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Lifestyle
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Sarcopenia as Comorbid Chronic Diseases in Older Adults: Established and Emerging Treatments and Therapies
Jakub Mesinovic, Jackson J. Fyfe, Jason Talevski, Michael J. Wheeler, Gloria K.W. Leung, Elena S. George, Melkamu T. Hunegnaw, Costas Glavas, Paul Jansons, Robin M. Daly, David Scott
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(6):719-742.   Published online September 14, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0112
  • 3,528 View
  • 407 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and sarcopenia (low skeletal muscle mass and function) share a bidirectional relationship. The prevalence of these diseases increases with age and they share common risk factors. Skeletal muscle fat infiltration, commonly referred to as myosteatosis, may be a major contributor to both T2DM and sarcopenia in older adults via independent effects on insulin resistance and muscle health. Many strategies to manage T2DM result in energy restriction and subsequent weight loss, and this can lead to significant declines in muscle mass in the absence of resistance exercise, which is also a first-line treatment for sarcopenia. In this review, we highlight recent evidence on established treatments and emerging therapies targeting weight loss and muscle mass and function improvements in older adults with, or at risk of, T2DM and/or sarcopenia. This includes dietary, physical activity and exercise interventions, new generation incretin-based agonists and myostatin-based antagonists, and endoscopic bariatric therapies. We also highlight how digital health technologies and health literacy interventions can increase uptake of, and adherence to, established and emerging treatments and therapies in older adults with T2DM and/or sarcopenia.
Guideline/Fact Sheet
Comprehensive Understanding for Application in Korean Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus of the Consensus Statement on Carbohydrate-Restricted Diets by Korean Diabetes Association, Korean Society for the Study of Obesity, and Korean Society of Hypertension
Jong Han Choi, Jee-Hyun Kang, Suk Chon
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(3):377-390.   Published online May 25, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0051
  • 4,512 View
  • 242 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
The Joint Committee of the Korean Diabetes Association, the Korean Society for the Study of Obesity, and the Korean Society of Hypertension announced a consensus statement on carbohydrate-restricted diets and intermittent fasting, representing an emerging and popular dietary pattern. In this statement, we recommend moderately-low-carbohydrate or low-carbohydrate diets, not a very-low-carbohydrate diet, for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. These diets can be considered a dietary regimen to improve glycemic control and reduce body weight in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review provides the detailed results of a meta-analysis and systematic literature review on the potential harms and benefits of carbohydrate-restricted diets in patients with diabetes. We expect that this review will help experts and patients by fostering an in-depth understanding and appropriate application of carbohydrate-restricted diets in the comprehensive management of diabetes.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Efficacy of convenience meal-type foods designed for diabetes in the management of metabolic syndrome based on a 3-week trial
    Do Gyeong Lee, In Gyeong Kang, Tae Seok Kim, Yun Ahn, Sang Yun Lee, Hye Jin Ahn, Yoo Kyoung Park
    Nutrition.2024; 118: 112287.     CrossRef
  • Long-Term Results of a Digital Diabetes Self-Management and Education Support Program Among Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: A Retrospective Cohort Study
    Ashley Berthoumieux, Sarah Linke, Melinda Merry, Alison Megliola, Jessie Juusola, Jenna Napoleone
    The Science of Diabetes Self-Management and Care.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Medical nutrition therapy for diabetes mellitus
    Suk Chon
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2023; 66(7): 421.     CrossRef
Cardiovascular Risk/Epidemiology
Association between Variability of Metabolic Risk Factors and Cardiometabolic Outcomes
Min Jeong Park, Kyung Mook Choi
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(1):49-62.   Published online January 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0316
  • 5,313 View
  • 213 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 7 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Despite strenuous efforts to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by improving cardiometabolic risk factors, such as glucose and cholesterol levels, and blood pressure, there is still residual risk even in patients reaching treatment targets. Recently, researchers have begun to focus on the variability of metabolic variables to remove residual risks. Several clinical trials and cohort studies have reported a relationship between the variability of metabolic parameters and CVDs. Herein, we review the literature regarding the effect of metabolic factor variability and CVD risk, and describe possible mechanisms and potential treatment perspectives for reducing cardiometabolic risk factor variability.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Long-term variability in physiological measures in relation to mortality and epigenetic aging: prospective studies in the USA and China
    Hui Chen, Tianjing Zhou, Shaowei Wu, Yaying Cao, Geng Zong, Changzheng Yuan
    BMC Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Dose–response relationship between physical activity and cardiometabolic risk in obese children and adolescents: A pre-post quasi-experimental study
    Zekai Chen, Lin Zhu
    Frontiers in Physiology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association of body weight change with all-cause and cause-specific mortality: A nationwide population-based study
    So Yoon Kwon, Gyuri Kim, Jungkuk Lee, Jiyun Park, You-Bin Lee, Sang-Man Jin, Kyu Yeon Hur, Jae Hyeon Kim
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2023; 199: 110666.     CrossRef
  • Association between lipid variability and the risk of mortality in cancer patients not receiving lipid-lowering agents
    Seohyun Kim, Gyuri Kim, So Hyun Cho, Rosa Oh, Ji Yoon Kim, You-Bin Lee, Sang-Man Jin, Kyu Yeon Hur, Jae Hyeon Kim
    Frontiers in Oncology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association between visit-to-visit lipid variability and risk of ischemic heart disease: a cohort study in China
    Yonghao Wu, Peng Shen, Lisha Xu, Zongming Yang, Yexiang Sun, Luhua Yu, Zhanghang Zhu, Tiezheng Li, Dan Luo, Hongbo Lin, Liming Shui, Mengling Tang, Mingjuan Jin, Kun Chen, Jianbing Wang
    Endocrine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Variability of Metabolic Risk Factors: Causative Factor or Epiphenomenon?
    Hye Jin Yoo
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(2): 257.     CrossRef
  • Long-Term Variability in Physiological Measures in Relation to Mortality and Epigenetic Aging: Prospective Studies in the US and China
    Hui Chen, Tianjing Zhou, Shaowei Wu, Yaying Cao, Geng Zong, Changzheng Yuan
    SSRN Electronic Journal .2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Articles
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Postprandial Free Fatty Acids at Mid-Pregnancy Increase the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Newborns in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
So-Yeon Kim, Young Shin Song, Soo-Kyung Kim, Yong-Wook Cho, Kyung-Soo Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(1):140-148.   Published online August 9, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0023
  • 4,694 View
  • 158 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
To investigate the association between free fatty acid (FFA) level at mid-pregnancy and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) newborns in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).
Methods
We enrolled 710 pregnant women diagnosed with GDM from February 2009 to October 2016. GDM was diagnosed by a ‘two-step’ approach with Carpenter and Coustan criteria. We measured plasma lipid profiles including fasting and 2-hour postprandial FFA (2h-FFA) levels at mid-pregnancy. LGA was defined if birthweights of newborns were above the 90th percentile for their gestational age.
Results
Mean age of pregnant women in this study was 33.1 years. Mean pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) was 22.4 kg/m2. The prevalence of LGA was 8.3% (n=59). Levels of 2h-FFA were higher in women who delivered LGA newborns than in those who delivered non-LGA newborns (416.7 μEq/L vs. 352.5 μEq/L, P=0.006). However, fasting FFA was not significantly different between the two groups. The prevalence of delivering LGA newborns was increased with increasing tertile of 2h-FFA (T1, 4.3%; T2, 9.8%; T3, 10.7%; P for trend <0.05). After adjustment for maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, and fasting plasma glucose, the highest tertile of 2h-FFA was 2.38 times (95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 5.13) more likely to have LGA newborns than the lowest tertile. However, there was no significant difference between groups according to fasting FFA tertiles.
Conclusion
In women with GDM, a high 2h-FFA level (but not fasting FFA) at mid-pregnancy is associated with an increasing risk of delivering LGA newborns.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Modulation of gut microbiota and lipid metabolism in rats fed high-fat diets by Ganoderma lucidum triterpenoids
    Aijun Tong, Weihao Wu, Zhengxin Chen, Jiahui Wen, Ruibo Jia, Bin Liu, Hui Cao, Chao Zhao
    Current Research in Food Science.2023; 6: 100427.     CrossRef
  • Fetal Abdominal Obesity Detected at 24 to 28 Weeks of Gestation Persists until Delivery Despite Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J 2021;45:547-57)
    Wonjin Kim, Soo Kyung Park, Yoo Lee Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2021; 45(6): 970.     CrossRef
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Dose-Dependent Effect of Smoking on Risk of Diabetes Remains after Smoking Cessation: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study in Korea
Se Eun Park, Mi Hae Seo, Jung-Hwan Cho, Hyemi Kwon, Yang-Hyun Kim, Kyung-Do Han, Jin-Hyung Jung, Yong-Gyu Park, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(4):539-546.   Published online March 4, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0061
  • 7,174 View
  • 183 Download
  • 9 Web of Science
  • 12 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
This study aimed to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of smoking on risk of diabetes among those quitting smoking.
Methods
We analyzed clinical data from a total of 5,198,792 individuals age 20 years or older who received health care check-up arranged by the national insurance program of Korea between 2009 and 2016 using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Cumulative smoking was estimated by pack-years. Smokers were classified into four categories according to the amount of smoking: light smokers (0.025 to 5 smoking pack-years), medium smokers (5 to 14 smoking pack-years), heavy smokers (14 to 26 smoking pack-years), and extreme smokers (more than 26 smoking pack-years).
Results
During the study period, 164,335 individuals (3.2% of the total population) developed diabetes. Compared to sustained smokers, the risk of diabetes was significantly reduced in both quitters (hazard ratio [HR], 0.858; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.838 to 0.878) and nonsmokers (HR, 0.616; 95% CI, 0.606 to 0.625) after adjustment for multiple risk factors. The risk of diabetes gradually increased with amount of smoking in both quitters and current smokers. The risk of diabetes in heavy (HR, 1.119; 95% CI, 1.057 to 1.185) and extreme smokers (HR, 1.348; 95% CI, 1.275 to 1.425) among quitters was much higher compared to light smokers among current smokers.
Conclusion
Smoking cessation was effective in reducing the risk of diabetes regardless of weight change. However, there was a potential dose-dependent association between smoking amount and the development of diabetes. Diabetes risk still remained in heavy and extreme smokers even after smoking cessation.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Concentrations of Interleukin-6, Insulin, and Glucagon in the Context of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in IL6 and INS Genes
    Magdalena Król-Kulikowska, Iwona Urbanowicz, Marta Kepinska, Mayank Choubey
    Journal of Obesity.2024; 2024: 1.     CrossRef
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    Clinical Research in Cardiology.2023; 112(2): 270.     CrossRef
  • Association between Meal Frequency and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Rural Adults: A Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Study
    Bota Baheti, Xiaotian Liu, Mu Wang, Caiyun Zhang, Xiaokang Dong, Ning Kang, Linlin Li, Xing Li, Songcheng Yu, Jian Hou, Zhenxing Mao, Chongjian Wang
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    Xiaomin Sun, Dong Keon Yon, Tuan Thanh Nguyen, Kumpei Tanisawa, Kumhee Son, Ling Zhang, Jing Shu, Wen Peng, Yuexin Yang, Francesco Branca, Mark L. Wahlqvist, Hyunjung Lim, Youfa Wang
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  • Impaired Lung Function and Lung Cancer Incidence: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study
    Hye Seon Kang, Yong-Moon Park, Seung-Hyun Ko, Seung Hoon Kim, Shin Young Kim, Chi Hong Kim, Kyungdo Han, Sung Kyoung Kim
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2022; 11(4): 1077.     CrossRef
  • Smoking cessation and risk of type 2 diabetes
    Jana Malinovská, Jana Urbanová, Veronika Vejtasová, Alexandra Romanová, Sabina Pálová, Syed Taha Naeem, Jan Brož
    Vnitřní lékařství.2022; 68(1): E04.     CrossRef
  • Association between lung function and the risk of atrial fibrillation in a nationwide population cohort study
    Su Nam Lee, Seung-Hyun Ko, Sung-Ho Her, Kyungdo Han, Donggyu Moon, Sung Kyoung Kim, Ki-Dong Yoo, Yu-Bae Ahn
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Sex differences in factors associated with prediabetes in Korean adults
    Jin Suk Ra
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2022; 13(2): 142.     CrossRef
  • Smoking and diabetes interplay: A comprehensive review and joint statement
    Vincent Durlach, Bruno Vergès, Abdallah Al-Salameh, Thibault Bahougne, Farid Benzerouk, Ivan Berlin, Carole Clair, Jacques Mansourati, Alexia Rouland, Daniel Thomas, Philippe Thuillier, Blandine Tramunt, Anne-Laurence Le Faou
    Diabetes & Metabolism.2022; 48(6): 101370.     CrossRef
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    Yanli Wu, Xi He, Jie Zhou, Yiying Wang, Lisha Yu, Xuejiao Li, Tao Liu, Jianhua Luo
    Journal of Diabetes Investigation.2022; 13(12): 2091.     CrossRef
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    Soo Young Kim
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2022; 65(12): 776.     CrossRef
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    So-Ryoung Lee, Eue-Keun Choi, Jin-Hyung Jung, Kyung-Do Han, Seil Oh, Gregory Y. H. Lip
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2021; 10(11): 2238.     CrossRef
Review
Drug/Regimen
Comprehensive Review of Current and Upcoming Anti-Obesity Drugs
Jang Won Son, Sungrae Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(6):802-818.   Published online December 23, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0258
  • 13,985 View
  • 915 Download
  • 51 Web of Science
  • 59 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Obesity is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and its prevalence continues to increase globally. Because obesity is a chronic, complex, and heterogeneous disease influenced by genetic, developmental, biological, and environmental factors, it is necessary to approach obesity with an integrated and comprehensive treatment strategy. As it is difficult to achieve and sustain successful long-term weight loss in most patients with obesity through lifestyle modifications (e.g., diet, exercise, and behavioral therapy), pharmacological approaches to the treatment of obesity should be considered as an adjunct therapy. Currently, four drugs (orlistat, naltrexone extended-release [ER]/bupropion ER, phentermine/topiramate controlled-release, and liraglutide) can be used long-term (>12 weeks) to promote weight loss by suppressing appetite or decreasing fat absorption. Pharmacotherapy for obesity should be conducted according to a proper assessment of the clinical evidence and customized to individual patients considering the characteristics of each drug and comorbidities associated with obesity. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of action, efficacy, and safety of these available long-term anti-obesity drugs and introduce other potential agents under investigation. Furthermore, we discuss the need for research on personalized obesity medicine.

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Original Articles
Clinical Diabetes & Therapeutics
Effectiveness of Exercise Intervention in Reducing Body Weight and Glycosylated Hemoglobin Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Korea: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Ji-Eun Jang, Yongin Cho, Byung Wan Lee, Ein-Soon Shin, Sun Hee Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(3):302-318.   Published online November 19, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0062
  • 5,006 View
  • 91 Download
  • 11 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of exercise intervention in reducing body weight and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Korea.

Methods

Cochrane, PubMed, Embase, KoreaMed, KMbase, NDSL, KCI, RISS, and DBpia databases were used to search randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials that compared exercise with non-exercise intervention among patients with non-insulin-treated T2DM in Korea. The effectiveness of exercise intervention was estimated by the mean difference in body weight changes and HbA1c level. Weighted mean difference (WMD) with its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as the effect size. The pooled mean differences of outcomes were calculated using a random-effects model.

Results

We identified 7,692 studies through literature search and selected 23 articles (723 participants). Compared with the control group, exercise intervention (17 studies) was associated with a significant decline in HbA1c level (WMD, −0.58%; 95% CI, −0.89 to −0.27; I2=73%). Although no significant effectiveness on body weight was observed, eight aerobic training studies showed a significant reduction in body weight (WMD, −2.25 kg; 95% CI, −4.36 to −0.13; I2=17%) in the subgroup analysis.

Conclusion

Exercise significantly improves glycemic control; however, it does not significantly reduce body weight. Aerobic training can be beneficial for patients with non-insulin-treated T2DM in Korea.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    Georgia Papagianni, Chrystalla Panayiotou, Michail Vardas, Nikolaos Balaskas, Constantinos Antonopoulos, Dimitrios Tachmatzidis, Triantafyllos Didangelos, Vaia Lambadiari, Nikolaos P.E. Kadoglou
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Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome
Air Pollution Has a Significant Negative Impact on Intentional Efforts to Lose Weight: A Global Scale Analysis
Morena Ustulin, So Young Park, Sang Ouk Chin, Suk Chon, Jeong-taek Woo, Sang Youl Rhee
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(4):320-329.   Published online April 24, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.0104
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  • 40 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Air pollution causes many diseases and deaths. It is important to see how air pollution affects obesity, which is common worldwide. Therefore, we analyzed data from a smartphone application for intentional weight loss, and then we validated them.

Methods

Our analysis was structured in two parts. We analyzed data from a cohort registered to a smartphone application in 10 large cities of the world and matched it with the annual pollution values. We validated these results using daily pollution data in United States and matching them with user information. Body mass index (BMI) variation between final and initial login time was considered as outcome in the first part, and daily BMI in the validation. We analyzed: daily calories intake, daily weight, daily physical activity, geographical coordinates, seasons, age, gender. Weather Underground application programming interface provided daily climatic values. Annual and daily values of particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 were extracted. In the first part of the analysis, we used 2,608 users and then 995 users located in United States.

Results

Air pollution was highest in Seoul and lowest in Detroit. Users decreased BMI by 2.14 kg/m2 in average (95% confidence interval, −2.26 to −2.04). From a multilevel model, PM10 (β=0.04, P=0.002) and PM2.5 (β=0.08, P<0.001) had a significant negative effect on weight loss when collected per year. The results were confirmed with the validation (βAQI*time=1.5×10–5; P<0.001) by mixed effects model.

Conclusion

This is the first study that shows how air pollution affects intentional weight loss applied on wider area of the world.

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Others
The Effect of 12 Weeks Aerobic, Resistance, and Combined Exercises on Omentin-1 Levels and Insulin Resistance among Type 2 Diabetic Middle-Aged Women
Zeinab AminiLari, Mohammad Fararouei, Sasan Amanat, Ehsan Sinaei, Safa Dianatinasab, Mahmood AminiLari, Nima Daneshi, Mostafa Dianatinasab
Diabetes Metab J. 2017;41(3):205-212.   Published online May 18, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.41.3.205
  • 4,766 View
  • 97 Download
  • 48 Web of Science
  • 47 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Recent studies have shown that omentin-1 derived from adipokines can affect physiological regulations and some metabolic dis-eases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of 12 weeks of aerobic (cycle ergometer), resistance, and combined exercises on omentin-1 level, glucose and insulin resistance indices in overweight middle age women with T2DM. In this study, 60 overweight middle age diabetic women were selected using simple random sampling and they were assigned to three groups of aerobic exercise (n=12), resistant exercise (n=12) and combined exercise (n=13), and one control group (n=15). Exercises were done in a three times per week sessions for a total of 12 weeks. Blood samples were collected before each exercise session and 24 hours after of the last session.

Results

Present study showed that fasting blood sugar decreased significantly in all intervention groups, while homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) decreased only in the aerobic and combined exercises groups. Furthermore, there was a significant increase in the omentin-1 level only in the combined exercise group.

Conclusion

Compared to aerobic and resistance exercises, 12 weeks of combined exercise was more efficient in improving HOMA-IR and increasing serum omentin-1 among women with T2DM.

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Brief Report
Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome
A Cutoff for Age at Menarche Predicting Metabolic Syndrome in Egyptian Overweight/Obese Premenopausal Women
Ibrahim Elsehely, Hala Abdel Hafez, Mohammed Ghonem, Ali Fathi, Rasha Elzehery
Diabetes Metab J. 2017;41(2):146-149.   Published online November 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.41.2.146
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Previous studies showed that early age at menarche is associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome. However, the definition of early menarche at these studies was based on background data in the communities at which these studies was carried on. The aim of this work is to determine a cutoff for age at menarche discriminating presence or absence of metabolic syndrome in overweight/obese premenopausal women. This study included 204 overweight/obese women. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to NCEP-ATP III (National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III) criteria. Of a total 204 participants, 82 (40.2%) had metabolic syndrome. By using receiver operating characteristic analysis, age at menarche ≤12.25 year discriminated individuals with from those without metabolic syndrome. The area under the curve was 0.76 (95% confidence interval, 0.70 to 0.83). Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value were 82%, 70%, 85%, and 64%, respectively. Age at menarche ≤12.25 years predicts the presence of metabolic syndrome in overweight/obese women.

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Original Articles
Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome
Importance of Lean Muscle Maintenance to Improve Insulin Resistance by Body Weight Reduction in Female Patients with Obesity
Yaeko Fukushima, Satoshi Kurose, Hiromi Shinno, Ha Cao Thu, Nana Takao, Hiromi Tsutsumi, Yutaka Kimura
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(2):147-153.   Published online March 27, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.2.147
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

It has recently been suggested that skeletal muscle has an important role in insulin resistance in obesity, in addition to exercise tolerance and the fat index. The aim of this study was to identify body composition factors that contribute to improvement of insulin resistance in female patients with obesity who reduce body weight.

Methods

We studied 92 female obese patients (age 40.9±10.4 years, body mass index 33.2±4.6 kg/m2) who reduced body weight by ≥5% after an intervention program including diet, exercise therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy. Before and after the intervention, body composition was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to examine changes in skeletal muscle mass. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was measured as an index of insulin resistance. Cardiopulmonary exercise was also performed by all patients.

Results

There were significant improvements in body weight (–10.3%±4.5%), exercise tolerance (anaerobic threshold oxygen uptake 9.1%±18.4%, peak oxygen uptake 11.0%±14.2%), and HOMA-IR (–20.2%±38.3%). Regarding body composition, there were significant decreases in total body fat (–19.3%±9.6%), total fat-free mass (–2.7%±4.3%), and % body fat (–10.1%±7.5%), whereas % skeletal muscle significantly increased (8.9%±7.2%). In stepwise multiple linear regression analysis with change in HOMA-IR as the dependent variable, the change in % skeletal muscle was identified as an independent predictor (β=–0.280, R2=0.068, P<0.01).

Conclusion

Improvement of insulin resistance in female obese patients requires maintenance of skeletal muscle mass.

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The Association of Unintentional Changes in Weight, Body Composition, and Homeostasis Model Assessment Index with Glycemic Progression in Non-Diabetic Healthy Subjects
Eun-Jung Rhee, Ji-Hun Choi, Seung-Hyun Yoo, Ji-Cheol Bae, Won-Jun Kim, Eun-Suk Choi, Se Eun Park, Cheol-Young Park, Seok Won Park, Ki-Won Oh, Sung-Woo Park, Sun-Woo Kim, Won-Young Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(2):138-148.   Published online April 30, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.2.138
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

We performed a retrospective longitudinal study on the effects of changes in weight, body composition, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) indices on glycemic progression in subjects without diabetes during a four-year follow-up period in a community cohort without intentional intervention.

Methods

From 28,440 non-diabetic subjects who participated in a medical check-up program in 2004, data on anthropometric and metabolic parameters were obtained after four years in 2008. Body composition analyses were performed with a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Skeletal muscle index (SMI, %) was calculated with lean mass/weight×100. Subjects were divided into three groups according to weight change status in four years: weight loss (≤-5.0%), stable weight (-5.0 to 5.0%), weight gain (≥5.0%). Progressors were defined as the subjects who progressed to impaired fasting glucose or diabetes.

Results

Progressors showed worse baseline metabolic profiles compared with non-progressors. In logistic regression analyses, the increase in changes of HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in four years presented higher odds ratios for glycemic progression compared with other changes during that period. Among the components of body composition, a change in waist-hip ratio was the strongest predictor, and SMI change in four years was a significant negative predictor for glycemic progression. Changes in HOMA β-cell function in four years was a negative predictor for glycemic progression.

Conclusion

Increased interval changes in HOMA-IR, weight gain and waist-hip ratio was associated with glycemic progression during a four-year period without intentional intervention in non-diabetic Korean subjects.

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The Small Rice Bowl-Based Meal Plan was Effective at Reducing Dietary Energy Intake, Body Weight, and Blood Glucose Levels in Korean Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Hee Jung Ahn, Kyung Ah Han, Hwi Ryun Kwon, Kyung Wan Min
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(6):340-349.   Published online December 31, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.6.340
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The typical Korean diet includes rice, which is usually served in a rice bowl. We investigated the effects of a meal plan using rice bowls of varying sizes on dietary energy intake (EI), body weight (BW), and blood glucose levels.

Methods

Forty-two obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly assigned to use either a 200 mL small rice bowl (SB), a 380 mL regular rice bowl (RB), or to a control group (C). Both intervention groups were asked to reduce their EI by 500 kcal/day for 12 weeks and simple instructions for using the assigned bowl were provided. Dietary EI and proportion of macronutrients (PMN) were estimated from 3-day dietary records.

Results

Reduction of EI was more prominent in the SB group compared to the RB and C group, although EI decreased significantly from baseline in all groups. Carbohydrate and fat intakes of the SB group were decreased greater than those of the RB and C group. However, changes in PMN were not significant across the 3 groups. Reduction of BW and HbA1c levels in the SB group was more prominent compared to the C group. Although, BW and HbA1c were decreased significantly from baseline in both bowl groups. There was no statistical difference between the two groups.

Conclusion

The small rice bowl-based meal plan was effective at reducing EI, BW, and blood glucose levels, and the observed reductions in EI, carbohydrate, and fat intake were greater than those of the regular rice bowl-based meal plan.

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Small Rice Bowl-Based Meal Plan versus Food Exchange-Based Meal Plan for Weight, Glucose and Lipid Control in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Patients
Hee-Jung Ahn, Kyung-Ah Han, Hwi-Ryun Kwon, Bo-Kyung Koo, Hyun-Jin Kim, Kang-Seo Park, Kyung-Wan Min
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(2):86-94.   Published online April 30, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.2.86
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Background

The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys reported 65% of daily energy intake (EI) as carbohydrate (CHO) in the Korean population and main source of CHO was cooked rice. We used a standardized-small sized rice bowl for diet education and investigated its effectiveness on body weight, glucose and lipid, compared to the conventional food exchange system in type 2 diabetes obese women.

Methods

Type 2 diabetic women with body mass index ≥ 23 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to small rice bowl-based meal plan (BM) and food exchange-based meal plan (ExM) group. Both groups were asked to reduce their EI by 500 kcal/day for 12 weeks. The macronutrient composition was instructed: 55 to 60% of EI as CHO, 15 to 20% as protein, and 20 to 25% as fat. BM group received only a simple instruction for application of the rice bowl. Nutrient intake was estimated with the 3-day dietary records.

Results

Finally, 44 subjects finished the study. The percent reduction of body weight was significant both BM group (-5.1 ± 2.6%) and ExM group (-4.8 ± 2.8%) after 12 weeks (P < 0.001) but there was no difference between the groups. There was no difference in the proportional change of CHO, protein and fat in EI between the groups. Additionally, the change of HbA1c and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol were not significantly different between the two groups.

Conclusion

The BM group was as effective as ExM for body weight and glucose control in type 2 diabetes obese women.

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Randomized Controlled Trial
The Effects of Low-Calorie Diets on Abdominal Visceral Fat, Muscle Mass, and Dietary Quality in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Subjects.
Hee Jung Ahn, Youn Ok Cho, Hwi Ryun Kwon, Yun Hyi Ku, Bo Kyung Koo, Kyung Ah Han, Kyung Wan Min
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(6):526-536.   Published online December 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.6.526
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Weight loss through low-calorie diets (LCDs) decreases visceral fat (VF). However, the effects on muscle mass, changes of dietary quality, and insulin sensitivity are unknown for Korean obese type 2 diabetic subjects. Therefore, this study examined such effects of LCDs. METHODS: A total of 30 obese type 2 diabetic subjects (body mass index, 27.0 +/- 2.2 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to an LCD or control group. Subjects on LCDs took 500~1,000 kcal fewer energy than their usual dietary intake (1,000~1,500 kcal/day) over the course of 12 weeks. The abdominal VF and femoral muscle mass were evaluated by computed tomography, and insulin sensitivity was assessed using an insulin tolerance test (Kitt; rate constant for plasma glucose disappearance, %/min). Dietary nutrient intake consumed by subjects was assessed by 3-day food records. RESULTS: The percent VF reduction was -23.4 +/- 17.2% in the LCD group and -9.8 +/- 11.8% in the control group after 12 weeks (P < 0.001, P = 0.002). However, significant decrease in femoral mass or proportional change of marcronutrient intake and mean adequacy ratio were not found in the LCD group, as compared to the control group. Insulin sensitivity improved in the LCD group, as compared to the control group (P = 0.040). CONCLUSION: LCD effectively improved insulin sensitivity and reduced abdominal VF without reduction of femoral muscle and dietary quality in obese type 2 diabetic subjects.

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Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal