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Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
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Harnessing Metabolic Indices as a Predictive Tool for Cardiovascular Disease in a Korean Population without Known Major Cardiovascular Event
Hyun-Jin Kim, Byung Sik Kim, Yonggu Lee, Sang Bong Ahn, Dong Wook Kim, Jeong-Hun Shin
Diabetes Metab J. 2024;48(3):449-462.   Published online February 1, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0197
  • 1,604 View
  • 169 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
This study evaluated the usefulness of indices for metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and insulin resistance (IR), as predictive tools for cardiovascular disease in middle-aged Korean adults.
Methods
The prospective data obtained from the Ansan-Ansung cohort database, excluding patients with major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). The primary outcome was the incidence of MACCE during the follow-up period.
Results
A total of 9,337 patients were included in the analysis, of whom 1,130 (12.1%) experienced MACCE during a median follow-up period of 15.5 years. The metabolic syndrome severity Z-score, metabolic syndrome severity score, hepatic steatosis index, and NAFLD liver fat score were found to significantly predict MACCE at values above the cut-off point and in the second and third tertiles. Among these indices, the hazard ratios of the metabolic syndrome severity score and metabolic syndrome severity Z-score were the highest after adjusting for confounding factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) score for predicting MACCE was 0.716, and the metabolic syndrome severity Z-score had an AUC of 0.619.
Conclusion
The metabolic syndrome severity score is a highly reliable indicator and was closely associated with the 10-year ASCVD risk score in predicting MACCE in the general population. Given the specific characteristics and limitations of metabolic syndrome severity scores as well as the indices of NAFLD and IR, a more practical scoring system that considers these factors is essential to achieve greater accuracy in forecasting cardiovascular outcomes.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association between mixed exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults: Data from the Korean National environmental health survey cycle 4
    Seung Min Chung, Kyun Hoo Kim, Jun Sung Moon, Kyu Chang Won
    International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health.2024; 261: 114427.     CrossRef
  • Estimated pulse wave velocity as a forefront indicator of developing metabolic syndrome in Korean adults
    Hyun-Jin Kim, Byung Sik Kim, Dong Wook Kim, Jeong-Hun Shin
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2024; 39(4): 612.     CrossRef
Cardiovascular Risk/Epidemiology
Myocardial Infarction, Stroke, and All-Cause Mortality according to Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level in the Elderly, a Nationwide Study
You-Bin Lee, Minji Koo, Eunjin Noh, Soon Young Hwang, Jung A Kim, Eun Roh, So-hyeon Hong, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Geum Joon Cho, Hye Jin Yoo
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(5):722-732.   Published online March 8, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0225
  • 7,623 View
  • 339 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
We assessed the myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and all-cause death risks during follow-up according to the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels among older adults.
Methods
The Korean National Health Insurance Service datasets (2002 to 2020) were used for this population-based cohort study. The hazards of MI, stroke, and all-cause mortality during follow-up were analyzed according to LDL-C level in individuals aged ≥65 years without baseline cardiovascular diseases (n=1,391,616).
Results
During a mean 7.55 years, 52,753 MIs developed; 84,224 strokes occurred over a mean 7.47 years. After a mean 8.50 years, 233,963 died. A decrease in LDL-C was associated with lower hazards of MI and stroke. The decreased hazard of stroke in lower LDL-C was more pronounced in statin users, and individuals with diabetes or obesity. The hazard of all-cause death during follow-up showed an inverted J-shaped pattern according to the LDL-C levels. However, the paradoxically increased hazard of mortality during follow-up in lower LDL-C was attenuated in statin users and individuals with diabetes, hypertension, or obesity. In statin users, lower LDL-C was associated with a decreased hazard of mortality during follow-up.
Conclusion
Among the elderly, lower LDL-C was associated with decreased risks of MI and stroke. Lower LDL-C achieved by statins in the elderly was associated with a decreased risk of all-cause death during follow-up, suggesting that LDL-C paradox for the premature death risk in the elderly should not be applied to statin users. Intensive statin therapy should not be hesitated for older adults with cardiovascular risk factors including diabetes.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Combination of low- or moderate-intensity statin and ezetimibe vs. high-intensity statin monotherapy on primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and all-cause death: a propensity-matched nationwide cohort study
    Ji Eun Jun, In-Kyung Jeong, Kyu Jeong Ahn, Ho Yeon Chung, You-Cheol Hwang
    European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Associations of Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol With All-cause and Cause-specific Mortality in Older Adults in China
    Wenqing Ni, Yuebin Lv, Xueli Yuan, Yan Zhang, Hongmin Zhang, Yijing Zheng, Xiaoming Shi, Jian Xu
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Risk Factors of Acute Ischemic Stroke and Mortality Among Adults With Endocardial Fibroelastosis
    Talal Warsi, Kamleshun Ramphul, Mansimran Singh Dulay, Saddam Jeelani, Renuka Verma, Nomesh Kumar, Jasninder Singh Dhaliwal, Caleb Carver, Hemamalini Sakthivel, Syed Khurram Mushtaq Gardezi, Saurabh Deshpande, Akil A. Sherif, Alexander Liu, Raheel Ahmed
    The Neurologist.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The relationship of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and all-cause or cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective study
    Chin-Huan Chang, Shu-Tin Yeh, Seng-Wei Ooi, Chung-Yi Li, Hua-Fen Chen
    PeerJ.2023; 11: e14609.     CrossRef
  • ERCC1 polymorphism and its expression associated with ischemic stroke in Chinese population
    Xiao-Dong Deng, Jian-Lin Ke, Tai-Yu Chen, Qin Gao, Zhuo-Lin Zhao, Wei Zhang, Huan Liu, Ming-Liang Xiang, Li-Zhen Wang, Ying Ma, Yun Liu
    Frontiers in Neurology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • New, Novel Lipid-Lowering Agents for Reducing Cardiovascular Risk: Beyond Statins
    Kyuho Kim, Henry N. Ginsberg, Sung Hee Choi
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(4): 517.     CrossRef
  • Association between the Diabetes Drug Cost and Cardiovascular Events and Death in Korea: A National Health Insurance Service Database Analysis
    Seung Min Chung, Ji-In Lee, Eugene Han, Hyun-Ae Seo, Eonju Jeon, Hye Soon Kim, Ji Sung Yoon
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2022; 37(5): 759.     CrossRef
COVID-19
Article image
Effects of Social Distancing on Diabetes Management in Older Adults during COVID-19 Pandemic
Soo Myoung Shin, Tae Jung Oh, Sung Hee Choi, Hak Chul Jang
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(5):765-772.   Published online August 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0096
  • 6,390 View
  • 196 Download
  • 9 Web of Science
  • 10 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
On March 22, 2020, intense social distancing (SD) was implemented in Korea to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). This study examined the impact of SD on diabetes control in older adults with diabetes.
Methods
Adults aged 60 to 90 years with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were physically and mentally independent were recruited. Participants who had complete blood chemistry data from April to July 2019 (pre-SD era) and April to July 2020 (SD era) were enrolled. Data were obtained about physical activity, nutrition, sarcopenia, and psychological and mental health from questionnaires in April to July 2020. Calf circumference was measured.
Results
In total, 246 people (100 men, 146 women; mean age, 73.8±5.7 years) participated in this study. The levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, 7.4%±1.0% vs. 7.1%±0.8%, P<0.001), fasting glucose (142.2±16.7 mg/dL vs. 132.0±27.7 mg/dL, P<0.001), and body weight (62.6±9.4 kg vs. 61.8±10.1 kg, P<0.01) were higher in the SD era than in the pre-SD era. Total physical activity was lower in the SD era (2,584.6±2,624.1 MET-min/week–1 vs. 1,987.3±2,295.0 MET-min/week–1, P<0.001). A larger increase in HbA1c level was associated with increased body weight and decreased physical activity.
Conclusion
SD had negative effects on diabetes management in older adults with diabetes. Fasting glucose and HbA1c levels and body weight increased during the SD era. Participants with reduced physical activity gained more weight and had higher blood glucose levels. Given that the COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing, health professionals and diabetes educators should monitor changes in lifestyle factors in older adults with diabetes.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Preliminary efficacy of a technology-based physical activity intervention for older Korean adults during the COVID-19 pandemic
    Soonhyung Kwon, Oejin Shin, Rosalba Hernandez
    Educational Gerontology.2024; 50(1): 27.     CrossRef
  • Official risk communication for COVID-19 and beyond: can we do a better job?
    Faina Linkov, Christopher L. Cummings, David J. Dausey
    Environment Systems and Decisions.2024; 44(2): 293.     CrossRef
  • Obesity and weight change during the COVID‐19 pandemic in children and adults: A systematic review and meta‐analysis
    Laura N. Anderson, Yulika Yoshida‐Montezuma, Nora Dewart, Ezza Jalil, Jayati Khattar, Vanessa De Rubeis, Sarah Carsley, Lauren E. Griffith, Lawrence Mbuagbaw
    Obesity Reviews.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Changes in lifestyle-related behaviour during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan: a questionnaire survey for examinees who underwent an annual health check-up
    Miyako Kishimoto, Kayo Masuko, Sumie Yamamoto, Retsu Fujita, Shoko Nakamura, Masato Odawara, Mikio Zeniya
    Journal of International Medical Research.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Glycaemic monitoring and control among high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes in Australian general practice during COVID-19
    Kirrilee Jane Barlow, Paul P Fahey, Evan Atlantis
    Family Medicine and Community Health.2023; 11(3): e002271.     CrossRef
  • Social isolation, loneliness and subsequent risk of major adverse cardiovascular events among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Yannis Yan Liang, Yilin Chen, Hongliang Feng, Huachen Xue, Yu Nie, Qi-Yong H Ai, Jiacheng Ma, Lulu Yang, Jihui Zhang, Sizhi Ai
    General Psychiatry.2023; 36(6): e101153.     CrossRef
  • Stress, Depression, and Unhealthy Behavior Changes among Patients with Diabetes during COVID-19 in Korea
    Hae Ran Kim, Jeong-Soon Kim
    Healthcare.2022; 10(2): 303.     CrossRef
  • Reply to comment on “Unexpected decline in glycated hemoglobin level after emergency COVID‐19 measures in three robust older Japanese women with prediabetes/mild type 2 diabetes”
    Tazuo Okuno, Osamu Iritani, Kumie Kodera, Daisuke Hama, Asami Kane, Kozue Morigaki, Toshio Terai, Norie Maeno, Shigeto Morimoto
    Geriatrics & Gerontology International.2022; 22(7): 541.     CrossRef
  • Anxiety, Distress and Stress among Patients with Diabetes during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Rubén A. García-Lara, José L. Gómez-Urquiza, María José Membrive-Jiménez, Almudena Velando-Soriano, Monserrat E. Granados-Bolivar, José L. Romero-Béjar, Nora Suleiman-Martos
    Journal of Personalized Medicine.2022; 12(9): 1412.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Depression and Related Factors among Patients with Chronic Disease during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Rubén A. García-Lara, Nora Suleiman-Martos, María J. Membrive-Jiménez, Victoria García-Morales, Miguel Quesada-Caballero, Isabel M. Guisado-Requena, José L. Gómez-Urquiza
    Diagnostics.2022; 12(12): 3094.     CrossRef
Drug/Regimen
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Effects of Teneligliptin on HbA1c levels, Continuous Glucose Monitoring-Derived Time in Range and Glycemic Variability in Elderly Patients with T2DM (TEDDY Study)
Ji Cheol Bae, Soo Heon Kwak, Hyun Jin Kim, Sang-Yong Kim, You-Cheol Hwang, Sunghwan Suh, Bok Jin Hyun, Ji Eun Cha, Jong Chul Won, Jae Hyeon Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(1):81-92.   Published online June 16, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0016
  • 8,165 View
  • 436 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
To evaluate the effects of teneligliptin on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)-derived time in range, and glycemic variability in elderly type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.
Methods
This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted in eight centers in Korea (clinical trial registration number: NCT03508323). Sixty-five participants aged ≥65 years, who were treatment-naïve or had been treated with stable doses of metformin, were randomized at a 1:1 ratio to receive 20 mg of teneligliptin (n=35) or placebo (n=30) for 12 weeks. The main endpoints were the changes in HbA1c levels from baseline to week 12, CGM metrics-derived time in range, and glycemic variability.
Results
After 12 weeks, a significant reduction (by 0.84%) in HbA1c levels was observed in the teneligliptin group compared to that in the placebo group (by 0.08%), with a between-group least squares mean difference of –0.76% (95% confidence interval [CI], –1.08 to –0.44). The coefficient of variation, standard deviation, and mean amplitude of glycemic excursion significantly decreased in participants treated with teneligliptin as compared to those in the placebo group. Teneligliptin treatment significantly decreased the time spent above 180 or 250 mg/dL, respectively, without increasing the time spent below 70 mg/dL. The mean percentage of time for which glucose levels remained in the 70 to 180 mg/dL time in range (TIR70–180) at week 12 was 82.0%±16.0% in the teneligliptin group, and placebo-adjusted change in TIR70–180 from baseline was 13.3% (95% CI, 6.0 to 20.6).
Conclusion
Teneligliptin effectively reduced HbA1c levels, time spent above the target range, and glycemic variability, without increasing hypoglycemia in our study population.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Comparison of teneligliptin and other gliptin-based regimens in addressing insulin resistance and glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients: a cross-sectional study
    Harmanjit Singh, Ravi Rohilla, Shivani Jaswal, Mandeep Singla
    Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism.2024; 19(1): 81.     CrossRef
  • Potential approaches using teneligliptin for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: current status and future prospects
    Harmanjit Singh, Jasbir Singh, Ravneet Kaur Bhangu, Mandeep Singla, Jagjit Singh, Farideh Javid
    Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology.2023; 16(1): 49.     CrossRef
  • Mechanism of molecular interaction of sitagliptin with human DPP4 enzyme - New Insights
    Michelangelo Bauwelz Gonzatti, José Edvar Monteiro Júnior, Antônio José Rocha, Jonathas Sales de Oliveira, Antônio José de Jesus Evangelista, Fátima Morgana Pio Fonseca, Vânia Marilande Ceccatto, Ariclécio Cunha de Oliveira, José Ednésio da Cruz Freire
    Advances in Medical Sciences.2023; 68(2): 402.     CrossRef
  • A prospective multicentre open label study to assess effect of Teneligliptin on glycemic control through parameters of time in range (TIR) Metric using continuous glucose monitoring (TOP-TIR study)
    Banshi Saboo, Suhas Erande, A.G. Unnikrishnan
    Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews.2022; 16(2): 102394.     CrossRef
  • Association between Variability of Metabolic Risk Factors and Cardiometabolic Outcomes
    Min Jeong Park, Kyung Mook Choi
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(1): 49.     CrossRef
Drug/Regimen
Article image
Increasing Age Associated with Higher Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibition Rate Is a Predictive Factor for Efficacy of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors
Sangmo Hong, Chang Hee Jung, Song Han, Cheol-Young Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(1):63-70.   Published online April 19, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0253
  • 65,535 View
  • 292 Download
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
It is not known which type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients would most benefit from dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor treatment. We aimed to investigate the predictors of response to DPP-4 inhibitors considering degree of DPP-4 inhibition.
Methods
This study is a post hoc analysis of a 24-week, randomized, double-blind, phase III trial that compared the efficacy and safety of a DPP-4 inhibitor (gemigliptin vs. sitagliptin) in patients with T2DM. Subjects were classified into tertiles of T1 <65.26%, T2=65.26%–76.35%, and T3 ≥76.35% by DPP-4 inhibition. We analyzed the change from baseline in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) according to DPP-4 inhibition with multiple linear regression adjusting for age, ethnicity, body mass index, baseline HbA1c, and DPP-4 activity at baseline.
Results
The mean age was greater in the high tertile group compared with the low tertile group (T1: 49.8±8.3 vs. T2: 53.1±10.5 vs. T3: 55.3±9.5, P<0.001) of DPP-4 inhibition. Although HbA1c at baseline was not different among tertiles of DPP-4 inhibition (P=0.398), HbA1c after 24-week treatment was lower in the higher tertile compares to the lower tertile (T1: 7.30%±0.88% vs. T2: 7.12%±0.78% vs. T3: 7.00%±0.78%, P=0.021). In multiple regression analysis, DPP-4 enzyme inhibition rate was not a significant determent for HbA1c reduction due to age. In subgroup analysis by tertile of DPP-4 inhibition, age was the only significant predictor and only in the highest tertile (R2=0.281, B=–0.014, P=0.024).
Conclusion
This study showed that HbA1c reduction by DPP-4 inhibitor was associated with increasing age, and this association was linked with higher DPP-4 inhibition.
Complications
Article image
The Risk of Diabetes on Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Seung Min Chung, Yin Young Lee, Eunyeong Ha, Ji Sung Yoon, Kyu Chang Won, Hyoung Woo Lee, Jian Hur, Kyung Soo Hong, Jong Geol Jang, Hyun Jung Jin, Eun Young Choi, Kyeong-Cheol Shin, Jin Hong Chung, Kwan Ho Lee, June Hong Ahn, Jun Sung Moon
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(3):405-413.   Published online May 21, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0105
  • 10,793 View
  • 146 Download
  • 42 Web of Science
  • 48 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

To determine the role of diabetes mellitus (DM) in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we explored the clinical characteristics of patients with DM and compared risk factors such as age, glycemic control, and medications to those without DM.

Methods

This was a retrospective cohort study of 117 confirmed patients with COVID-19 which conducted at a tertiary hospital in Daegu, South Korea. The primary outcome was defined as the severe and critical outcome (SCO), of which the composite outcomes of acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, intensive care unit care, and 28-day mortality. We analyzed what clinical features and glycemic control-related factors affect the prognosis of COVID-19 in the DM group.

Results

After exclusion, 110 participants were finally included. DM patients (n=29) was older, and showed higher blood pressure compared to non-DM patients. DM group showed higher levels of inflammation-related biomarkers and severity score, and highly progressed to SCO. After adjustment with other risk factors, DM increased the risk of SCO (odds ratio [OR], 10.771; P<0.001). Among the DM patients, SCO was more prevalent in elderly patients of ≥70 years old and age was an independent risk factor for SCO in patients with DM (OR, 1.175; P=0.014), while glycemic control was not. The use of medication did not affect the SCO, but the renin-angiotensin system inhibitors showed protective effects against acute cardiac injury (OR, 0.048; P=0.045).

Conclusion

The COVID-19 patients with DM had higher severity and resulted in SCO. Intensive and aggressive monitoring of COVID-19 clinical outcomes in DM group, especially in elderly patients is warranted.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The relationship of age, sex and prothrombin time related to the severity and mortality of COVID-19 patients with diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta analysis
    Audrey Fabianisa Mirza, Ceria Halim, Mutiara Indah Sari
    F1000Research.2024; 11: 729.     CrossRef
  • The relationship of age, sex and prothrombin time related to the severity and mortality of COVID-19 patients with diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta analysis
    Audrey Fabianisa Mirza, Ceria Halim, Mutiara Indah Sari
    F1000Research.2024; 11: 729.     CrossRef
  • The relationship of age, sex and prothrombin time related to the severity of COVID-19 patients with diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta analysis
    Audrey Fabianisa Mirza, Ceria Halim, Mutiara Indah Sari
    F1000Research.2024; 11: 729.     CrossRef
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    Hyeyeon Moon, Sunghwan Suh, Mi Kyoung Park
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Sabrina Schlesinger, Alexander Lang, Nikoletta Christodoulou, Philipp Linnerz, Kalliopi Pafili, Oliver Kuss, Christian Herder, Manuela Neuenschwander, Janett Barbaresko, Michael Roden
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    Sian A. Bradley, Maciej Banach, Negman Alvarado, Ivica Smokovski, Sonu M. M. Bhaskar
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    Stavroula Kastora, Manisha Patel, Ben Carter, Mirela Delibegovic, Phyo Kyaw Myint
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    Jeongseon Yoo, Youngah Choi, Shin Ae Park, Ji Yeon Seo, Chul Woo Ahn, Jaehyun Han
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    Eun Yeong Ha, Seung Min Chung, Il Rae Park, Yin Young Lee, Eun Young Choi, Jun Sung Moon
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    Audrey Fabianisa Mirza, Ceria Halim, Mutiara Indah Sari
    F1000Research.2022; 11: 729.     CrossRef
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    Seong Ho Kim, Ji Young Kim, Eun Song Kim, Il Rae Park, Eun Yeong Ha, Seung Min Chung, Jun Sung Moon, Ji Sung Yoon, Kyu Chang Won, Hyoung Woo Lee
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    Iris Louise N. Cabbab, Rafael Vincent M. Manalo
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  • The Effect of Prior Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor and Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Treatment on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Susceptibility and Outcome: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
    Jiuyang Xu, Yaqun Teng, Lianhan Shang, Xiaoying Gu, Guohui Fan, Yijun Chen, Ran Tian, Shuyang Zhang, Bin Cao
    Clinical Infectious Diseases.2021; 72(11): e901.     CrossRef
  • Diabetes predicts severity of COVID‐19 infection in a retrospective cohort: A mediatory role of the inflammatory biomarker C‐reactive protein
    Huilin Koh, Angela Mei Chung Moh, Ester Yeoh, Yi Lin, Serena Kiat Mun Low, Say Tat Ooi, Seng Kiong Tan, Jaime Hui Xian Lin, Caroline Wei Shan Hoong
    Journal of Medical Virology.2021; 93(5): 3023.     CrossRef
  • Susceptibility for Some Infectious Diseases in Patients With Diabetes: The Key Role of Glycemia
    Jesús Chávez-Reyes, Carlos E. Escárcega-González, Erika Chavira-Suárez, Angel León-Buitimea, Priscila Vázquez-León, José R. Morones-Ramírez, Carlos M. Villalón, Andrés Quintanar-Stephano, Bruno A. Marichal-Cancino
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    Giovanni Corona, Alessandro Pizzocaro, Walter Vena, Giulia Rastrelli, Federico Semeraro, Andrea M Isidori, Rosario Pivonello, Andrea Salonia, Alessandra Sforza, Mario Maggi
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    Ibraín Enrique Corrales-Reyes, Frank Hernández-García, Christian R. Mejia
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Complications
Higher Prevalence and Progression Rate of Chronic Kidney Disease in Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Kyung-Soo Kim, Seok Won Park, Yong-Wook Cho, Soo-Kyung Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(3):224-232.   Published online May 31, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.0065
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

To evaluate the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and progression rate to CKD in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods

We investigated the medical records of 190 elderly patients (65 years or older) with T2DM from 2005 to 2011 in 6-month increments. Mean follow-up duration was 64.5 months. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or the presence of albuminuria.

Results

The mean age was 70.4 years and mean diabetes duration was 10.6 years. Among all the participants, 113 patients (59.5%) had CKD. The eGFR was significantly decreased between baseline (65.7±15.0 mL/min/1.73 m2) and the end of follow-up (52.7±17.5 mL/min/1.73 m2, P<0.001). At the end of follow-up, the prevalence of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 had increased by 61.6% (at baseline, 44.2%). Furthermore, in patients with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2, the progression rate to more than CKD stage 3 was 39.6% at the end of follow-up; 30.2% of elderly diabetic patients had progressed to albuminuria from normoalbuminuria. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the time interval to worsening nephropathy was significantly shorter in elderly patients with diabetes duration ≥10 years than in those with diabetes duration <5 years (P=0.018).

Conclusion

CKD was commonly observed in older patients with T2DM, and the progression rate to CKD is also high. Consequently, it is important to identify and manage CKD as early as possible in elderly patients with T2DM, especially in those with diabetes duration ≥10 years.

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Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass and Insulin Resistance in an Elderly Korean Population: The Korean Social Life, Health and Aging Project-Health Examination Cohort
Seung Won Lee, Yoosik Youm, Won Joon Lee, Wungrak Choi, Sang Hui Chu, Yeong-Ran Park, Hyeon Chang Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2015;39(1):37-45.   Published online February 16, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2015.39.1.37
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Increasing evidence supports an association between age-related loss of muscle mass and insulin resistance. However, the association has not been fully investigated in the general population. Thus, we investigated the association between appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and insulin resistance in an elderly Korean population.

Methods

This cross-sectional study included 158 men (mean age, 71.8) and 241 women (mean age, 70.6) from the Korean Social Life, Health and Aging Project, which started in 2011. In this study, ASM was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis and was analyzed in three forms: ASM (kg), ASM/height2 (kg/m2), and ASM/weight (%). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used as a measure of insulin resistance. The relationships between the ASM values and the HOMA-IR were investigated by multiple linear regression models.

Results

The HOMA-IR was positively associated with ASM (β=0.43, P<0.0001) and ASM/height2 (β=0.36, P<0.0001) when adjusted for sex and age. However, after additional adjustment for body weight, HOMA-IR was inversely associated with ASM (β=-0.43, P<0.001) and ASM/height2 (β=-0.30, P=0.001). Adjustment for other potential confounders did not change these associations. Conversely, HOMA-IR was consistently and inversely associated with ASM/weight before and after adjustment for other potential confounders.

Conclusion

Our results support the idea that lower skeletal muscle mass is independently associated with insulin resistance in older adults. When evaluating sarcopenia or muscle-related conditions in older adults, their whole body sizes also need to be considered.

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Factors Associated for Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Korean Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Yun Jeong Lee, Hye Mi Kang, Na Kyung Kim, Ju Yeon Yang, Jung Hyun Noh, Kyung Soo Ko, Byoung Doo Rhee, Dong-Jun Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(2):150-157.   Published online April 18, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2014.38.2.150
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in older Korean adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods

A total of 226 older (age ≥65 years) adults without a history of cerebrovascular disease or dementia participated in this study. Cognitive function was assessed with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Korean version (MoCA-K). A MoCA-K score <23 was defined as MCI.

Results

The prevalence of MCI was 32.7%. In a logistic regression analysis, age (≥74 years old vs. 65-68 years old; odds ratio [OR], 3.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.55 to 8.82; P=0.003), educational background (college graduation vs. no school or elementary school graduation; OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.46; P=0.001), and systolic blood pressure (≥135 mm Hg vs. ≤120 mm Hg; OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.29 to 8.17; P=0.012) were associated with MCI.

Conclusion

More concentrated efforts focused on early detection and appropriate management of MCI may be required in older Korean adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Citations

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Factors that Affect Medication Adherence in Elderly Patients with Diabetes Mellitus
Kyung-Ae Park, Jung-Guk Kim, Bo-Wan Kim, Sin Kam, Keon-Yeop Kim, Sung-Woo Ha, Sung-Taek Hyun
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(1):55-65.   Published online February 28, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.1.55
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

This study was conducted to evaluate the factors affecting medication adherence in geriatric diabetic patients treated at private clinics and tertiary hospitals. We compared the factors affecting medication adherence between these two patient groups.

Methods

We included 108 diabetic patients older than 65 years treated at one tertiary hospital and 157 patients older than 65 years treated at two private clinics. We conducted an interview survey based on the Health Belief Model, and used a questionnaire that included the self-efficacy variable. For the medication adherence, Morisky's self-report was used.

Results

The medication adherence based on Morisky's self-report was significantly higher in tertiary hospital patients (61.1%) compared to private clinic patients (43.2%) (P < 0.01). The results showed that drug storage and self-efficacy were factors affecting adherence to medication in tertiary hospital patients (P < 0.05). The adherence was high in cases of proper drug storage (odds ratio [OR], 5.401) and in cases with high self-efficacy (OR, 13.114). In private clinic patients, financial level (P < 0.05), recognition of the seriousness of diabetes complications (P < 0.05) and self-efficacy (P < 0.01) were associated with medication adherence. The medication adherence was significantly lower in patients whose financial state were moderate than those with lower (OR, 0.410), and medication adherence was significantly higher in patients who had higher perceived severity (OR, 2.936) and in patients with higher self-efficacy (OR, 4.040).

Conclusion

Different strategies should be used to increase medication adherence in geriatric diabetic patients, depending on institutions whether they are treated.

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Self-Reported Goals in Aged Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Hae Kyung Jin, Hyun Kyung Chung
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(5):439-447.   Published online October 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.5.439
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a growing health problem of the elderly population. Diabetes education based on effective patient-provider communication plays a major role in treatment of type 2 DM. In this study, as an effort for making better communication, we examined how older patients with type 2 DM report their healthcare goals, what factors influencing their goals and control their self-care behaviors. METHODS: Subjects were thirty three patients with type 2 DM aged 65 and older. An interviewer conducted one-on-one interviews using open questions about 5 categories: concept of "health," purpose of DM management, causes of DM, practical aspects of DM management, and decision making related to DM management. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and two investigators independently reviewed. RESULTS: The majority of our sample (79%) expressed their management goals in a socio-functional language, rather than medical issues. They defined "Healthy" as a status of keeping daily life without any symptoms. Many subjects has not altered their diet habits (33%) and making no efforts to exercise (64%) due to physical and psychological limitations though almost all (91%) older patients recognized the importance of diet control and exercise. CONCLUSION: When introduce the goal of DM management, it would be better to use socio-functional terms in diabetes education of elderly patients with type 2 DM. To improve the self-care behaviors, it is essential to make efforts not only to give knowledge but also to find their physical and psychological limitations related to poor performances.

Citations

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Effects of 'Ubiquitous Healthcare' on the Ability of Self-Management in Elderly Diabetic Patients.
Sung Hoon Yu, Sun Hee Kim, So Yeon Kim, Sung Hee Choi, Soo Lim, Yoon Seok Chang, Hak Jong Lee, Young Joo Park, Hak Chul Jang
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(1):58-64.   Published online February 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.1.58
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The need for a new healthcare system is growing due to the paradigm shift from health supervision to health maintenance. Previously, we performed a pilot study that examined the effectiveness of a ubiquitous healthcare (U-healthcare) diabetes management program which consists of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and mobile phone services for elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we investigated the effect of a diabetes management program using U-healthcare based on the self-care skills of elderly patients with diabetes mellitus. METHODS: From July to October 2005, 17 patients were recruited and provided with a blood glucometer with the ZigBee module and a mobile phone. In addition, the patients' understanding of diabetes self-care skills was examined at the beginning and end of the study. At the end of the study, we determined the level of patient satisfaction regarding U-healthcare services. RESULTS: The patients' test scores on their understanding of diabetes mellitus improved from 57.2 +/- 20.7 to 72.7 +/- 13.4%. Specifically, patient knowledge of the basic principles for a proper diabetic diet (52.9% vs. 82.4%, P = 0.046), foods that influence blood sugar level (41.2% vs. 76.5%, P = 0.007) and the influence of beverage choice (41.2% vs. 64.7%, P = 0.007), all increased. In addition, a significant increase in knowledge of living standards regarding diabetes mellitus was observed (64.7% vs. 88.2%, P = 0.0032). CONCLUSION: We conclude that the U-healthcare incorporating SMBG could be promising, as it improves self-management skills of diabetes mellitus patients, as well as their understanding of the disease.

Citations

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