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Clinical Diabetes & Therapeutics
Recent Updates on Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Management for Clinicians
Ahmed Iqbal, Peter Novodvorsky, Simon R. Heller
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(1):3-18.   Published online February 23, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.42.1.3
  • 7,150 View
  • 93 Download
  • 18 Web of Science
  • 19 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic autoimmune condition that requires life-long administration of insulin. Optimal management of T1DM entails a good knowledge and understanding of this condition both by the physician and the patient. Recent introduction of novel insulin preparations, technological advances in insulin delivery and glucose monitoring, such as continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and continuous glucose monitoring and improved understanding of the detrimental effects of hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia offer new opportunities and perspectives in T1DM management. Evidence from clinical trials suggests an important role of structured patient education. Our efforts should be aimed at improved metabolic control with concomitant reduction of hypoglycaemia. Despite recent advances, these goals are not easy to achieve and can put significant pressure on people with T1DM. The approach of physicians should therefore be maximally supportive. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent advances in T1DM management focusing on novel insulin preparations, ways of insulin administration and glucose monitoring and the role of metformin or sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors in T1DM management. We then discuss our current understanding of the effects of hypoglycaemia on human body and strategies aimed at mitigating the risks associated with hypoglycaemia.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Health-Related Quality of Life of Adolescents and Children With Type 1 Diabetes in the Jazan Region of Saudi Arabia
    Gassem A Gohal, Aqilah Majhali, Esaam Moafa, Sarah H Talebi, Bushra I Maashi, Amani Mutaen, Walaa J Alhamdan, Ibrahim M Dighriri
    Cureus.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Nose-to-brain delivery of insulin nanoparticles for diabetes management: A review
    Manoj Kumbhare, Ajaykumar Surana, Pravin Morankar
    Baghdad Journal of Biochemistry and Applied Biological Sciences.2023; 4(02): 39.     CrossRef
  • Clinical Effects of a Home Care Pilot Program for Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Retrospective Cohort Study
    Sejeong Lee, KyungYi Kim, Ji Eun Kim, Yura Hyun, Minyoung Lee, Myung-Il Hahm, Sang Gyu Lee, Eun Seok Kang
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(5): 693.     CrossRef
  • Impact of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy programme on HbA1c, self-management and psychosocial factors in adults with type 1 diabetes and elevated HbA1c levels: a randomised controlled trial
    Ingrid Wijk, Susanne Amsberg, Unn-Britt Johansson, Fredrik Livheim, Eva Toft, Therese Anderbro
    BMJ Open.2023; 13(12): e072061.     CrossRef
  • Role of sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) in hypoxic injury in pancreatic β-cells
    Ye-Jee Lee, Esder Lee, Young-Hye You, Yu-Bae Ahn, Ki-Ho Song, Ji-Won Kim, Seung-Hyun Ko
    Journal of Drug Targeting.2021; 29(1): 88.     CrossRef
  • Age at Diagnosis and the Risk of Diabetic Nephropathy in Young Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
    Jong Ha Baek, Woo Je Lee, Byung-Wan Lee, Soo Kyoung Kim, Gyuri Kim, Sang-Man Jin, Jae Hyeon Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2021; 45(1): 46.     CrossRef
  • The impact of chemical engineering and technological advances on managing diabetes: present and future concepts
    Sabine Szunerits, Sorin Melinte, Alexandre Barras, Quentin Pagneux, Anna Voronova, Amar Abderrahmani, Rabah Boukherroub
    Chemical Society Reviews.2021; 50(3): 2102.     CrossRef
  • Surrogate markers and predictors of endogenous insulin secretion in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes
    Jin-Na Yuan, Jian-Wei Zhang, Wayne S. Cutfield, Guan-Ping Dong, You-Jun Jiang, Wei Wu, Ke Huang, Xiao-Chun Chen, Yan Zheng, Bi-Hong Liu, José G. B. Derraik, Jun-Fen Fu
    World Journal of Pediatrics.2021; 17(1): 99.     CrossRef
  • Nano-based drug delivery systems used as vehicles to enhance polyphenols therapeutic effect for diabetes mellitus treatment
    Sónia Rocha, Mariana Lucas, Daniela Ribeiro, M. Luísa Corvo, Eduarda Fernandes, Marisa Freitas
    Pharmacological Research.2021; 169: 105604.     CrossRef
  • Dapagliflozin: an effective adjunctive treatment in type 1 diabetes
    Ghasem Yadegarfar, Mark Livingston, Gabriela Cortes, Ramadan Alshames, Kate Leivesley, Ann Metters, Linda Horne, Tom Steele, Adrian H. Heald
    Cardiovascular Endocrinology & Metabolism.2021; 10(2): 132.     CrossRef
  • Association between reduced serum levels of magnesium and the presence of poor glycemic control and complications in type 1 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Ana Kelen Rodrigues, Ana Elisa Melo, Caroline Pereira Domingueti
    Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews.2020; 14(2): 127.     CrossRef
  • Insulin-Producing Cell Transplantation Platform for Veterinary Practice
    Suryo Kuncorojakti, Sayamon Srisuwatanasagul, Krishaporn Kradangnga, Chenphop Sawangmake
    Frontiers in Veterinary Science.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Type 1 Diabetes Home Care Project and Educational Consultation
    Eun Chong Shin
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2020; 21(2): 88.     CrossRef
  • Decision-Making in Artificial Intelligence: Is It Always Correct?
    Hun-Sung Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The FreeStyle Libre flash glucose monitoring system: how it has improved glycaemic control for people with type 1 diabetes in Eastern Cheshire, UK
    Ghasem Yadegarfar, Simon G. Anderson, Zohaib Khawaja, Gabriela Cortes, Kathryn Leivesley, Ann Metters, Linda Horne, Tom Steele, Adrian H. Heald
    Cardiovascular Endocrinology & Metabolism.2020; 9(4): 171.     CrossRef
  • Dose-dependent effects of necrostatin-1 supplementation to tissue culture media of young porcine islets
    Hien Lau, Nicole Corrales, Samuel Rodriguez, Colleen Luong, Mohammadreza Mohammadi, Veria Khosrawipour, Shiri Li, Michael Alexander, Paul de Vos, Jonathan R. T. Lakey, Zoltán Rakonczay
    PLOS ONE.2020; 15(12): e0243506.     CrossRef
  • New Insulin Pumps and Open Source Artificial Pancreas System in Korea
    Jae Hyeon Kim
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2020; 21(4): 197.     CrossRef
  • Perspective and general approach of diabetes in palliative care
    Díaz Rodríguez Juan Javier
    Hospice and Palliative Medicine International Journal.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The effects of safranal, a constitute of saffron, and metformin on spatial learning and memory impairments in type-1 diabetic rats: behavioral and hippocampal histopathological and biochemical evaluations
    Fatemeh Delkhosh-Kasmaie, Amir Abbas Farshid, Esmaeal Tamaddonfard, Mehdi Imani
    Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy.2018; 107: 203.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Clinical Care/Education
Comparison of Glucose Area Under the Curve Measured Using Minimally Invasive Interstitial Fluid Extraction Technology with Continuous Glucose Monitoring System in Diabetic Patients
Mei Uemura, Yutaka Yano, Toshinari Suzuki, Taro Yasuma, Toshiyuki Sato, Aya Morimoto, Samiko Hosoya, Chihiro Suminaka, Hiromu Nakajima, Esteban C. Gabazza, Yoshiyuki Takei
Diabetes Metab J. 2017;41(4):265-274.   Published online July 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.41.4.265
  • 4,717 View
  • 55 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is reported to be a useful technique, but difficult or inconvenient for some patients and institutions. We are developing a glucose area under the curve (AUC) monitoring system without blood sampling using a minimally invasive interstitial fluid extraction technology (MIET). Here we evaluated the accuracy of interstitial fluid glucose (IG) AUC measured by MIET in patients with diabetes for an extended time interval and the potency of detecting hyperglycemia using CGM data as a reference.

Methods

Thirty-eight inpatients with diabetes undergoing CGM were enrolled. MIET comprised a pretreatment step using a plastic microneedle array and glucose accumulation step with a hydrogel patch, which was placed on two sites from 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM or from 10:00 PM to 6:00 AM. IG AUC was calculated by accumulated glucose extracted by hydrogel patches using sodium ion as standard.

Results

A significant correlation was observed between the predicted AUC by MIET and CGM in daytime (r=0.76) and nighttime (r=0.82). The optimal cutoff for the IG AUC value of MIET to predict hyperglycemia over 200 mg/dL measured by CGM for 8 hours was 1,067.3 mg·hr/dL with 88.2% sensitivity and 81.5% specificity.

Conclusion

We showed that 8-hour IG AUC levels using MIET were valuable in estimating the blood glucose AUC without blood sampling. The results also supported the concept of using this technique for evaluating glucose excursion and for screening hyperglycemia during 8 hours in patients with diabetes at any time of day.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Efficacy of Postprandial Exercise in Mitigating Glycemic Responses in Overweight Individuals and Individuals with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Jie Kang, Brian M. Fardman, Nicholas A. Ratamess, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Jill A. Bush
    Nutrients.2023; 15(20): 4489.     CrossRef
  • Multifunctional Wearable System that Integrates Sweat‐Based Sensing and Vital‐Sign Monitoring to Estimate Pre‐/Post‐Exercise Glucose Levels
    Yongseok Joseph Hong, Hyunjae Lee, Jaemin Kim, Minha Lee, Hyung Jin Choi, Taeghwan Hyeon, Dae‐Hyeong Kim
    Advanced Functional Materials.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
Others
Satisfaction Survey on Information Technology-Based Glucose Monitoring System Targeting Diabetes Mellitus in Private Local Clinics in Korea
Hun-Sung Kim, So Jung Yang, Yoo Jin Jeong, Young-Eun Kim, Seok-Won Hong, Jae Hyoung Cho
Diabetes Metab J. 2017;41(3):213-222.   Published online June 21, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.41.3.213
  • 5,107 View
  • 40 Download
  • 8 Web of Science
  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Private local clinics in Korea have little experience with information technology (IT)-based glucose monitoring (ITGM). Our aim is to examine user satisfaction and the possibility of using ITGM service practically.

Methods

Patients sent their blood glucose levels to physicians in local clinics. The physicians reviewed the blood glucose values online and provided personal consultations through text messaging or phone calls. Thereafter, a satisfaction survey on the ITGM service, the modified Morisky scale, and patient assessment of chronic illness care were administered.

Results

One hundred and seventy patients from seven private local clinics used the ITGM. Overall satisfaction, including that about the ITGM service, the device, and its usefulness, was rated higher than “mostly satisfied” (score 4.2±0.8 out of 5.0) and even higher among the elderly. Satisfaction was positively associated with age, especially in those older than 60 years. The main reason for intent for future use of the service was the time/place flexibility. Highly motivated patients tended to answer positively regarding information satisfaction (P=0.0377).

Conclusion

Our study is the first to investigate ITGM satisfaction in private local clinics. The feasibility of users utilizing ITGM should be clarified, and future clinical research on the service's clinical effects and cost-benefit analysis is needed.

Citations

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  • Exploring Quantitative Methodologies for Assessing the Environmental, Social, and Economic Impacts of Telemedicine: A Literature Review
    Anna Savoldelli, Daniele Landi, Caterina Rizzi
    Sustainability.2024; 16(6): 2438.     CrossRef
  • Telemedicine for Diabetes Mellitus Management in Older Adults: A Systematic Review
    Luca Schiliró Tristão, Guilherme Tavares, Francisco Tustumi, Wanderley Marques Bernardo, Márcio Luis Duarte, Maria Stella Peccin, Lucas Ribeiro dos Santos
    Current Diabetes Reviews.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The effectiveness of mobile application for monitoring diabetes mellitus and hypertension in the adult and elderly population: systematic review and meta-analysis
    Emily de Souza Ferreira, Fernanda de Aguiar Franco, Marina Marilac dos Santos Lara, André Amaral Levcovitz, Mateus Araújo Dias, Tiago Ricardo Moreira, Ary Henrique Morais de Oliveira, Rosângela Minardi Mitre Cotta
    BMC Health Services Research.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effects of the Physician–Primary-Healthcare Nurse Telemedicine Model (P-NTM) on Medication Adherence and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of Patients with Chronic Disease at Remote Rural Areas
    Mi Young Kwak, Eun Jeong Hwang, Tae Ho Lee
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(5): 2502.     CrossRef
  • Lessons from Use of Continuous Glucose Monitoring Systems in Digital Healthcare
    Hun-Sung Kim, Kun-Ho Yoon
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2020; 35(3): 541.     CrossRef
  • Apprehensions about Excessive Belief in Digital Therapeutics: Points of Concern Excluding Merits
    Hun-Sung Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Peripartum Management of Gestational Diabetes Using a Digital Health Care Service: A Pilot, Randomized Controlled Study
    Ji-Hee Sung, Da Young Lee, Kyoung Pil Min, Cheol-Young Park
    Clinical Therapeutics.2019; 41(11): 2426.     CrossRef
  • Mobile Phone–Based Telemedicine Practice in Older Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Randomized Controlled Trial
    Chenglin Sun, Lin Sun, Shugang Xi, Hong Zhang, Huan Wang, Yakun Feng, Yufeng Deng, Haimin Wang, Xianchao Xiao, Gang Wang, Yuan Gao, Guixia Wang
    JMIR mHealth and uHealth.2019; 7(1): e10664.     CrossRef
Others
Evaluation of a Novel Glucose Area Under the Curve (AUC) Monitoring System: Comparison with the AUC by Continuous Glucose Monitoring
Satoshi Ugi, Hiroshi Maegawa, Katsutaro Morino, Yoshihiko Nishio, Toshiyuki Sato, Seiki Okada, Yasuo Kikkawa, Toshihiro Watanabe, Hiromu Nakajima, Atsunori Kashiwagi
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(4):326-333.   Published online July 26, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.4.326
  • 5,983 View
  • 73 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Management of postprandial hyperglycemia is a key aspect in diabetes treatment. We developed a novel system to measure glucose area under the curve (AUC) using minimally invasive interstitial fluid extraction technology (MIET) for simple monitoring of postprandial glucose excursions. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between our system and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) by comparing glucose AUC obtained using MIET with that obtained using CGM for a long duration.

Methods

Twenty diabetic inpatients wearing a CGM system were enrolled. For MIET measurement, a plastic microneedle array was applied to the skin as pretreatment, and hydrogels were placed on the pretreated area to collect interstitial fluid. Hydrogels were replaced every 2 or 4 hours and AUC was predicted on the basis of glucose and sodium ion levels.

Results

AUC predicted by MIET correlated well with that measured by CGM (r=0.93). Good performances of both consecutive 2- and 4-hour measurements were observed (measurement error: 11.7%±10.2% for 2 hours and 11.1%±7.9% for 4 hours), indicating the possibility of repetitive measurements up to 8 hours. The influence of neither glucose fluctuation nor average glucose level over the measurement accuracy was observed through 8 hours.

Conclusion

Our system showed good relationship with AUC values from CGM up to 8 hours, indicating that single pretreatment can cover a large portion of glucose excursion in a day. These results indicated possibility of our system to contribute to convenient monitoring of glucose excursions for a long duration.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Continuous glucose monitoring metrics and pregnancy outcomes in insulin‐treated diabetes: A post‐hoc analysis of the GlucoMOMS trial
    Doortje Rademaker, Anne W. T. van der Wel, Rik van Eekelen, Daphne N. Voormolen, Harold W. de Valk, Inge M. Evers, Ben Willem Mol, Arie Franx, Sarah E. Siegelaar, Bas B. van Rijn, J. Hans DeVries, Rebecca C. Painter
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2023; 25(12): 3798.     CrossRef
  • Regimen comprising GLP-1 receptor agonist and basal insulin can decrease the effect of food on glycemic variability compared to a pre-mixed insulin regimen
    Yi-Hsuan Lin, Chia-Hung Lin, Yu-Yao Huang, Hsin-Yun Chen, An-Shun Tai, Shih-Chen Fu, Sheng-Hwu Hsieh, Jui-Hung Sun, Szu-Tah Chen, Sheng-Hsuan Lin
    European Journal of Medical Research.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Zhenqiang Fu, Jingtao Wang, Jingtao Wang
    JMIR Medical Informatics.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Comparison of Glucose Area Under the Curve Measured Using Minimally Invasive Interstitial Fluid Extraction Technology with Continuous Glucose Monitoring System in Diabetic Patients
    Mei Uemura, Yutaka Yano, Toshinari Suzuki, Taro Yasuma, Toshiyuki Sato, Aya Morimoto, Samiko Hosoya, Chihiro Suminaka, Hiromu Nakajima, Esteban C. Gabazza, Yoshiyuki Takei
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2017; 41(4): 265.     CrossRef
1,5-Anhydroglucitol as a Useful Marker for Assessing Short-Term Glycemic Excursions in Type 1 Diabetes
Hannah Seok, Ji Hye Huh, Hyun Min Kim, Byung-Wan Lee, Eun Seok Kang, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Diabetes Metab J. 2015;39(2):164-170.   Published online March 9, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2015.39.2.164
  • 4,405 View
  • 45 Download
  • 21 Web of Science
  • 20 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Type 1 diabetes is associated with more severe glycemic variability and more frequent hypoglycemia than type 2 diabetes. Glycemic variability is associated with poor glycemic control and diabetic complications. In this study, we demonstrate the clinical usefulness of serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) for assessing changes in glycemic excursion in type 1 diabetes.

Methods

Seventeen patients with type 1 diabetes were enrolled in this study. A continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) was applied twice at a 2-week interval to evaluate changes in glycemic variability. The changes in serum glycemic assays, including 1,5-AG, glycated albumin and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), were also evaluated.

Results

Most subjects showed severe glycemic excursions, including hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. The change in 1,5-AG level was significantly correlated with changes in the glycemic excursion indices of the standard deviation (SD), mean amplitude of glucose excursion (MAGE), lability index, mean postmeal maximum glucose, and area under the curve for glucose above 180 mg/dL (r=-0.576, -0.613, -0.600, -0.630, and -0.500, respectively; all P<0.05). Changes in glycated albumin were correlated with changes in SD and MAGE (r=0.495 and 0.517, respectively; all P<0.05). However, changes in HbA1c were not correlated with any changes in the CGMS variables.

Conclusion

1,5-AG may be a useful marker for the assessment of short-term changes in glycemic variability. Furthermore, 1,5-AG may have clinical implications for the evaluation and treatment of glycemic excursions in type 1 diabetes.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The progress of clinical research on the detection of 1,5-anhydroglucitol in diabetes and its complications
    Huijuan Xu, Junhua Pan, Qiu Chen
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Glycemic dispersion: a new index for screening high glycemic variability
    Rui Shi, Lei Feng, Yan-Mei Liu, Wen-Bo Xu, Bei-Bei Luo, Ling-Tong Tang, Qian-Ye Bi, Hui-Ying Cao
    Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Digital Behavior Change Interventions to Reduce Sedentary Behavior and Promote Physical Activity in Adults with Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
    Xiaoyan Zhang, Xue Qiao, Ke Peng, Shan Gao, Yufang Hao
    International Journal of Behavioral Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • DBS are suitable for 1,5-anhydroglucitol monitoring in GSD1b and G6PC3-deficient patients taking SGLT2 inhibitors to treat neutropenia
    Joseph P. Dewulf, Nathalie Chevalier, Sandrine Marie, Maria Veiga-da-Cunha
    Molecular Genetics and Metabolism.2023; 140(3): 107712.     CrossRef
  • The correlation between serum 1, 5-anhydroglucitol and β-cell function in Chinese adults with different glucose metabolism statuses
    Yuexing Yuan, Yuanyuan Tan, Yao Wang, Shanhu Qiu, Jiao Yang, Cheng Chen
    International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • HbA1c combined with glycated albumin or 1,5‐anhydroglucitol improves the efficiency of diabetes screening in a Chinese population
    Junyi Qian, Cheng Chen, Xiaohang Wang, Yuanyuan Tan, Jiao Yang, Yuexing Yuan, Juan Chen, Haijian Guo, Bei Wang, Zilin Sun, Yao Wang
    Diabetic Medicine.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Mohamed Hassanein, Tariq Shafi
    BMC Medicine.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Emma S. Scott, Andrzej S. Januszewski, Luke M. Carroll, Gregory R. Fulcher, Mugdha V. Joglekar, Anandwardhan A. Hardikar, Timothy W. Jones, Elizabeth A. Davis, Alicia J. Jenkins
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    Takakazu Yagi, Koji Ataka, Kai-Chun Cheng, Hajime Suzuki, Keizaburo Ogata, Yumiko Yoshizaki, Kazunori Takamine, Ikuo Kato, Shouichi Miyawaki, Akio Inui, Akihiro Asakawa
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    R. Livingstone, J. G. Boyle, J. R. Petrie
    Diabetic Medicine.2020; 37(4): 513.     CrossRef
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    Mikhail B. Antsiferov, Gagik R. Galstyan, Alexey V. Zilov, Alexander Y. Mayorov, Tatyana N. Markova, Nikolay A. Demidov, Olga M. Koteshkova, Dmitry N. Laptev, Alisa V. Vitebskaya
    Diabetes mellitus.2019; 22(3): 281.     CrossRef
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    Namrata Sanjeevi, Leah M. Lipsky, Tonja R. Nansel
    Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.2019; 119(8): 1340.     CrossRef
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    Kai Zhang, Bizhen Xue, Yuexing Yuan, Yao Wang
    International Journal of Endocrinology.2019; 2019: 1.     CrossRef
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    Hermes J Florez
    The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology.2018; 6(6): 433.     CrossRef
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    Gabriella Lavalle, Roberto Testa, Maria Elisabetta Onori, Raffaella Vero, Anna Vero
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    Leah M. Lipsky, Benjamin Gee, Aiyi Liu, Tonja R. Nansel
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2016; 120: 97.     CrossRef
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    Suk Chon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2015; 39(2): 114.     CrossRef
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    Ji-Eun Lee
    Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism.2015; 20(2): 74.     CrossRef
  • Glycemic Variability: How Do We Measure It and Why Is It Important?
    Sunghwan Suh, Jae Hyeon Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2015; 39(4): 273.     CrossRef
Effectiveness of 3-Day Continuous Glucose Monitoring for Improving Glucose Control in Type 2 Diabetic Patients in Clinical Practice
Soo Kyoung Kim, Hye Jeong Kim, Taehun Kim, Kyu Yeon Hur, Sun Wook Kim, Moon-Kyu Lee, Yong-Ki Min, Kwang-Won Kim, Jae Hoon Chung, Jae Hyeon Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(6):449-455.   Published online December 15, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2014.38.6.449
  • 5,040 View
  • 38 Download
  • 16 Web of Science
  • 16 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The aim of this study was to investigate whether adjusting diabetic treatment regimens according to the information obtained from a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) might lead to improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Methods

We reviewed the medical charts of 172 patients who used the CGMS for 1 year starting in December 2008 and the records of 1,500 patients who visited their regular outpatient clinics during December 2008. Of these patients, a total of 65 CGMS patients and 301 regular outpatients (control group) were enrolled in the study after propensity score matching. There were no differences in baseline glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), age, and duration of diabetes between the CGMS and the control groups after propensity score matching. The changes in the HbA1c levels from baseline to 6 months were calculated.

Results

The CGMS group showed a significant improvement in the HbA1c level compared to the control group at 3 months (7.9%±1.6% vs. 7.4%±1.2%, P=0.001) and at 6 months (7.4%±1.2% vs. 7.9%±1.6%, P=0.010). There were significant differences in the treatment modality changes between the CGMS group and the control group.

Conclusion

Using a 3-day CGMS was advantageous for improving glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes and may help these patients to optimize glycemic control in clinical practice.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Biological and Clinical Impacts of Glucose Metabolism in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma
    Zhao Liu, Hiromitsu Hayashi, Kazuki Matsumura, Norio Uemura, Yuta Shiraishi, Hiroki Sato, Hideo Baba
    Cancers.2023; 15(2): 498.     CrossRef
  • Professional continuous glucose monitoring in patients with diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta‐analysis
    Sergio Di Molfetta, Irene Caruso, Angelo Cignarelli, Annalisa Natalicchio, Sebastio Perrini, Luigi Laviola, Francesco Giorgino
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2023; 25(5): 1301.     CrossRef
  • American Association of Clinical Endocrinology Clinical Practice Guideline: The Use of Advanced Technology in the Management of Persons With Diabetes Mellitus
    George Grunberger, Jennifer Sherr, Myriam Allende, Thomas Blevins, Bruce Bode, Yehuda Handelsman, Richard Hellman, Rosemarie Lajara, Victor Lawrence Roberts, David Rodbard, Carla Stec, Jeff Unger
    Endocrine Practice.2021; 27(6): 505.     CrossRef
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    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Othmar Moser, Marlene Pandis, Felix Aberer, Harald Kojzar, Daniel Hochfellner, Hesham Elsayed, Melanie Motschnig, Thomas Augustin, Philipp Kreuzer, Thomas R. Pieber, Harald Sourij, Julia K. Mader
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The Correlation and Accuracy of Glucose Levels between Interstitial Fluid and Venous Plasma by Continuous Glucose Monitoring System
Young Ha Baek, Heung Yong Jin, Kyung Ae Lee, Seon Mee Kang, Woong Ji Kim, Min Gul Kim, Ji Hyun Park, Soo Wan Chae, Hong Sun Baek, Tae Sun Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(6):350-358.   Published online December 31, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.6.350
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Clinical experience with the continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGMS) is limited in Korea. The objective of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of the CGMS and the correlation between interstitial fluid and venous plasma glucose level in Korean healthy male subjects.

Methods

Thirty-two subjects were served with glucose solution contained same amount of test food's carbohydrate and test foods after separate overnight fasts. CGMS was performed over 3 days during hopitalization for each subjects. Venous plasma glucose measurements were carried out during 4 hours (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 4 hours) just before and after glucose solution and test food load. The performance of the CGMS was evaluated by comparing its readings to those obtained at the same time by the hexokinase method using the auto biochemistry machine (Hitachi 7600-110). Also, correlations between glucose recorded with CGMS and venous plasma glucose value were examined.

Results

CGMS slightly underestimated the glucose value as compared with the venous plasma glucose level (16.3 ± 22.2 mg/dL). Correlation between CGMS and venous plasma glucose values throughout sensor lifetime is 0.73 (regression analysis: slope = 1.08, intercept = 8.38 mg/dL). Sensor sensitivity can deteriorate over time, with correlations between venous blood glucose and CGMS values dropping from 0.77 during 1st day to 0.65 during 2nd and 3rd day.

Conclusion

The accuracy of data provided by CGMS may be less than expected. CGMS sensor sensitivity is decreased with the passage of time. But, from this study, CGMS can be used for glucose variability tendency monitoring conveniently to the Korean.

Citations

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Randomized Controlled Trial
Establishment of Blood Glucose Monitoring System using Internet.
Hee Soo Kim, Jae Hyoung Cho, Hyuk Sang Kwon, Jin Hee Lee, Bok Re Song, Jung A Oh, Kun Ho Yoon, Ho Young Son
Korean Diabetes J. 2003;27(3):280-287.   Published online June 1, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The internet has been used world wide as a communication tool. To improve the quality of glucose control, the effectiveness of an Internet-based Blood Glucose Monitoring System (IBGMS), on changes in HbA1c levels, was investigated. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A randomized clinical trial, involving 110 patients who had visited outpatient's clinic at the Kangnam St. Mary's Hospital diabetes center for 3 months, was conducted. The study subjects were treated with IBGMS for 12 weeks, with a control group receiving the usual outpatient management for the same period. HbA1C and other laboratory tests were performed at the baseline and at the end of the study. RESULTS: There were no significant differences found between the two groups at the baseline measurements, with respect to age, sex, diabetes duration, body mass index, blood pressure, HbA1C and other laboratory data. In the follow up tests, the study group showed a significant reduction in the HbA1C level, by 7.1% (0.54% absolute, p=0.001), while the control group showed an increased HbA1C level (p=0.054). Moreover, there was an 11.1% reduction (0.92% absolute, p<0.001) in the HbA1C level in the patients with HbA1C levels > or =7.0% at baseline in the study group, but those with HbA1C levels <7.0% maintained good HbA1c levels, 6.32%, by the end of the study. CONCLUSIONS: This new IBGMS resulted in a significant reduction in the HbA1C levels during the study period. We propose this IBGMS as a new method for glycemic control.
Original Article
Effect of Self-monitoring of Blood Glucose on Pregnancy Outcome in Women with Mild Gestational Diabetes.
Hak Chul Jang, Jeong Eun Park, Chang Hoon Yim, Ho Yeun Chung, Ki Ok Han, Hyun Koo Yoon, In Kwon Han, Moon Young Kim, Jae Hyug Yang, Mi Jung Kim, Sun Young Ko, Yeon Kyung Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2001;25(1):93-102.   Published online February 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and intensive therapy with insulin demonstrated to have a positive effects in the reduction of the neonatal complications in women with gestational diabetes (GDM). However the utility of SMBG in the mild GDM who does not requiring insulin has not been formally reported. Therefore, to evaluate the effectiveness of SMBG in the management of mild GDM, we compared the pregnancy outcome and the postpartum glucose tolerance of women who monitored their glycemic control by SMBG to those of women who monitored by laboratory glucose test at each office visit during pregnancy. METHODS: We studied 185 women diagnosed as a GDM by NDDG criteria and their fasting glucose concentration < 5.8 mM. All subjects had singleton pregnancy,and no medical diseases that may affect fetal growth, and were certain of gestational age by early ultrasonography. They were treated with an identical GDM management protocol except glucose monitoring. One hundred five women were monitored by laboratory glucose test at each office visit (office group) and 80 women were monitored by SMBG (SMBG group). Pregnancy outcome including rates of cesarian section, obstetric complication, LGA infant and glucose tolerance status at postpartum were compared between two groups. RESULTS: The age, height, prepregnancy weight, weight at delivery and parity were not significantly different between the two groups. Fasting, 1-h, 2-h glucose concentration during the diagnostic test of GDM in SMBG group were similar to those of office group. However, 3-h glucose concentration of office group was 0.3 mM higher than that of SMBG group. The rate of primary cesarian section, preterm labor and pregnancy-induced hypertension of SMBG group were similar to those of office group. The mean postprandial 2-h glucose concentration of office group measured at each office was 0.5 mM higher than that of SMBG group. Although 5% of office group were treated with insulin, 24% of SMBG group were requiring insulin therapy. The birth weight and LGA infant rate of office group were 3403 432 g and 28%, those were heavier and higher than those of SMBG group (3169 447 g, 13.8%). The 90% of office group and 84% of SMBG group were performed 75 g oral glucose tolerance test at postpartum 6-8 weeks. There was no significant difference in rates of diabetes and IGT between office and SMBG group (9.5%, 11.6%; 7.5%, 9.0% respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that SMBG is very seful in early detection of maternal hyperglycemia and lowing the postprandial glucose, as well as reducing the rate of LGA infants in women with mild GDM.

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