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Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Its Implications across the Life Span
Brandy Wicklow, Ravi Retnakaran
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(3):333-344.   Published online February 8, 2023
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  • 438 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has historically been perceived as a medical complication of pregnancy that also serves as a harbinger of maternal risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the future. In recent decades, a growing body of evidence has detailed additional lifelong implications that extend beyond T2DM, including an elevated risk of ultimately developing cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, the risk factors that mediate this lifetime cardiovascular risk are evident not only after delivery but are present even before the pregnancy in which GDM is first diagnosed. The concept thus emerging from these data is that the diagnosis of GDM enables the identification of women who are already on an enhanced track of cardiometabolic risk that starts early in life. Studies of the offspring of pregnancies complicated by diabetes now suggest that the earliest underpinnings of this cardiometabolic risk profile may be determined in utero and may first manifest clinically in childhood. Accordingly, from this perspective, GDM is now seen as a chronic metabolic disorder that holds implications across the life span of both mother and child.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • ATP5me alleviates high glucose-induced myocardial cell injury
    Qingsha Hou, Fang Yan, Xiuling Li, Huanling Liu, Xiang Yang, Xudong Dong
    International Immunopharmacology.2024; 129: 111626.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and Predictors of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Overt Diabetes in Pregnancy: A Secondary Analysis of Nationwide Data from India
    Saurav Basu, Vansh Maheshwari, Rutul Gokalani, Chandrakant Lahariya
    Preventive Medicine: Research & Reviews.2024; 1(1): 52.     CrossRef
  • Serum betaine and dimethylglycine in mid-pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a case-control study
    Ziqing Zhou, Yao Yao, Yanan Sun, Xin Wang, Shang Huang, Jianli Hou, Lijun Wang, Fengxiang Wei
    Endocrine.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Quality assessment of videos on social media platforms related to gestational diabetes mellitus in China: A cross-section study
    Qin-Yu Cai, Jing Tang, Si-Zhe Meng, Yi Sun, Xia Lan, Tai-Hang Liu
    Heliyon.2024; 10(7): e29020.     CrossRef
  • Inflammation and decreased cardiovagal modulation are linked to stress and depression at 36th week of pregnancy in gestational diabetes mellitus
    Manoharan Renugasundari, Gopal Krushna Pal, Latha Chaturvedula, Nivedita Nanda, K. T. Harichandrakumar, Thiyagarajan Durgadevi
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Women with gestational diabetes mellitus, controlled for plasma glucose level, exhibit maternal and fetal dyslipidaemia that may warrant treatment
    Barbara J. Meyer, Colin Cortie, Marloes Dekker-Nitert, Helen L. Barrett, Dilys J. Freeman
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2023; 204: 110929.     CrossRef
  • Pregnancy diet to prevent gestational diabetes: study design and dietary assessments
    Sylvia H. Ley
    The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.2023; 118(5): 847.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus among Korean Children, Adolescents, and Adults Younger than 30 Years: Changes from 2002 to 2016
Yong Hee Hong, In-Hyuk Chung, Kyungdo Han, Sochung Chung, on Behalf of the Taskforce Team of the Obesity Fact Sheet of the Korean Society for the Study of Obesity
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(2):297-306.   Published online October 26, 2021
  • 9,576 View
  • 347 Download
  • 9 Web of Science
  • 14 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Despite the importance of and social concern regarding prevention of diabetes at younger ages, limited data are available. This study sought to analyze changes in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Koreans younger than 30 years according to sex, age, and level of income.
The dataset analyzed in this study was derived from health insurance claims recorded in the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database. Participants’ level of income was categorized as low (quintile 1, <20% of insurance premium) or others (quintile 2–5).
In males and females, the prevalence of T2DM per 10,000 people steadily increased from 2.57 in 2002 to 11.41 in 2016, and from 1.96 in 2002 to 8.63 in 2016. The prevalence of T2DM in girls was higher in the age group of 5 to 14 years. Even though the prevalence was higher among those older than 20 years, the increase had started earlier, in the early 2000s, in younger age group. Adolescents aged 10 to 19 years in low-income families showed a remarkable increase in prevalence of T2DM, especially in boys.
The prevalence of T2DM in young Koreans increased more than 4.4-fold from 2002 to 2016, and the increase started in the early 2000s in younger age groups and in low-income families. This is the first study to examine the trend in prevalence of T2DM in children, adolescents, and young adults in Korea. Future studies and collaborations with social support systems to prevent T2DM at an early age group should be performed.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • SCORE and SCORE2 in East Asian Population
    JungMin Choi, Soseul Sung, Sue K. Park, Seyong Park, Hyoyeong Kim, Myeong-Chan Cho, Bryan Williams, Hae-Young Lee
    JACC: Asia.2024; 4(4): 265.     CrossRef
  • Characteristics and management of juvenile type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Young-Jun Rhie
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2024; 67(5): 342.     CrossRef
  • Suggestions for the management of pediatric obesity in Korea
    Yong Hee Hong
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2024; 67(5): 306.     CrossRef
  • Chronic disease management program applied to type 2 diabetes patients and prevention of diabetic complications: a retrospective cohort study using nationwide data
    Min Kyung Hyun, Jang Won Lee, Seung-Hyun Ko
    BMC Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Clinical and pathological characteristics of DKD patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes
    Liang Wu, Yi-Yang Zhao, Meng-Rui Li, Dong-Yuan Chang, Ming-Hui Zhao, Min Chen
    Journal of Diabetes and its Complications.2023; 37(8): 108520.     CrossRef
  • Type 2 Diabetes and Its Association With Psychiatric Disorders in Young Adults in South Korea
    Min-Kyung Lee, Su-Young Lee, Seo-Young Sohn, Jiyeon Ahn, Kyungdo Han, Jae-Hyuk Lee
    JAMA Network Open.2023; 6(6): e2319132.     CrossRef
  • Glycemic control and complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents during the COVID-19 outbreak
    Kyeong Eun Oh, Yu Jin Kim, Ye Rim Oh, Eungu Kang, Hyo-Kyoung Nam, Young-Jun Rhie, Kee-Hyoung Lee
    Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism.2023; 28(4): 275.     CrossRef
  • Position Statement on the Appropriateness and Significance of Adding the Glycated Hemoglobin Test to the National Health Examination
    Ji Hye Kim, Dae Jung Kim, Jaehyun Kim, Sangjoon Park, Kyunghoon Lee, Jun Goo Kang, Eu Jeong Ku, Su Kyoung Kwon, Won Jun Kim, Young Sang Lyu, Jang Won Son, Young Sil Eom, Kyung Ae Lee, Jeongrim Lee, Jung Min Lee, Jung Hwa Lee, Jung Hwa Jung, Hochan Cho, Da
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2023; 24(4): 178.     CrossRef
  • Trends and Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Adolescents, 2007 to 2018 (Diabetes Metab J 2021;45:880-9)
    Dae Jung Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(2): 349.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence trends of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents in North Rhine-Westphalia, the most populous federal state in Germany, 2002-2020
    C. Baechle, A. Stahl-Pehe, N. Prinz, T. Meissner, C. Kamrath, R.W. Holl, J. Rosenbauer
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2022; 190: 109995.     CrossRef
  • Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Youth
    Hwa Young Kim, Jae Hyun Kim
    The Ewha Medical Journal.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Factors Affecting High-Risk for Diabetes among Korean Adolescents: An Analysis Using the Eighth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2020)
    Kyung-Sook Bang, Sang-Youn Jang, Ji-Hye Choe
    Children.2022; 9(8): 1249.     CrossRef
  • Characteristics of Glycemic Control and Long-Term Complications in Patients with Young-Onset Type 2 Diabetes
    Han-sang Baek, Ji-Yeon Park, Jin Yu, Joonyub Lee, Yeoree Yang, Jeonghoon Ha, Seung Hwan Lee, Jae Hyoung Cho, Dong-Jun Lim, Hun-Sung Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2022; 37(4): 641.     CrossRef
  • 젊은 2형 당뇨병 환자의 관리
    재현 배
    Public Health Weekly Report.2022; 15(35): 2474.     CrossRef
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Maternal Hyperglycemia during Pregnancy Increases Adiposity of Offspring
Hye Rim Chung, Joon Ho Moon, Jung Sub Lim, Young Ah Lee, Choong Ho Shin, Joon-Seok Hong, Soo Heon Kwak, Sung Hee Choi, Hak Chul Jang
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(5):730-738.   Published online February 22, 2021
  • 5,846 View
  • 180 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
The effect of intrauterine hyperglycemia on fat mass and regional fat proportion of the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (OGDM) remains to be determined.
The body composition of OGDM (n=25) and offspring of normoglycemic mothers (n=49) was compared using dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry at age 5 years. The relationship between maternal glucose concentration during a 100 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and regional fat mass or proportion was analyzed after adjusting for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI).
BMI was comparable between OGDM and control (median, 16.0 kg/m2 vs. 16.1 kg/m2 ). Total, truncal, and leg fat mass were higher in OGDM compared with control (3,769 g vs. 2,245 g, P=0.004; 1,289 g vs. 870 g, P=0.017; 1,638 g vs. 961 g, P=0.002, respectively), whereas total lean mass was lower in OGDM (15,688 g vs. 16,941 g, P=0.001). Among OGDM, total and truncal fat mass were correlated with fasting and 3-hour glucose concentrations of maternal 100 g OGTT during pregnancy (total fat mass, r=0.49, P=0.018 [fasting], r=0.473, P=0.023 [3-hour]; truncal fat mass, r=0.571, P=0.004 [fasting], r=0.558, P=0.006 [3-hour]), but there was no correlation between OGDM leg fat mass and maternal OGTT during pregnancy. Regional fat indices were not correlated with concurrent maternal 75 g OGTT values.
Intrauterine hyperglycemia is associated with increased fat mass, especially truncal fat, in OGDM aged 5 years.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Advances in free fatty acid profiles in gestational diabetes mellitus
    Haoyi Du, Danyang Li, Laura Monjowa Molive, Na Wu
    Journal of Translational Medicine.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • High-fat diet during pregnancy lowers fetal weight and has a long-lasting adverse effect on brown adipose tissue in the offspring
    Mihoko Yamaguchi, Jun Mori, Nozomi Nishida, Satoshi Miyagaki, Yasuhiro Kawabe, Takeshi Ota, Hidechika Morimoto, Yusuke Tsuma, Shota Fukuhara, Takehiro Ogata, Takuro Okamaura, Naoko Nakanishi, Masahide Hamaguchi, Hisakazu Nakajima, Michiaki Fukui, Tomoko I
    Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease.2023; 14(2): 261.     CrossRef
  • Prediction of gestational diabetes mellitus in Asian women using machine learning algorithms
    Byung Soo Kang, Seon Ui Lee, Subeen Hong, Sae Kyung Choi, Jae Eun Shin, Jeong Ha Wie, Yun Sung Jo, Yeon Hee Kim, Kicheol Kil, Yoo Hyun Chung, Kyunghoon Jung, Hanul Hong, In Yang Park, Hyun Sun Ko
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effects of early standardized management on the growth trajectory of offspring with gestational diabetes mellitus at 0–5 years old: a preliminary longitudinal study
    Bingbing Guo, Jingjing Pei, Yin Xu, Yajie Wang, Xinye Jiang
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Diagnostic Approaches and Maternal-Offspring Complications
    Joon Ho Moon, Hak Chul Jang
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(1): 3.     CrossRef
  • Increased Pro-Inflammatory T Cells, Senescent T Cells, and Immune-Check Point Molecules in the Placentas of Patients With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
    Yea Eun Kang, Hyon-Seung Yi, Min-Kyung Yeo, Jung Tae Kim, Danbit Park, Yewon Jung, Ok Soon Kim, Seong Eun Lee, Ji Min Kim, Kyong Hye Joung, Ju Hee Lee, Bon Jeong Ku, Mina Lee, Hyun Jin Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Association of Bisphenol A and Its Substitutes, Bisphenol F and Bisphenol S, with Obesity in United States Children and Adolescents
Buyun Liu, Hans-Joachim Lehmler, Yangbo Sun, Guifeng Xu, Qi Sun, Linda G. Snetselaar, Robert B. Wallace, Wei Bao
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(1):59-75.   Published online February 19, 2019
  • 6,139 View
  • 157 Download
  • 92 Web of Science
  • 93 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   

Bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS) are increasingly used as substitutes for bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental obesogen. However, health effects of BPF and BPS remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the associations of BPA, BPF, and BPS with obesity in children and adolescents.


We used data from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013 to 2014, a nationally representative study. We included 745 participants aged 6 to 17 years old. General obesity was defined based on the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention body mass index-for-age growth charts for the United States. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist-to-height ratio ≥0.5.


After adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, and urinary creatinine levels, the odds ratio of general obesity comparing the highest with lowest quartile of urinary bisphenol levels was 1.74 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92 to 3.31) for BPA, 1.54 (95% CI, 1.02 to 2.32) for BPF, and 1.36 (95% CI, 0.53 to 3.51) for BPS. Moreover, the associations were stronger in boys than in girls for BPA and BPF. Similar results were observed for abdominal obesity.


This study for the first time showed that exposure to BPF, a commonly used substitute for BPA, was positively associated with higher risk of obesity in children and adolescents. The association of BPA and BPF with general and abdominal obesity was primarily observed in boys, suggesting a possible sex difference. Further investigations on the underlying mechanisms are needed.


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  • Obesogenic effects of six classes of emerging contaminants
    Siying Wu, Chaoyu Tong, Jing Liu
    Journal of Environmental Sciences.2025; 151: 252.     CrossRef
  • Bisphenol S, bisphenol F, bisphenol a exposure and body composition in US adults
    Buyun Liu, Yuxiang Yan, Juan Xie, Jian Sun, Hans-Joachim Lehmler, Leonardo Trasande, Robert B. Wallace, Wei Bao
    Chemosphere.2024; 346: 140537.     CrossRef
  • Sex and Gender Differences on the Impact of Metabolism-Disrupting Chemicals on Obesity: A Systematic Review
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    Maria Dalamaga, Dimitrios Kounatidis, Dimitrios Tsilingiris, Natalia G. Vallianou, Irene Karampela, Sotiria Psallida, Athanasios G. Papavassiliou
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2024; 25(1): 675.     CrossRef
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    Shili Zhang, Lingyan Dai, Ziyu Wan, Zhiwei Huang, Mengchen Zou, Haixia Guan
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research.2024; 31(5): 7948.     CrossRef
  • EDC mixtures during pregnancy and body fat at 7 years of age in a Swedish cohort, the SELMA study
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    Environmental Research.2024; 248: 118293.     CrossRef
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    Matthew S. Varonka, Terry G. Gregston, Michael Villalobos, Jacqueline P. Green, William H. Orem
    Environmental Science & Technology Letters.2024; 11(3): 243.     CrossRef
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    Shabda E. Kulsange, Monika Sharma, Babasaheb Sonawane, Meera R. Jaiswal, Mahesh J. Kulkarni, B. Santhakumari
    Food and Chemical Toxicology.2024; 188: 114667.     CrossRef
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    Marion Ouidir, Aminata H. Cissé, Jérémie Botton, Sarah Lyon-Caen, Cathrine Thomsen, Amrit K. Sakhi, Azemira Sabaredzovic, Sam Bayat, Rémy Slama, Barbara Heude, Claire Philippat
    Environmental Health Perspectives.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Exposure to Bisphenol A, S, and F and its Association with Obesity and Diabetes Mellitus in General Adults of Korea: Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) 2015–2017
    Min Kyong Moon, Min Joo Kim, Inae Lee, Sunmi Kim, Sohyeon Choi, Jeongim Park, Yoon Hee Cho, Sooyeon Hong, Jiyoung Yoo, Hyunwoong Park, Gi Jeong Cheon, Young Joo Park, Kyungho Choi
    Exposure and Health.2023; 15(1): 53.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of toxicological effects of bisphenol S with an in vitro human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell: Implications for bone health
    Mei Li, Tenglong Li, Juan Yin, Chunfeng Xie, Jianyun Zhu
    Toxicology.2023; 484: 153408.     CrossRef
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    Karolina Nowak, Žiga Jakopin
    Food and Chemical Toxicology.2023; 173: 113623.     CrossRef
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    Pieter Vancamp, Lucile Butruille, Anni Herranen, Anita Boelen, Jean-Baptiste Fini, Barbara A. Demeneix, Sylvie Remaud
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    Jeong-Hun Kang, Daisuke Asai, Riki Toita
    Journal of Xenobiotics.2023; 13(4): 775.     CrossRef
  • Report of the Scientific Committee of the Spanish Agency for Food Safety and Nutrition (AESAN) on the available evidence in relation to the potential obesogenic activity of certain chemical compounds that may be present in foods
    Ana María Rivas Velasco, Irene Bretón Lesmes, Araceli Díaz Perales, Ángel Gil Izquierdo, María José González Muñoz, Victoria Moreno Arribas, María del Puy Portillo Baquedano, Silvia Pichardo Sánchez
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    Claire Beausoleil, Brigitte Le Magueresse-Battistoni, Catherine Viguié, Sylvie Babajko, Marie-Chantal Canivenc-Lavier, Nicolas Chevalier, Claude Emond, René Habert, Nicole Picard-Hagen, Sakina Mhaouty-Kodja
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    Ji Yoon Choi, Jiyun Lee, Da-An Huh, Kyong Whan Moon
    Environmental Pollution.2022; 295: 118679.     CrossRef
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    Priya Gajjar, Yun Liu, Nan Li, Jessie P. Buckley, Aimin Chen, Bruce P. Lanphear, Heidi J. Kalkwarf, Kim M. Cecil, Kimberly Yolton, Joseph M. Braun
    Environmental Epidemiology.2022; 6(1): e187.     CrossRef
  • Profile of Environmental Chemicals in the Korean Population—Results of the Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS) Cycle 3, 2015–2017
    Sun Kyoung Jung, Wookhee Choi, Sung Yeon Kim, Sooyeon Hong, Hye Li Jeon, Youngkyung Joo, Chulwoo Lee, Kyungho Choi, Sungkyoon Kim, Kee-Jae Lee, Jiyoung Yoo
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(2): 626.     CrossRef
  • The bisphenol F and bisphenol S and cardiovascular disease: results from NHANES 2013–2016
    Ruihua Wang, Qiaoyuan Fei, Shan Liu, Xueqiong Weng, Huanzhu Liang, Yingying Wu, Lin Wen, Guang Hao, Guangwen Cao, Chunxia Jing
    Environmental Sciences Europe.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Serena Cosentino, Federica Aureli, Valentina Iannilli
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  • Impact of environmental pollution on the obesogenic environment
    Adriana Martínez-Esquivel, Daniela Joyce Trujillo-Silva, V Gabriela Cilia-López
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    Ying Han, Yumeng Fei, Mingxin Wang, Yingang Xue, Yuxuan Liu
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Effects of Exercise Alone on Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Tolerance in Obese Youth
SoJung Lee, YoonMyung Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(4):225-232.   Published online August 14, 2013
  • 4,045 View
  • 38 Download
  • 18 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

As with the dramatic increases in childhood obesity over the past decades, the incidence of type 2 diabetes has increased among children and adolescents in the United States. Insulin resistance is a common feature of childhood obesity and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and atherogenic lipoprotein profile in obese youth. Although cross-sectional studies report beneficial effects of physical activity or cardiorespiratory fitness on insulin sensitivity, the role of regular exercise alone (e.g., no calorie restriction) as a strategy to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes is unclear in obese children and adolescents. In this mini review, we examined the independent effects of various exercise on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in obese youth.


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Original Article
Humoral Immunological Marks in Patients with Child-onset and Adult-onset Type 1 Diabetes.
Hyun Dae Yoon, Jae Hong Kim, Jung Hyun Oh, Jin Chul Park, Sang Yub Nam, Ji Soon Yoon, Kyu Chang Won, In Ho Cho, Choong Ki Lee, Joong Yeol Park, Sung Kwan Hong, Ki Up Lee, Hyoung Woo Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2000;24(4):444-456.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease in which serum antibodies against islet antigens have been recognized. These antibodies include cytoplasmic islet cell antibodies (ICA), and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65 antibodies and IA2 antibodies. It has been reported that the prevalence of these autoantibodies is different among Caucacian and Asian and Korean type 1 diabetes patients. And the natural course of type 1 diabetes can differ according to the age of onset. But, in contrast to the classic juvenile onset type 1 diabetes, the adult onset type 1 diabetes is poorly characterized about clinical and autoimmune differences at presentation. Thus, this study was perfomed to evaluate clinical and autoimmune characteristics at presentation in subjects with either child onset or adult onset type 1 diabetes and to establish an autoimmune pathogenesis in Korean type 1 diabetes. METHOD: We examined the clinical characteristics of child onset type 1 diabetes (n=32) and adult onset type 1 diabetes (n=40) retrospectively. At the same time, ICA from these patients was measured by standard indirect immunofluorescence, GADA and IA2A from these patients were measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: The mean duration of disease was longer in the adult onset and their serum fasting C-peptide concentration at diagnosis were higer. The prevalence of ICA, GADA, IA2A in sera from 32 patients with child onset type 1 diabetes was 50%, 38% and 31% respectively. And, the prevalence of ICA, GADA and IA2A in sera from 40 patients with adult onset type 1 diabetes was 30%, 25% and 18% respectively.The prevalence of ICA, GADA and IA2A in sera from 39 patients with typical type 1 diabetes was 46%, 30% and 16% respectively. And, the prevalence of ICA, GADA and IA2A in sera from 33 patients with atypical type 1 diabetes was 30%, 30% and 25% respectively. The concordance rate of ICA and GADA in child onset and adult onset diabetes was 81% (26/32), 80% (32/40) respectively. In a subset of these patients with recent onset type 1 diabetes (duration of diabetes < or = 1 year), the prevalence of ICA, GADA and IA2A was 75% (3/4), 75% (3/4), 100% (1/1) respectively, in the child onset type 1 diabetes. CONCLUSION: These observations show that autoantibodies in Korean patients with child onset type 1 diabetes is similar compaired with other Asian groups but is lower than Caucasian patients with type 1 diabetes and the prevalence of humoral immunologic makers in child onset type 1 diabetes was higher than that of adult onset diabetes. These results suggest that autoimmune response is a significant cause of Korean type 1 diabetes but other factors except autoimmunity may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Korean type 1 diabetes.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal