, and 66.6% with DMFPG had an HbA1c ≥6.5%. Kappa coefficients for agreement between the FPG and HbA1c results were 0.12 for the youth group and 0.19 for the young adult group. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the optimal HbA1c cutoff for IFG and DMFPG were 5.6% and 5.9% in youths and 5.5% and 5.8% in young adults, respectively.

Conclusion

Usefulness of HbA1c for diagnosis of IFG and DMFPG in Koreans aged <30 years remains to be determined due to discrepancies between the results of glucose- and HbA1c-based tests. Additional testing might be warranted at lower HbA1c levels to detect IFG and DMFPG in this age group.

Citations

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Brief Report
Complications
The Necessity of the Simple Tests for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients without Neuropathic Symptoms in Clinical Practice
Jung Hwan Park, Dong Sun Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(5):442-446.   Published online October 22, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.0090
  • 4,454 View
  • 68 Download
  • 15 Web of Science
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Early recognition and appropriate management of diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy (DPNP) is important. We evaluated the necessity of simple, non-invasive tests for DPNP detection in clinical practice. We enrolled 136 randomly-chosen patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and examined them with the 10-g Semmes-Weinstein monofilament examination, the 128-Hz tuning-fork, ankle-reflex, and pinprick tests; the Total Symptom Score and the 15-item self-administered questionnaire of the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument. Among 136 patients, 48 had subjective neuropathic symptoms and 88 did not. The abnormal-response rates varied depending on the methods used according to the presence of subjective neuropathic symptoms (18.8% vs. 5.7%, P<0.05; 58.3% vs. 28.4%, P<0.005; 81.3% vs. 54.5%, P<0.005; 12.5% vs. 5.7%, P=0.195; 41.7% vs. 2.3%, P<0.001; and 77.1% vs. 9.1%, P<0.001; respectively). The largest abnormal response was derived by combining all methods. Moreover, these tests should be implemented more extensively in diabetic patients without neuropathic symptoms to detect DPNP early.

Citations

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  • Response: The Necessity of the Simple Tests for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients without Neuropathic Symptoms in Clinical Practice (Diabetes Metab J 2018;42:442–6)
    Jung Hwan Park, Dong Sun Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2018; 42(6): 546.     CrossRef
  • Letter: The Necessity of the Simple Tests for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients without Neuropathic Symptoms in Clinical Practice (Diabetes Metab J 2018;42:442-6)
    Jun Hwa Hong
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Review
Complications
Diagnosing Diabetic Neuropathy: Something Old, Something New
Ioannis N. Petropoulos, Georgios Ponirakis, Adnan Khan, Hamad Almuhannadi, Hoda Gad, Rayaz A. Malik
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(4):255-269.   Published online August 21, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0056
  • 8,537 View
  • 121 Download
  • 69 Web of Science
  • 72 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

There are potentially many ways of assessing diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). However, they do not fulfill U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requirements in relation to their capacity to assess therapeutic benefit in clinical trials of DPN. Over the past several decades symptoms and signs, quantitative sensory and electrodiagnostic testing have been strongly endorsed, but have consistently failed as surrogate end points in clinical trials. Therefore, there is an unmet need for reliable biomarkers to capture the onset and progression and to facilitate drug discovery in DPN. Corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) is a non-invasive ophthalmic imaging modality for in vivo evaluation of sensory C-fibers. An increasing body of evidence from multiple centers worldwide suggests that CCM fulfills the FDA criteria as a surrogate endpoint of DPN.

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Brief Report
Epidemiology
Glycosylated Hemoglobin Threshold for Predicting Diabetes and Prediabetes from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Sangmo Hong, Jun Goo Kang, Chul Sik Kim, Seong Jin Lee, Cheol-Young Park, Chang Beom Lee, Sung-Hee Ihm
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(2):167-170.   Published online April 5, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.2.167
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

We aimed to estimate the threshold level of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) for the fasting plasma glucose of 100 and 126 mg/dL in the Korean adult population, using the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 4,481 participants over 19 years of age without diabetic medications and conditions to influence the interpretation of HbA1c levels, such as anemia, renal insufficiency, liver cirrhosis, and cancers, were analyzed. A point-wise area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to estimate the optimal HbA1c cutoff value. A HbA1c threshold of 6.35% was optimal for predicting diabetes with a sensitivity of 86.9% and a specificity of 99.1%. Furthermore, the threshold of HbA1c was 5.65% for prediabetes, with a sensitivity of 69.3% and a specificity of 71%. Further prospective studies are needed to evaluate the HbA1c cutoff point for diagnosing prediabetes and diabetes in the Korean population.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Cutoff Value of HbA1c in Predicting Diabetes and Impaired Fasting Glucose
    Seyoung Kwon, Youngak Na
    The Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science.2017; 49(2): 114.     CrossRef
  • Cutoff Point of HbA1c for Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus in Chinese Individuals
    Bing Wang, Ming-Chuan Liu, Xin-Yu Li, Xu-Han Liu, Qiu-Xia Feng, Lu Lu, Zhu Zhu, Ying-Shu Liu, Wei Zhao, Zheng-Nan Gao, Noel Christopher Barengo
    PLOS ONE.2016; 11(11): e0166597.     CrossRef

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal