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Glycemic Effects of Rebaudioside A and Erythritol in People with Glucose Intolerance
Dong Hee Shin, Ji Hye Lee, Myung Shin Kang, Tae Hoon Kim, Su Jin Jeong, Chong Hwa Kim, Sang Soo Kim, In Joo Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(4):283-289.   Published online June 15, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.4.283
  • 5,521 View
  • 49 Download
  • 18 Web of Science
  • 19 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Rebaudioside A and erythritol are nonnutritive sweeteners. There have been several studies of their glycemic effects, but the outcomes remain controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the glycemic effects of rebaudioside A and erythritol as a sweetener in people with glucose intolerance.

Methods

This trial evaluated the glycemic effect after 2 weeks of consumption of rebaudioside A and erythritol as sweeteners in a pre-diabetic population. The patients were evaluated for fructosamine, fasting plasma glucose, C-peptide, insulin, and 2-hour plasma glucose before and after consumption of sweetener. The primary outcome was a change in fructosamine levels from the baseline to the end of treatment. Secondary outcomes were the changes in levels of fasting plasma glucose and 2-hour plasma glucose.

Results

From the baseline to the end of experiment, the changes in fructosamine levels after consumption of rebaudioside A and erythritol, did not differ significantly (244.00±19.57 vs. 241.68±23.39 µmol/L, P=0.366). The change in levels from the baseline to end of the study for rebaudioside A and erythritol were fasting plasma glucose (102.56±10.72 vs. 101.32±9.20 mg/dL), 2-hour plasma glucose (154.92±54.53 vs. 141.92±42.22 mg/dL), insulin (7.56±4.29 vs. 7.20±5.12 IU/mL), and C-peptide (2.92±1.61 vs. 2.73±1.31 ng/mL), respectively, and also did not differ significantly (P>0.05 for all).

Conclusion

Our study suggests that consumption of rebaudioside A and erythritol does not alter the glucose homeostasis in people with glucose intolerance.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Cardiometabolic Impact of Rebaudioside A Exposure during the Reproductive Stage
    Isabella Bracchi, Juliana Morais, João Coelho, Ana Ferreira, Inês Alves, Cláudia Mendes, Beatriz Correia, Alexandre Gonçalves, João Guimarães, Inês Falcão-Pires, Elisa Keating, Rita Negrão
    Biology.2024; 13(3): 163.     CrossRef
  • Re‐evaluation of erythritol (E 968) as a food additive
    Maged Younes, Gabriele Aquilina, Laurence Castle, Gisela Degen, Karl‐Heinz Engel, Paul J. Fowler, Maria José Frutos Fernandez, Peter Fürst, Ursula Gundert‐Remy, Rainer Gürtler, Trine Husøy, Melania Manco, Wim Mennes, Peter Moldeus, Sabina Passamonti, Romi
    EFSA Journal.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Sugar-Free Dark Chocolate Consumption Results in Lower Blood Glucose in Adults With Diabetes
    Barbara Oliveira, Kaja Falkenhain, Jonathan P Little
    Nutrition and Metabolic Insights.2022; 15: 117863882210769.     CrossRef
  • Acute responses of stevia and d-tagatose intake on metabolic parameters and appetite/satiety in insulin resistance
    Verónica Sambra, Isabella A. Vicuña, Kathleen M. Priken, Selva L. Luna, Daniela A. Allendes, Paula M. Godoy, Victoria Novik, Claudia A. Vega
    Clinical Nutrition ESPEN.2022; 49: 217.     CrossRef
  • Modulating effects of steviol and steviol glycosides on adipogenesis, lipogenesis, glucose uptake and insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocyte model
    Jakub Michał Kurek, Joanna Zielińska-Wasielica, Katarzyna Kowalska, Zbigniew Krejpcio, Anna Olejnik
    Journal of Functional Foods.2022; 94: 105141.     CrossRef
  • Stevia, sucralose and sucrose added to a maqui-Citrus beverage and their effects on glycemic response in overweight subjects: A randomized clinical trial
    Débora Villaño, Hedyeh Masoodi, Javier Marhuenda, Cristina García-Viguera, Pilar Zafrilla
    LWT.2021; 144: 111173.     CrossRef
  • Low-energy sweeteners and body weight: a citation network analysis
    Mie Normand, Christian Ritz, David Mela, Anne Raben
    BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health.2021; 4(1): 319.     CrossRef
  • Diabetes and COVID-19, potentialities of Morus alba L. (mulberry) and Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (stevia). Mini-review
    Hernandez Claudia Chavez, Payrol Juan Abreu, Laime Sirley Gonzalez, Garcia Ariel Martinez, Michel Lazaro, Legarreta Morera, Perez Marisol Gonzalez
    Global Journal of Rare Diseases.2021; : 006.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of minor steviol glycosides effect on insulin resistance, serum triglycerides, and antioxidant capacity of diabetised Wistar rats
    Carolina Díaz Canul, Fibi Yenisie Coop Gamas, María Luisa Ávila Escalante, David Betancur-Ancona, Irma Aranda-González
    International Food Research Journal.2021; 28(2): 342.     CrossRef
  • Effects of the Daily Consumption of Stevia on Glucose Homeostasis, Body Weight, and Energy Intake: A Randomised Open-Label 12-Week Trial in Healthy Adults
    Nikoleta S. Stamataki, Benjamin Crooks, Abubaker Ahmed, John T. McLaughlin
    Nutrients.2020; 12(10): 3049.     CrossRef
  • Safety of a proposed amendment of the specifications for steviol glycosides (E 960) as a food additive: to expand the list of steviol glycosides to all those identified in the leaves of Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni
    Maged Younes, Gabriele Aquilina, Karl‐Heinz Engel, Paul Fowler, Maria Jose Frutos Fernandez, Peter Fürst, Rainer Gürtler, Ursula Gundert‐Remy, Trine Husøy, Melania Manco, Wim Mennes, Peter Moldeus, Sabina Passamonti, Romina Shah, Ine Waalkens‐Berendsen, D
    EFSA Journal.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A comparison of the effects of Stevia extract and metformin on metabolic syndrome indices in rats fed with a high‐fat, high‐sucrose diet
    Tahereh Ranjbar, Ali Akbar Nekooeian, Nader Tanideh, Omid Koohi‐Hosseinabadi, Seyed Jalil Masoumi, Sasan Amanat, Negar Azarpira, Ahmad Monabati
    Journal of Food Biochemistry.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The effect of a new mixture of sugar and sugar-alcohols compared to sucrose and glucose on blood glucose increase and the possible adverse reactions: A phase I double-blind, three-way randomized cross-over clinical trial
    Mohammad Ali Mohsenpour, Fatemeh Kaseb, Reza Nazemian, Hassan Mozaffari-Khosravi, Hossein Fallahzadeh, Amin Salehi-Abargouei
    Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición.2019; 66(10): 647.     CrossRef
  • Effect of Steviol Glycosides on Human Health with Emphasis on Type 2 Diabetic Biomarkers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
    Camilla Christine Bundgaard Anker, Shamaila Rafiq, Per Bendix Jeppesen
    Nutrients.2019; 11(9): 1965.     CrossRef
  • The effect of a new mixture of sugar and sugar-alcohols compared to sucrose and glucose on blood glucose increase and the possible adverse reactions: A phase I double-blind, three-way randomized cross-over clinical trial
    Mohammad Ali Mohsenpour, Fatemeh Kaseb, Reza Nazemian, Hassan Mozaffari-Khosravi, Hossein Fallahzadeh, Amin Salehi-Abargouei
    Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición (English ed.).2019; 66(10): 647.     CrossRef
  • Non-nutritive Sweeteners and Glycaemic Control
    Yoona Kim, Jennifer B. Keogh, Peter M. Clifton
    Current Atherosclerosis Reports.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • FDA regulatory approach to steviol glycosides
    Judith D. Perrier, Jeremy J. Mihalov, Susan J. Carlson
    Food and Chemical Toxicology.2018; 122: 132.     CrossRef
  • Health outcomes of non-nutritive sweeteners: analysis of the research landscape
    Szimonetta Lohner, Ingrid Toews, Joerg J. Meerpohl
    Nutrition Journal.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Erythritol is a pentose-phosphate pathway metabolite and associated with adiposity gain in young adults
    Katie C. Hootman, Jean-Pierre Trezzi, Lisa Kraemer, Lindsay S. Burwell, Xiangyi Dong, Kristin A. Guertin, Christian Jaeger, Patrick J. Stover, Karsten Hiller, Patricia A. Cassano
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
Others
The Effect of Glycemic Status on Kidney Stone Disease in Patients with Prediabetes
Tzu-Hsien Lien, Jin-Shang Wu, Yi-Ching Yang, Zih-Jie Sun, Chih-Jen Chang
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(2):161-166.   Published online April 25, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.2.161
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  • 29 Download
  • 8 Web of Science
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

While the evidence supporting a positive association between diabetes mellitus and kidney stone disease (KSD) is solid, studies examining the association between impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and KSD show inconsistent results. Currently, there are no studies examining the relationship between impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and KSD. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of different glycemic statuses on KSD. The results may help to motivate patients with diabetes to conform to treatment regimens.

Methods

We conducted a cross sectional study of a population that underwent health check-ups between January 2000 and August 2009 at the Health Evaluation Center of National Cheng Kung University Hospital. A total of 14,186 subjects were enrolled. The following categories of glycemic status were used according to the criteria of the 2009 American Diabetes Association: normal glucose tolerance, isolated IGT, isolated IFG, combined IFG/IGT, and diabetes. The existence of KSD was evaluated using renal ultrasonography, and the presence of any hyperechoic structures causing acoustic shadowing was considered to be indicative of KSD.

Results

The prevalence of KSD was 7.4% (712/9,621), 9.3% (163/1,755), 10.8% (78/719), 12.0% (66/548), and 11.3% (174/1,543) in subjects with NGT, isolated IGT, isolated IFG, combined IFG/IGT, and diabetes, respectively. Isolated IFG, combined IFG/IGT, and diabetes were associated with KSD after adjusting for other clinical variables, but isolated IGT was not. Age (41 to 64 years vs. ≤40 years, ≥65 years vs. ≤40 years), male gender, hypertension, and hyperuricemia were also independently associated with KSD.

Conclusion

Isolated IFG, combined IFG/IGT, and diabetes, but not isolated IGT, were associated with a higher risk of KSD.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Related Risk Factor Analysis for Upper Urinary Tract Stones in Patients with Abnormal Glucose Metabolism
    泽伟 于
    Advances in Clinical Medicine.2022; 12(02): 749.     CrossRef
  • Nephrolithiasis: A Red Flag for Cardiovascular Risk
    Alessia Gambaro, Gianmarco Lombardi, Chiara Caletti, Flavio Luciano Ribichini, Pietro Manuel Ferraro, Giovanni Gambaro
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2022; 11(19): 5512.     CrossRef
  • Association between metabolic syndrome components and the risk of developing nephrolithiasis: A systematic review and bayesian meta-analysis
    Ilham Akbar Rahman, Ilham Fauzan Nusaly, Syakri Syahrir, Harry Nusaly, Makbul Aman Mansyur
    F1000Research.2021; 10: 104.     CrossRef
  • Glycemic Status, Insulin Resistance, and the Risk of Nephrolithiasis: A Cohort Study
    Seolhye Kim, Yoosoo Chang, Hyun-Suk Jung, Young Youl Hyun, Kyu-Beck Lee, Kwan Joong Joo, Heung Jae Park, Young-Sam Cho, Hyeonyoung Ko, Eunju Sung, Hocheol Shin, Seungho Ryu
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases.2020; 76(5): 658.     CrossRef
  • Associations between nephrolithiasis and diabetes mellitus, hypertension and gallstones: A meta‐analysis of cohort studies
    Bing‐Biao Lin, Rong‐Hua Huang, Bing‐Liang Lin, Ying‐Kai Hong, Ming‐En Lin, Xue‐Jun He
    Nephrology.2020; 25(9): 691.     CrossRef
  • Risk Factors for Urolithiasis (Review)
    В. А. Слободянюк
    Health of Man.2020; (1): 75.     CrossRef
  • Re: Evidence of Disordered Calcium Metabolism in Adolescent Girls with Type 1 Diabetes: An Observational Study Using a Dual-Stable Calcium Isotope Technique
    Dean G. Assimos
    Journal of Urology.2018; 199(2): 335.     CrossRef
  • Metabolic syndrome and uric acid nephrolithiasis: insulin resistance in focus
    Leonardo Spatola, Pietro Manuel Ferraro, Giovanni Gambaro, Salvatore Badalamenti, Marco Dauriz
    Metabolism.2018; 83: 225.     CrossRef
  • Kidney stones diseases and glycaemic statuses: focus on the latest clinical evidences
    Leonardo Spatola, Claudio Angelini, Salvatore Badalamenti, Silvio Maringhini, Giovanni Gambaro
    Urolithiasis.2017; 45(5): 457.     CrossRef
Plasma Glucose Regulation and Mortality in Korea: A Pooled Analysis of Three Community-Based Cohort Studies
Nan Hee Kim, Dong-Jun Kim, Seok Won Park, Jee-Young Oh, Joong-Yeol Park, Chol Shin, Hong Kyu Lee, Yongsoo Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(1):44-50.   Published online February 19, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2014.38.1.44
  • 4,086 View
  • 30 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Although diabetes is a well-known risk factor for death, its impact on cancer death is not clearly understood. Furthermore, it remains controversial whether impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are associated with increased risk of mortality. We investigated the impact of diabetes or glucose tolerance categories on all cause and cause-specific mortality.

Methods

Mortality analysis was conducted in three population-based cohort studies of 3,801 participants, divided according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (normal; stage 1 IFG [5.6≤FPG<6.1 mmol/L]; stage 2 IFG [6.1≤FPG<7.0 mmol/L]; diabetes mellitus [DM]-FPG); or 2-hour glucose after 75 g glucose loading (2hPG) (normal; IGT; DM-2hPG), or a combination of FPG and 2hPG criteria.

Results

During a median follow-up of 11.0 years, 474 subjects died from all causes. Hazard ratios (HRs) for all cause death were higher in those with diabetes as defined by either FPG or 2hPG criteria than their normal counterparts (HR, 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6 to 2.9 for DM-FPG; HR, 2.0, 95% CI, 1.5 to 2.7 for DM-2hPG). Similarly, diabetes defined by either FPG or 2hPG was associated with cancer death (HR, 2.9, 95% CI, 1.7 to 5.0; and HR, 2.1, 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.9, respectively). Although neither IFG nor IGT conferred higher risk for death, when combining stage 2 IFG and/or IGT, the risk of all cause death was higher than in subjects with normal glucose regulation (HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0 to 1.6).

Conclusion

Diabetes is associated with higher risk of death from all causes and cancer. In subjects without diabetes, stage 2 IFG and/or IGT confers increased risk for mortality.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Abnormal Fasting Glucose Increases Risk of Unrecognized Myocardial Infarctions in an Elderly Cohort
    Richard Brandon Stacey, Janice Zgibor, Paul E. Leaverton, Douglas D. Schocken, Jennifer A. Peregoy, Mary F. Lyles, Alain G. Bertoni, Gregory L. Burke
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.2019; 67(1): 43.     CrossRef
  • Increased Vascular Disease Mortality Risk in Prediabetic Korean Adults Is Mainly Attributable to Ischemic Stroke
    Nam Hoon Kim, Tae Yeon Kwon, Sungwook Yu, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Yousung Park, Sin Gon Kim
    Stroke.2017; 48(4): 840.     CrossRef
  • β-Cell Function and Insulin Sensitivity in Normal Glucose-Tolerant Subjects Stratified by 1-Hour Plasma Glucose Values
    Miranda M. Priya, Anandakumar Amutha, T.A. Pramodkumar, Harish Ranjani, Saravanan Jebarani, Kuppan Gokulakrishnan, Rajendra Pradeepa, Ranjit Unnikrishnan, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Viswanathan Mohan
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    Yonsei Medical Journal.2015; 56(3): 641.     CrossRef
  • The Population-Based Risk of Need for Coronary Revascularization According to the Presence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and History of Coronary Heart Disease in the Korean Population
    Chang Hee Jung, Gi Hyeon Seo, Sunghwan Suh, Ji Cheol Bae, Mee Kyoung Kim, You-Cheol Hwang, Jae Hyeon Kim, Byung-Wan Lee, Xian Wu Cheng
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Effect of Treadmill Exercise on Interleukin-15 Expression and Glucose Tolerance in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats
Hee-Jae Kim, Jae Young Park, Seung Lyul Oh, Yong-An Kim, Byunghun So, Je Kyung Seong, Wook Song
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(5):358-364.   Published online October 17, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.5.358
  • 4,330 View
  • 34 Download
  • 25 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Interleukin-15 (IL-15), a well-known myokine, is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and is involved in muscle-fat crosstalk. Recently, a role of skeletal muscle-derived IL-15 in the improvement of glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity has been proposed. However, little is known regarding the influence of endurance training on IL-15 expression in type 2 diabetic skeletal muscles. We investigated the effect of endurance exercise training on glucose tolerance and IL-15 expression in skeletal muscles using type 2 diabetic animal models.

Methods

Male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and ZDF lean control (ZLC) rats were randomly divided into three groups: sedentary ZLC, sedentary ZDF (ZDF-Con), and exercised ZDF (ZDF-Ex). The ZDF-Ex rats were forced to run a motor-driven treadmill for 60 minutes once a day 5 times per week for 12 weeks. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) was performed after 12 weeks. Expression of IL-15 was measured using ELISA in extracted soleus (SOL) and gastrocnemius medial muscles.

Results

After 12 weeks of treadmill training, reduction of body weight was observed in ZDF-Ex compared to ZDF-Con rats. Glucose tolerance using IPGTT in diabetic rats was significantly improved in ZDF-Ex rats. Furthermore, the expression of IL-15 was significantly increased (P<0.01) only in the SOL of ZDF-Ex rats compared to ZDF-Con. Additionally, IL-15 expression in SOL muscles was negatively correlated with change of body weight (R=-0.424, P=0.04).

Conclusion

The present study results suggest that 12 weeks of progressive endurance training significantly improved glucose tolerance with concomitant increase of IL-15 expression in SOL muscles of type 2 diabetic rats.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Beyond muscles: Investigating immunoregulatory myokines in acute resistance exercise – A systematic review and meta‐analysis
    Miriam Ringleb, Florian Javelle, Simon Haunhorst, Wilhelm Bloch, Lena Fennen, Sabine Baumgart, Sebastian Drube, Philipp A. Reuken, Mathias W. Pletz, Heiko Wagner, Holger H. W. Gabriel, Christian Puta
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    Journal of Cellular Physiology.2023; 238(8): 1670.     CrossRef
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    Luciele Guerra Minuzzi, Luciana Renata da Conceição, Vitor Rosetto Muñoz, Renan Fudoli Lins Vieira, Rafael Calais Gaspar, Adelino S.R. da Silva, Dennys Esper Cintra, Leandro Pereira de Moura, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, Ana Maria Teixeira, José Rodrigo Pauli
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Effect of Green Tea Extract/Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid Complex in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Mice
Ki-Cheor Bae, Jae-Hyung Park, Ann-Yae Na, Sun-Joo Kim, Shinbyoung Ahn, Sang-Pyo Kim, Byung-Chul Oh, Ho-Chan Cho, Yong Woon Kim, Dae-Kyu Song
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(3):196-206.   Published online June 14, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.3.196
  • 4,770 View
  • 45 Download
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with the rapid spread of obesity. Obesity induces insulin resistance, resulting in β-cell dysfunction and thus T2DM. Green tea extract (GTE) has been known to prevent obesity and T2DM, but this effect is still being debated. Our previous results suggested that circulating green tea gallated catechins (GCs) hinders postprandial blood glucose lowering, regardless of reducing glucose and cholesterol absorption when GCs are present in the intestinal lumen. This study aimed to compare the effect of GTE with that of GTE coadministered with poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA), which is likely to inhibit the intestinal absorption of GCs.

Methods

The db/db mice and age-matched nondiabetic mice were provided with normal chow diet containing GTE (1%), γ-PGA (0.1%), or GTE+γ-PGA (1%:0.1%) for 4 weeks.

Results

In nondiabetic mice, none of the drugs showed any effects after 4 weeks. In db/db mice, however, weight gain and body fat gain were significantly reduced in the GTE+γ-PGA group compared to nondrug-treated db/db control mice without the corresponding changes in food intake and appetite. Glucose intolerance was also ameliorated in the GTE+γ-PGA group. Histopathological analyses showed that GTE+γ-PGA-treated db/db mice had a significantly reduced incidence of fatty liver and decreased pancreatic islet size. Neither GTE nor γ-PGA treatment showed any significant results.

Conclusion

These results suggest that GTE+γ-PGA treatment than GTE or γ-PGA alone may be a useful tool for preventing both obesity and obesity-induced T2DM.

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Review
Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Abnormal Glucose Metabolism
Nan Hee Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(4):268-272.   Published online August 20, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2012.36.4.268
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic disorder that is prevalent, especially in subjects with obesity or diabetes. OSA is related to several metabolic abnormalities, including diabetes, insulin resistance, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. Although Koreans are less obese than Caucasians, the prevalence of OSA is comparable in both groups. Thus, the impact of OSA on metabolism may be similar. Many epidemiologic and experimental studies have demonstrated that OSA is associated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance via intermittent hypoxia, sleep fragmentation, and sleep deprivation. The effect of continuous positive airway pressure treatment on glucose metabolism is still controversial. Randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate the ability of OSA treatment to reduce the risk of diabetes and insulin resistance in subjects without diabetes and to ameliorate glucose control in patients with diabetes.

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Original Article
The Effect of Gamma-Glutamyltransferase on Impaired Fasting Glucose or Type 2 Diabetes in Korean Men.
Tae Yeon Kim, Do Hoon Kim, Chang Hae Park, Kyung Hwan Cho, Seung Hwan Lee, Hyuk Ga, Hwan cheol Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(3):215-224.   Published online June 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.3.215
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
We sought to determine the association between serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels within the normal range and the risk for development of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study spanned four years (2002~2006) with 1,717 Korean men who underwent periodic health examinations at a university hospital in Incheon, Korea and were not diagnosed with IFG or type 2 diabetes. Fasting plasma glucose levels were measured at the annual health examination. IFG and diabetes were defined as a serum fasting glucose concentration of 100~125 mg/dL and more than 126 mg/dL, respectively. Cox's proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the association between serum GGT levels and development of IFG or type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: There was a strong dose-response relationship between serum GGT levels and the incidence of IFG and diabetes. A total of 570 cases (33.2%) of incident IFG and 50 cases (2.9%) of diabetes were found. After controlling potential predictors, the relative risks for the incidence of IFG for GGT levels < or = 19, 20~25, 26~34, 35~50 and > or = 51 were 1.00, 0.99, 1.17, 1.23 and 1.38 respectively (P for trend 0.015), and for the incidence of diabetes were 1.00, 1.44, 1.80, 2.55 and 2.58 respectively (P for trend 0.050). CONCLUSION: The risk for development of IFG and type 2 diabetes increased in a dose-dependent manner as serum GGT increased within its normal range in Korean men.

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  • Evaluation of Serum Gamma Glutamyl Transferase Levels in Diabetic Patients With and Without Retinopathy
    Neda Valizadeh, Rasoul Mohammadi, Alireza Mehdizadeh, Qader Motarjemizadeh, Hamid Reza Khalkhali
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Case Report
A Case of Bartter's Syndrome occurring in Diabetes Mellitus.
Jang Yel Shin, Jeung Rae Cho, Do Young Kim, Joon Kye Lee, Chul Woo Ahn, Jae Hyun Nam, Soo Yon Nam, Young Duk Song, Kyu Hun Choi, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Jai Ho Han, Heun Ju Jung
Korean Diabetes J. 2000;24(1):90-96.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Bartter's syndrome is characterized by hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hyperreninemia and secondary hyperaldosteronism without hypertension and edema, Histologically, existing hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular cell occurs mostly in childhood or adolescence, and initial presentation in patients over 40 years old of age is very rare. It has been recorded that Bartter's syndrome is associated with glucose intolerance, but not with overt diabetes mellitus. Whether this association is coincidental or causal is uncertain, although hypokalemia can cause glucose intolerance. We experienced a case of Bartters syndrome in 44 years old non-insulin dependent diabetic woman. She improved with potassium supplements along with combination of prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor and aldosterona antagonist. We report present case with the review of literature.
Original Article
Antepartum Characteristics Predicting Persistent Postpartum Glucose lntolerance in the Patients with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM).
Yoo Lee Kim, Yong Wook Cho, Seok Won Park, Seog Ki Lee, In Sup Ahn, Byung Wook Na, Jun Lee, Yun Kyung Cho, Hwa Young Lee, Sang Jong Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2000;24(1):46-59.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of persistent postpartum glucose intolerance and to examine antepartum clinical characteri-stics for their predictability of persistent postpartum glucose intolerance in the patients with GDM. METHODS: In 211 GDM patients who showed more than two abnormal glucose values of O'Sullivan and Mahan's criteria on 100g-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), 75g-OGTT were performed at 6 weeks postpartum. The incidence of postpartum normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and diabetes mellitus (DM) were investigated and antepartum ciinical parameters were compared among the three groups, Predictability of antepartum clinical characteristics for postpartum IGT and DM were also investigated by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: When we grouped the patients into postpartum NGT, IGT, DM according to the results of 75g-OGTT performed 6 weeks postpartum, The incidence were 81,5% of subjects had NGT, 9.0% had IGT, and 9.5% had DM. Plasma glucose levels and GAUC on antepartum 100 g-OGTT(NGT: 1660+/-159, IGT: 1948+/-730, DM: 2538+/-629mmol/L ' min), and proportion of patients receiving insulin therapy increased progressively and significantly in association with worsening postpartum glucose tolerance. Frequency of positive family history of DM in qroups with IGT and DM (63,2% & 80.0%) were significantly higher than that in group with NGT(37,2%). Weight gain before diagnosis of GDM in groups with IGT and DM(6.7+/-3.9kg & 6.8+/-4.1 kg) were significantly smaller than that of group with NGT(9.5+/-3,5kg), Gestational age at diagnosis of GDM in group with DM(25.8+/-5.4 weeks) was significantly shorter than that in group with NGT(30.0+/-3,3 weeks), Proportion of subjects diagnosed earlier than 24 weeks of gestation were significantly higher in groups with IGT (15.8%) and DM (25.0%) than in group with NGT (1.2%). Proportions of subjects delivered heavier infants, > or =4 kg,were significantly higher in the DM group (40.0%) than in the NGT group (9.3%). In the patients having fasting plasma glucose levels hlgher than 5.8 mmol/L on antepartum 100g-OGTT, the prevalence of persistent glucose intolerance was significantly higher than in the patients FPG level lower than 5.8 mmol/L (61.9% vs 7.7%), Logistic regression analysis were performed using IGT and DM as the outcome of interest. The GAUC on antepartum 100g-OGTT, family history of DM, and the gestational age at diagnosis of GDM were independent predictors for both postpartum DM and postpartum IGT. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of persistent postpartum glucose intolerance in GDM patients were 18.5% and the most important independent predictor for persistent postpartum glucose intolerance was the degree of severity in glucose intolerance during pregnancy.

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