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Arterial Stiffness by Aerobic Exercise Is Related with Aerobic Capacity, Physical Activity Energy Expenditure and Total Fat but not with Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Female Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
Ji Yeon Jung, Kyung Wan Min, Hee Jung Ahn, Hwi Ryun Kwon, Jae Hyuk Lee, Kang Seo Park, Kyung Ah Han
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(6):439-448.   Published online December 15, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2014.38.6.439
  • 4,959 View
  • 33 Download
  • 9 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Arterial stiffness is an important factor in atherosclerosis. Thus we examined whether aerobic exercise could reduce arterial stiffness in obese women with type 2 diabetes without diabetic complication.

Methods

A total of 35 women with type 2 diabetes (body mass index, 26.6±2.8 kg/m2; age, 56.4±1.9 years; duration of diabetes, 4.7±4.8 years) were assigned to aerobic exercise group (AEG) or control group (CG). AEG completed a 12-week exercise program (3.6 to 5.2 metabolic equivalents, 3 day/week, 60 min/day), with their exercise activities monitored by accelerometers. We measured abdominal total fat area (TFA), visceral fat area (VFA), and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) by computed tomography, insulin sensitivity by insulin tolerance test (KITT), and augmentation index (AIx) by SphygmoCor at baseline and at the end of the 12-week program.

Results

The AIx was improved in the AEG compared with the CG (P<0.001). The percent change of AIx had significant correlation with the improvement of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE), aerobic capacity, TFA, and SFA (r=-0.416, P=0.013; r=0.560, P<0.001; r=0.489, P=0.003; r=0.531, P=0.001, respectively), but not with insulin sensitivity, energy intake, or VFA.

Conclusion

Improvement in aortic stiffness by aerobic exercise is related with the improvement of aerobic capacity, PAEE, and total fat but not with insulin sensitivity or energy intake in obese women with type 2 diabetes.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Relationship between objectively measured physical activity and subclinical cardiovascular disease: a systematic review
    Aparna Narendrula, Ellen Brinza, Christine Horvat Davey, Chris T Longenecker, Allison R Webel
    BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine.2024; 10(1): e001596.     CrossRef
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    Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Alex Armstrong, Klaus Jungbluth Rodriguez, Angelo Sabag, Yorgi Mavros, Helen M. Parker, Shelley E. Keating, Nathan A. Johnson
    Obesity Reviews.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Physiological Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    A. Sabag, K.L. Way, S.E. Keating, R.N. Sultana, H.T. O’Connor, M.K. Baker, V.H. Chuter, J. George, N.A. Johnson
    Diabetes & Metabolism.2017; 43(3): 195.     CrossRef
  • Arterial Stiffness Measured with the Cuff Oscillometric Method Is Predictive of Exercise Capacity in Patients with Cardiac Diseases
    Yasushi Tazawa, Nobuyoshi Mori, Yoshiko Ogawa, Osamu Ito, Masahiro Kohzuki
    The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine.2016; 239(2): 127.     CrossRef
Effects of Resistance Training and Aerobic Exercise on Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight Korean Adolescents: A Controlled Randomized Trial
Sunghwan Suh, In-Kyong Jeong, Mi Yeon Kim, Yeon Soo Kim, Sue Shin, Sun Sin Kim, Jae Hyeon Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(4):418-426.   Published online August 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.4.418
  • 21,673 View
  • 48 Download
  • 22 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Data on the impact of resistance training on insulin resistance in overweight or obese children are inconclusive.

Methods

Thirty overweight South Korean adolescents (mean age of 13.10 years) were divided by sex, and then randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups, which were the diet only (DO), diet with aerobic exercise (AE), or diet with resistance training (RT) group. Physiologic and metabolic parameters were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks of exercise training and diet modification.

Results

Both exercise groups (aerobic and resistance) showed significant improvements in their insulin area under the curve and insulin sensitivity index values when compared to their baseline values while the DO group showed no significant changes in these variables. Age-, sex-, and body mass index (BMI)-adjusted intergroup comparison analyses showed a marked reduction in BMI and a significant reduction in muscle mass in the AE group when compared to the RT group and the DO group, respectively.

Conclusion

A 12-week exercise training program of either resistance or aerobic activity improved insulin sensitivity in overweight adolescents, although it failed to show superiority over a DO program. Aerobic exercise decreased both body weight and BMI, and it was noted that this group also had a significant reduction in muscle mass when compared to the DO group.

Citations

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  • Effect of high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training on cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
    Ya Wang, Shun Wang, Xiangwu Meng, Husheng Zhou
    Physiology & Behavior.2024; 275: 114459.     CrossRef
  • Exercise and Nutrition Strategies for Combating Sarcopenia and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Older Adults
    Dionysia Argyropoulou, Nikolaos D. Geladas, Tzortzis Nomikos, Vassilis Paschalis
    Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology.2022; 7(2): 48.     CrossRef
  • Effects and dose-response relationships of exercise intervention on weight loss in overweight and obese children: a meta-regression and system review
    Rui Xu, Qiao-Ting Huang, Yu-Ting Chen, Peng-Yin Wang
    Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism.2022; 35(9): 1117.     CrossRef
  • The Benefits of Resistance Training in Obese Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
    Bruno Ribeiro, Pedro Forte, Raquel Vinhas, Daniel A. Marinho, Luís B. Faíl, Ana Pereira, Fernando Vieira, Henrique P. Neiva
    Sports Medicine - Open.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effects of Eight Weeks of Combined Training with Antioxidant Vitamins E and C on Glutathione, Glutathione Peroxidase, and Superoxide Dismutase in the Heart Tissue of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats
    Elaheh Heydarnia, Farzaneh Taghian, Khosro Jalali Dehkodi, Mehrzad Moghadasi
    Gene, Cell and Tissue.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effect of resistance training with and without caloric restriction on visceral fat: A systemic review and meta‐analysis
    Mousa Khalafi, Abbas Malandish, Sara K. Rosenkranz, Ali A. Ravasi
    Obesity Reviews.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Joon Young Kim, Justin Y. Jeon
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  • A Review of Randomized Controlled Trials of Aerobic Exercise Training on Fitness and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Obese Adolescents
    A. S. Alberga, A. Frappier, R. J. Sigal, D. Prud'homme, G. P. Kenny
    The Physician and Sportsmedicine.2013; 41(2): 44.     CrossRef
  • Effects of Aerobic Versus Resistance Exercise Without Caloric Restriction on Abdominal Fat, Intrahepatic Lipid, and Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Adolescent Boys
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Effects of Aerobic Exercise vs. Resistance Training on Endothelial Function in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Hwi Ryun Kwon, Kyung Wan Min, Hee Jung Ahn, Hee Geum Seok, Jae Hyuk Lee, Gang Seo Park, Kyung Ah Han
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(4):364-373.   Published online August 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.4.364
  • 6,828 View
  • 101 Download
  • 62 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

There is controversy over whether aerobic or resistance exercise is more effective for improving endothelial function in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study was aimed to investigate the effects of an aerobic and resistance training program on endothelial function, and the influences of glycemic control, body weight changes, and aerobic capacity in T2DM.

Methods

Total 40 overweight women with T2DM were assigned into 3 groups: an aerobic exercise group (AEG, n=13), resistance exercise group (REG, n=12), and control group (CG, n=15), and followed either brisk walking for the AEG or resistance band training for the REG, 60 minutes per day, 5 days per week for 12 weeks with monitoring daily activity using accelerometers. We assessed endothelial function by flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and aerobic capacity by oxygen uptake at anaerobic threshold (AT_VO2) at baseline and following training program.

Results

The mean participants' age was 57.0±6.8 years, and body mass index (BMI) was 27.0±2.3 kg/m2. After intervention, FMD increased by 2.2±1.9% in AEG, which differed from REG and CG (P=0.002), despite of decreased body weight (BW) in both AG and RG (2.8±2.5%, P=0.002; 1.6±2.0%, P=0.017, respectively). A significant increased AT_VO2 and decreased HbA1c were found only in AEG. In all participants, FMD was changed with the significant relations to the AT_VO2 (r=0.348, P=0.035), but not to HbA1c levels or BW.

Conclusion

Aerobic exercise appears to be more beneficial than resistance exercise for improving endothelial function in T2DM. In addition, aerobic capacity could be a better predictor of changes in FMD than BW and glycemic control.

Citations

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Relationship of Maximal Muscle Strength with Body Mass Index and Aerobics Capacity in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Hwi Ryun Kwon, Kyung Ah Han, Yun Hyi Ku, Hee Jung Ahn, Bo Kyung Koo, Kyung Wan Min
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(6):511-517.   Published online December 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.6.511
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Combination fitness regimens (including aerobic and resistance exercises) are effective for improving cardio-respiratory fitness, reducing visceral fat and increasing insulin sensitivity in diabetic patients. The combination exercise intensity that a patient is capable of is limited by his or her aerobic capacity and one repetition maximum (1RM). We investigated the relationships between 1RM, aerobic exercise capacity and body mass index in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 177 (men: 85, women: 92) diabetic subjects with HbA1c < or = 10% were enrolled. Muscle strength and 1RM were assessed bychest press (upper body) and leg press (lower body). We assessed aerobic capacity by VO2max and muscle mass by bioimpedance analysis. RESULTS: There was no correlation between 1RM and VO2max in type 2 diabetic patients (upper: P = 0.122, lower: P = 0.138 for men, and upper: P = 0.952, lower: P = 0.570 for women). However, 1RM was significantly correlated with muscle mass both in men and women (upper: r = 0.493, P < 0.001, r = 0.315, P = 0.002 lower: r = 0.437 P < 0.001, r = 0.307, P =0.003, respectively). There was also a significant correlation between 1RM and BMI. In obese male subjects with BMI > or = 25 kg/m2, we observed a significant correlation between muscle mass and BMI (r = 0.374, P = 0.032), but this correlation was not observed in women. CONCLUSION: Clinicians treating Korean type 2 diabetic subjects should recommend resistance exercise to their patients. In particular, obese women with diabetes may receive greater benefits by increasing muscle mass through resistance exercises.

Citations

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Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
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