Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal

Search
OPEN ACCESS

Search

Page Path
HOME > Search
3 "Ceramides"
Filter
Filter
Article category
Keywords
Publication year
Authors
Funded articles
Review
Basic Research
The Role of CD36 in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: β-Cell Dysfunction and Beyond
Jun Sung Moon, Udayakumar Karunakaran, Elumalai Suma, Seung Min Chung, Kyu Chang Won
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(2):222-233.   Published online April 23, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0053
  • 7,815 View
  • 171 Download
  • 18 Web of Science
  • 16 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Impaired β-cell function is the key pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and chronic exposure of nutrient excess could lead to this tragedy. For preserving β-cell function, it is essential to understand the cause and mechanisms about the progression of β-cells failure. Glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity, and glucolipotoxicity have been suggested to be a major cause of β-cell dysfunction for decades, but not yet fully understood. Fatty acid translocase cluster determinant 36 (CD36), which is part of the free fatty acid (FFA) transporter system, has been identified in several tissues such as muscle, liver, and insulin-producing cells. Several studies have reported that induction of CD36 increases uptake of FFA in several cells, suggesting the functional interplay between glucose and FFA in terms of insulin secretion and oxidative metabolism. However, we do not currently know the regulating mechanism and physiological role of CD36 on glucolipotoxicity in pancreatic β-cells. Also, the downstream and upstream targets of CD36 related signaling have not been defined. In the present review, we will focus on the expression and function of CD36 related signaling in the pancreatic β-cells in response to hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia (ceramide) along with the clinical studies on the association between CD36 and metabolic disorders.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Nrf2 inhibition regulates intracellular lipid accumulation in mouse insulinoma cells and improves insulin secretory function
    Alpana Mukhuty, Samanwita Mandal, Chandrani Fouzder, Snehasis Das, Dipanjan Chattopadhyay, Tanmay Majumdar, Rakesh Kundu
    Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology.2024; 581: 112112.     CrossRef
  • CD36 gene variant rs1761667(G/A) as a biomarker in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus cases
    Ashwin Kumar Shukla, Amreen Shamsad, Atar Singh Kushwah, Shalini Singh, Kauser Usman, Monisha Banerjee
    Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • CD36 regulates macrophage and endothelial cell activation and multinucleate giant cell formation in anti neutrophil cytoplasm antibody vasculitis
    Xiang Zhang, Catherine King, Alexander Dowell, Paul Moss, Lorraine Harper, Dimitrios Chanouzas, Xiong-zhong Ruan, Alan David Salama
    Clinical Immunology.2024; 260: 109914.     CrossRef
  • Identification and validation of oxidative stress-related genes in sepsis-induced myopathy
    Ning Zhang, Dan Huang, Xiang Li, JinXia Yan, Qi Yan, WeiXing Ge, Jun Zhou
    Medicine.2024; 103(18): e37933.     CrossRef
  • The association of soluble cluster of differentiation 36 with metabolic diseases: A potential biomarker and therapeutic target
    Yun Li, Yaxi Chen, Xiong Z. Ruan
    Pediatric Discovery.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The role of candidate transport proteins in β‐cell long‐chain fatty acid uptake: Where are we now?
    Christina Clavelo‐Farrow, Patricia Thomas
    Diabetic Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • SARS-CoV-2 in the pancreas and the impaired islet function in COVID-19 patients
    Ningfei Ji, Mingshun Zhang, Liang Ren, Yunyun Wang, Bicheng Hu, Jie Xiang, Yingyun Gong, Chaojie Wu, Guoqiang Qu, Wenqiu Ding, Zhiqiang Yin, Shan Li, Zhengxia Wang, Lianzheng Zhou, Xueqin Chen, Yuan Ma, Jinhai Tang, Yun Liu, Liang Liu, Mao Huang
    Emerging Microbes & Infections.2022; 11(1): 1115.     CrossRef
  • Is imaging-based muscle quantity associated with risk of diabetes? A meta-analysis of cohort studies
    Shanhu Qiu, Xue Cai, Yang Yuan, Bo Xie, Zilin Sun, Tongzhi Wu
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2022; 189: 109939.     CrossRef
  • Lipotoxicity in a Vicious Cycle of Pancreatic Beta Cell Exhaustion
    Vladimir Grubelnik, Jan Zmazek, Matej Završnik, Marko Marhl
    Biomedicines.2022; 10(7): 1627.     CrossRef
  • Association of cluster determinant 36, scavenger receptor class B type 1, and major facilitator superfamily domain containing the 2a genetic polymorphism with serum lipid profile in aging population with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Xixiang Wang, Xiaojun Ma, Jingjing Xu, Yujie Guo, Shaobo Zhou, Huiyan Yu, Linhong Yuan
    Frontiers in Nutrition.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • CD36-Fatty Acid-Mediated Metastasis via the Bidirectional Interactions of Cancer Cells and Macrophages
    Noorzaileen Eileena Zaidi, Nur Aima Hafiza Shazali, Thean-Chor Leow, Mohd Azuraidi Osman, Kamariah Ibrahim, Wan-Hee Cheng, Kok-Song Lai, Nik Mohd Afizan Nik Abd Rahman
    Cells.2022; 11(22): 3556.     CrossRef
  • The Past and Present Lives of the Intraocular Transmembrane Protein CD36
    Rucui Yang, Qingping Liu, Mingzhi Zhang
    Cells.2022; 12(1): 171.     CrossRef
  • Implicating the effect of ketogenic diet as a preventive measure to obesity and diabetes mellitus
    Sachin Kumar, Tapan Behl, Monika Sachdeva, Aayush Sehgal, Shilpa Kumari, Arun Kumar, Gagandeep Kaur, Harlokesh Narayan Yadav, Simona Bungau
    Life Sciences.2021; 264: 118661.     CrossRef
  • Contribution of rs3211938 polymorphism at CD36 to glucose levels, oxidized low-density lipoproteins, insulin resistance, and body mass index in Mexican mestizos with type-2 diabetes from western Mexico
    Beatriz Teresita Martín-Márquez, Flavio Sandoval-Garcia, Mónica Vazquez-Del Mercado, Erika-Aurora Martínez-García, Fernanda-Isadora Corona-Meraz, Ana-Lilia Fletes-Rayas, Soraya-Amalí Zavaleta-Muñiz
    Nutrición Hospitalaria.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Investigating the association of CD36 gene polymorphisms (rs1761667 and rs1527483) with T2DM and dyslipidemia: Statistical analysis, machine learning based prediction, and meta-analysis
    Ma’mon M. Hatmal, Walhan Alshaer, Ismail S. Mahmoud, Mohammad A. I. Al-Hatamleh, Hamzeh J. Al-Ameer, Omar Abuyaman, Malek Zihlif, Rohimah Mohamud, Mais Darras, Mohammad Al Shhab, Rand Abu-Raideh, Hilweh Ismail, Ali Al-Hamadi, Ali Abdelhay, Kanhaiya Singh
    PLOS ONE.2021; 16(10): e0257857.     CrossRef
  • Misregulation of Wnt Signaling Pathways at the Plasma Membrane in Brain and Metabolic Diseases
    Mustafa Karabicici, Yagmur Azbazdar, Evin Iscan, Gunes Ozhan
    Membranes.2021; 11(11): 844.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Basic Research
Article image
Inhibition of Ceramide Accumulation in Podocytes by Myriocin Prevents Diabetic Nephropathy
Chang-Yun Woo, Ji Yeon Baek, Ah-Ram Kim, Chung Hwan Hong, Ji Eun Yoon, Hyoun Sik Kim, Hyun Ju Yoo, Tae-Sik Park, Ranjan Kc, Ki-Up Lee, Eun Hee Koh
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(4):581-591.   Published online November 4, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0063
  • 6,495 View
  • 165 Download
  • 28 Web of Science
  • 31 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background

Ceramides are associated with metabolic complications including diabetic nephropathy in patients with diabetes. Recent studies have reported that podocytes play a pivotal role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Also, mitochondrial dysfunction is known to be an early event in podocyte injury. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that ceramide accumulation in podocytes induces mitochondrial damage through reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in patients with diabetic nephropathy.

Methods

We used Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. We fed the animals either a control- or a myriocin-containing diet to evaluate the effects of the ceramide. Also, we assessed the effects of ceramide on intracellular ROS generation and on podocyte autophagy in cultured podocytes.

Results

OLETF rats and HFD-fed mice showed albuminuria, histologic features of diabetic nephropathy, and podocyte injury, whereas myriocin treatment effectively treated these abnormalities. Cultured podocytes exposed to agents predicted to be risk factors (high glucose, high free fatty acid, and angiotensin II in combination [GFA]) showed an increase in ceramide accumulation and ROS generation in podocyte mitochondria. Pretreatment with myriocin reversed GFA-induced mitochondrial ROS generation and prevented cell death. Myriocin-pretreated cells were protected from GFA-induced disruption of mitochondrial integrity.

Conclusion

We showed that mitochondrial ceramide accumulation may result in podocyte damage through ROS production. Therefore, this signaling pathway could become a pharmacological target to abate the development of diabetic kidney disease.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Interplay of lipid metabolism and inflammation in podocyte injury
    Zilv Luo, Zhaowei Chen, Jijia Hu, Guohua Ding
    Metabolism.2024; 150: 155718.     CrossRef
  • A review of the mechanisms of abnormal ceramide metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer’s disease, and their co-morbidities
    Yun Pan, Jieying Li, Panjie Lin, Lihua Wan, Yiqian Qu, Lingyong Cao, Lei Wang
    Frontiers in Pharmacology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Ceramides and mitochondrial homeostasis
    Song Ding, Guorui Li, Tinglv Fu, Tianyu Zhang, Xiao Lu, Ning Li, Qing Geng
    Cellular Signalling.2024; 117: 111099.     CrossRef
  • The Influence of Soy Isoflavones and Soy Isoflavones with Inulin on Kidney Morphology, Fatty Acids, and Associated Parameters in Rats with and without Induced Diabetes Type 2
    Kamila Misiakiewicz-Has, Dominika Maciejewska-Markiewicz, Dagmara Szypulska-Koziarska, Agnieszka Kolasa, Barbara Wiszniewska
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2024; 25(10): 5418.     CrossRef
  • Deletion of IRE1α in podocytes exacerbates diabetic nephropathy in mice
    Andrey V. Cybulsky, Joan Papillon, Julie Guillemette, José R. Navarro-Betancourt, Chen-Fang Chung, Takao Iwawaki, I. George Fantus
    Scientific Reports.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Reduced sphingolipid biosynthesis modulates proteostasis networks to enhance longevity
    Nathaniel L. Hepowit, Eric Blalock, Sangderk Lee, Kimberly M. Bretland, Jason A. MacGurn, Robert C. Dickson
    Aging.2023; 15(2): 472.     CrossRef
  • Protective effect of natural products in the metabolic-associated kidney diseases via regulating mitochondrial dysfunction
    Peng Liu, Yao Chen, Jing Xiao, Wenhui Zhu, Xiaoming Yan, Ming Chen
    Frontiers in Pharmacology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • BCAA insufficiency leads to premature ovarian insufficiency via ceramide‐induced elevation of ROS
    Xiao Guo, Yuemeng Zhu, Lu Guo, Yiwen Qi, Xiaocheng Liu, Jinhui Wang, Jiangtao Zhang, Linlin Cui, Yueyang Shi, Qichu Wang, Cenxi Liu, Guangxing Lu, Yilian Liu, Tao Li, Shangyu Hong, Yingying Qin, Xuelian Xiong, Hao Wu, Lin Huang, He Huang, Chao Gu, Bin Li,
    EMBO Molecular Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Chinese herbal medicine and its active compounds in attenuating renal injury via regulating autophagy in diabetic kidney disease
    Peng Liu, Wenhui Zhu, Yang Wang, Guijie Ma, Hailing Zhao, Ping Li
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Integrated gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry and ultra‐high‐performance liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry renal metabolomics and lipidomics deciphered the metabolic regulation mechanism of Gushudan on kidney‐yang‐deficiency‐syndrome rats
    Qing Lu, Jing Zhang, Ling Xin, Yanwei Lou, Feng Qin, Longshan Zhao, Zhili Xiong
    Journal of Separation Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Advances in the pharmacological study of Chinese herbal medicine to alleviate diabetic nephropathy by improving mitochondrial oxidative stress
    Ming Chen, Yao Chen, Wenhui Zhu, Xiaoming Yan, Jing Xiao, Peiqing Zhang, Peng Liu, Ping Li
    Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy.2023; 165: 115088.     CrossRef
  • Rodent models to study type 1 and type 2 diabetes induced human diabetic nephropathy
    Amit Talukdar, Mandira Basumatary
    Molecular Biology Reports.2023; 50(9): 7759.     CrossRef
  • Art2 mediates selective endocytosis of methionine transporters during adaptation to sphingolipid depletion
    Nathaniel L. Hepowit, Bradley Moon, Adam C. Ebert, Robert C. Dickson, Jason A. MacGurn
    Journal of Cell Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Kidney lipid dysmetabolism and lipid droplet accumulation in chronic kidney disease
    Alla Mitrofanova, Sandra Merscher, Alessia Fornoni
    Nature Reviews Nephrology.2023; 19(10): 629.     CrossRef
  • Research progress of autophagy in pathogenesis of diabetes nephropathy
    Shengnan Zeng, Ying Li
    Diabetic Nephropathy.2023; 3(3): 51.     CrossRef
  • Associations of plasma sphingolipids with measures of insulin sensitivity, β-cell function, and incident diabetes in Japanese Americans
    Ji Cheol Bae, Pandora L. Wander, Rozenn N. Lemaitre, Amanda M. Fretts, Colleen M. Sitlani, Hai H. Bui, Melissa K. Thomas, Donna Leonetti, Wilfred Y. Fujimoto, Edward J. Boyko, Kristina M. Utzschneider
    Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Lipidomic approaches to dissect dysregulated lipid metabolism in kidney disease
    Judy Baek, Chenchen He, Farsad Afshinnia, George Michailidis, Subramaniam Pennathur
    Nature Reviews Nephrology.2022; 18(1): 38.     CrossRef
  • Podocyte Bioenergetics in the Development of Diabetic Nephropathy: The Role of Mitochondria
    Irena Audzeyenka, Agnieszka Bierżyńska, Abigail C Lay
    Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Acylcarnitines: Can They Be Biomarkers of Diabetic Nephropathy?
    Xiaodie Mu, Min Yang, Peiyao Ling, Aihua Wu, Hua Zhou, Jingting Jiang
    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy.2022; Volume 15: 247.     CrossRef
  • Research Progress on Natural Products’ Therapeutic Effects on Atrial Fibrillation by Regulating Ion Channels
    Jinshan He, Sicong Li, Yumeng Ding, Yujia Tong, Xuebin Li, Simona Saponara
    Cardiovascular Therapeutics.2022; 2022: 1.     CrossRef
  • Mechanisms of podocyte injury and implications for diabetic nephropathy
    Federica Barutta, Stefania Bellini, Gabriella Gruden
    Clinical Science.2022; 136(7): 493.     CrossRef
  • A Rheostat of Ceramide and Sphingosine-1-Phosphate as a Determinant of Oxidative Stress-Mediated Kidney Injury
    Norishi Ueda
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2022; 23(7): 4010.     CrossRef
  • Implications of Sphingolipid Metabolites in Kidney Diseases
    Shamroop kumar Mallela, Sandra Merscher, Alessia Fornoni
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2022; 23(8): 4244.     CrossRef
  • Role of ceramides in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and its complications
    Nawajes Mandal, Richard Grambergs, Koushik Mondal, Sandip K. Basu, Faiza Tahia, Sam Dagogo-Jack
    Journal of Diabetes and its Complications.2021; 35(2): 107734.     CrossRef
  • Rotten to the Cortex: Ceramide-Mediated Lipotoxicity in Diabetic Kidney Disease
    Rebekah J. Nicholson, Marcus G. Pezzolesi, Scott A. Summers
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Enhancing lifespan of budding yeast by pharmacological lowering of amino acid pools
    Nathaniel L. Hepowit, Jessica K. A. Macedo, Lyndsay E. A. Young, Ke Liu, Ramon C. Sun, Jason A. MacGurn, Robert C. Dickson
    Aging.2021; 13(6): 7846.     CrossRef
  • New insights into renal lipid dysmetabolism in diabetic kidney disease
    Alla Mitrofanova, George Burke, Sandra Merscher, Alessia Fornoni
    World Journal of Diabetes.2021; 12(5): 524.     CrossRef
  • Excessively Enlarged Mitochondria in the Kidneys of Diabetic Nephropathy
    Kiyoung Kim, Eun-Young Lee
    Antioxidants.2021; 10(5): 741.     CrossRef
  • Mechanistic insights into the role of serum-glucocorticoid kinase 1 in diabetic nephropathy: A systematic review
    Saba Noor, Taj Mohammad, Gulam M. Ashraf, Joviana Farhat, Anwar L. Bilgrami, Mathew Suji Eapen, Sukhwinder Singh Sohal, Dharmendra Kumar Yadav, Md Imtaiyaz Hassan
    International Journal of Biological Macromolecules.2021; 193: 562.     CrossRef
  • The Updates of Podocyte Lipid Metabolism in Proteinuric Kidney Disease
    Yu Sun, Sijia Cui, Yunfeng Hou, Fan Yi
    Kidney Diseases.2021; 7(6): 438.     CrossRef
  • Saturated fatty acids induce insulin resistance in podocytes through inhibition of IRS1 via activation of both IKKβ and mTORC1
    Benoit Denhez, Marina Rousseau, Crysta Spino, David-Alexandre Dancosst, Marie-Ève Dumas, Andréanne Guay, Farah Lizotte, Pedro Geraldes
    Scientific Reports.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
Effects of Endurance Exercise and High-Fat Diet on Insulin Resistance and Ceramide Contents of Skeletal Muscle in Sprague-Dawley Rats
Hyun Lyung Jung, Ho Youl Kang
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(4):244-252.   Published online August 31, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.4.244
  • 3,438 View
  • 28 Download
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

We evaluated the effects of endurance exercise and a high-fat diet on insulin resistance and ceramide contents of skeletal muscle in Sprague-Dawley rats.

Methods

We randomly divided 32 rats into four groups: control (CON, n = 8), high fat diet (HF, n = 8), exercise (Ex, 24 m/min for 2 hours, 5 days/wk, n = 8), HF/Ex (n = 8). After 4-week treatments, plasma lipid profiles, glucose and insulin concentrations were measured. The triglycerides (TG), ceramide, and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4) contents were measured in the skeletal muscle. The rate of glucose transport was determined under submaximal insulin concentration during the muscle incubation.

Results

Free fatty acid levels were significantly higher in CON and HF than Ex (P = 0.032). Plasma glucose levels in HF were significantly higher than the two Ex groups (P = 0.002), and insulin levels were significantly higher in HF than in other three groups (P = 0.021). Muscular TG concentrations were significantly higher in HF than CON and Ex and also in HF/Ex than Ex, respectively (P = 0.005). Hepatic TG concentrations were significantly higher in HF than other three groups but Ex was significantly lower than HF/Ex (P = 0.000). Muscular ceramide content in HF was significantly greater than that in either Ex or HF/Ex (P = 0.031). GLUT-4 levels in CON and HF were significantly lower than those in Ex and HF/Ex (P = 0.009, P = 0.003). The glucose transport rate in submaximal insulin concentration was lower in CON than in either Ex or HF/Ex (P = 0.043), but not different from HF.

Conclusion

This study suggests that high fat diet for 4 weeks selectively impairs insulin resistance, but not glucose transport rate, GLUT-4 and ceramide content in skeletal muscle per se. However, endurance exercise markedly affects the content of ceramide and insulin resistance in muscle.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Early warning for inactive ovaries based on liver function index, serum MDA, IL-6, FGF21 and ANGPTL8 in dairy cows
    Zhijie Wang, Yuxi Song, Feng Zhang, Chang Zhao, Shixin Fu, Cheng Xia, Yunlong Bai
    Italian Journal of Animal Science.2022; 21(1): 113.     CrossRef
  • Metabolic Syndrome is Associated with Ceramide Accumulation in Visceral Adipose Tissue of Women with Morbid Obesity
    Barbara Choromańska, Piotr Myśliwiec, Hady Razak Hady, Jacek Dadan, Hanna Myśliwiec, Adrian Chabowski, Agnieszka Mikłosz
    Obesity.2019; 27(3): 444.     CrossRef
  • Changes in Membrane Ceramide Pools in Rat Soleus Muscle in Response to Short-Term Disuse
    Alexey M. Petrov, Maria N. Shalagina, Vladimir A. Protopopov, Valeriy G. Sergeev, Sergey V. Ovechkin, Natalia G. Ovchinina, Alexey V. Sekunov, Andrey L. Zefirov, Guzalia F. Zakirjanova, Irina G. Bryndina
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2019; 20(19): 4860.     CrossRef
  • Lipids in psychiatric disorders and preventive medicine
    Miriam Schneider, Beth Levant, Martin Reichel, Erich Gulbins, Johannes Kornhuber, Christian P. Müller
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews.2017; 76: 336.     CrossRef
  • A mitochondrial-targeted ubiquinone modulates muscle lipid profile and improves mitochondrial respiration in obesogenic diet-fed rats
    Charles Coudray, Gilles Fouret, Karen Lambert, Carla Ferreri, Jennifer Rieusset, Agnieszka Blachnio-Zabielska, Jérôme Lecomte, Raymond Ebabe Elle, Eric Badia, Michael P. Murphy, Christine Feillet-Coudray
    British Journal of Nutrition.2016; 115(7): 1155.     CrossRef
  • The Metabolic Implications of Glucocorticoids in a High-Fat Diet Setting and the Counter-Effects of Exercise
    Emily Dunford, Michael Riddell
    Metabolites.2016; 6(4): 44.     CrossRef
  • Effects of Exercise Intensity on PGC-1α, PPAR-γ, and Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle of High Fat Diet-fed Sprague-Dawley Rats
    Hyun-Lyung Jung, Ho-Youl Kang
    Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.2014; 43(7): 963.     CrossRef
  • The roles of aerobic exercise training and suppression IL-6 gene expression by RNA interference in the development of insulin resistance
    Hui Tang, Min-hao Xie, Yu Lei, Liang Zhou, Yu-ping Xu, Jian-guang Cai
    Cytokine.2013; 61(2): 394.     CrossRef
  • Long-Term Consequences of Developmental Alcohol Exposure on Brain Structure and Function: Therapeutic Benefits of Physical Activity
    Anna Klintsova, Gillian Hamilton, Karen Boschen
    Brain Sciences.2012; 3(4): 1.     CrossRef

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Close layer