Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal

Search
OPEN ACCESS

Search

Page Path
HOME > Search
3 "Skin"
Filter
Filter
Article category
Keywords
Publication year
Authors
Funded articles
Original Articles
The Appropriateness of the Length of Insulin Needles Based on Determination of Skin and Subcutaneous Fat Thickness in the Abdomen and Upper Arm in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
Kang Hee Sim, Moon Sook Hwang, Sun Young Kim, Hye Mi Lee, Ji Yeun Chang, Moon Kyu Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(2):120-133.   Published online April 18, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2014.38.2.120
  • 5,519 View
  • 125 Download
  • 21 Web of Science
  • 24 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Longer needle and complicated insulin injection technique such as injecting at a 45-degree angle and making skinfolds may decrease patient compliance to insulin injection therapy. In this light, shorter insulin needles have been recently developed. However, it is necessary to ascertain that such shorter needles are appropriate for Korean patients with diabetes as well.

Methods

First, the diverse demographic and diabetic features of 156 Korean adults with diabetes were collected by a questionnaire and a device unit of body fat measurement. The skin and subcutaneous fat thicknesses of each subject were measured by Ultrasound device with a 7- to 12-MHz probe. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and multiple linear regression.

Results

The mean skin thickness was 2.29±0.37 mm in the abdomen and 2.00±0.34 mm in the upper arms, and the mean subcutaneous fat thickness was to 10.15±6.54 mm in the abdomen and 5.50±2.68 mm in the upper arms. Our analysis showed that the factors affecting the skin thickness of the abdomen and upper arms were gender and body mass index (BMI), whereas the factors influencing the subcutaneous fat thickness in the abdomen were gender and BMI, and the factors influencing the subcutaneous fat thickness in the upper arms were gender, BMI, and age. Insulin fluids may not appear to be intradermally injected into the abdomen and upper arms at any needle lengths. The risk of intramuscular injection is likely to increase with longer insulin needles and lower BMI.

Conclusion

It is recommended to fully inform the patients about the lengths of needles for insulin injections. As for the recommended needle length, the findings of this study indicate that needles as short as 4 mm are sufficient to deliver insulin for Korean patients with diabetes.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Ultrasonographic features of the skin and subcutis: correlations with the severity of breast cancer–related lymphedema
    Ji Youn Park, Jae Yong Jeon, Seungwoo Cha
    Ultrasonography.2024; 43(4): 284.     CrossRef
  • Quad-Band 1 × 4 Linear MIMO Antenna for Millimeter-Wave, Wearable and Biomedical Telemetry Applications
    Rakesh N. Tiwari, K. Geetha Malya, Girigari Nandini, P. Baby Nikhitha, Deepti Sharma, Prabhakar Singh, Pradeep Kumar
    Sensors.2024; 24(14): 4427.     CrossRef
  • Inadvertent intramuscular injection risk with subcutaneous insulin injections and risk predictors in adults: a cross-sectional sonographic study
    U. A. Liyanage, Y. Mathangasinghe, C. K. Liyanage, E. S. Wijewickrama, D. Mahathanthila, A. J. Dharmawansa, S. Jeyerajesingham, D. S. Warapitiya, M. D. M. S. Wijayabandara, B. C. T. A. N. W. M. R. C. S. Kempitiya, A. Aravinthan, L. M. D. T. Jayasekara, N.
    International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries.2023; 43(5): 731.     CrossRef
  • COVID-19 vaccination and the skin to deltoid muscle distance in adults with diabetes
    Marjan Doppen, Ali Mirjalili, Matire Harwood, Allie Eathorne, Irene Braithwaite, Jonathan Bong, Louis Kirton, Ruth Semprini, Mark Weatherall, Alex Semprini, Ciléin Kearns, Melissa Black, Stacey Kung, Michaela Walton, Richard Beasley, Thomas Hills
    Vaccine: X.2023; 13: 100248.     CrossRef
  • Integration of capillaric strain sensors toward recognition of human movements
    Hudson Gasvoda, Nick Cmager, Rana Altay, Ju Young Lee, I. Emre Araci
    Sensors & Diagnostics.2023; 2(1): 212.     CrossRef
  • What variables should inform needle length choice for deltoid intramuscular injection? A systematic review
    Ciléin Kearns, Claire Houghton, Emily Dickinson, Lee Hatter, Pepa Bruce, Srinidhi Krishnamoorthy, Mark Weatherall, Thomas Hills, Marjan Doppen, Seyed Ali Mirjalili, Richard Beasley
    BMJ Open.2023; 13(1): e063530.     CrossRef
  • Investigation of appropriate needle length considering skin thickness with the real injection posture for insulin injections in diabetic patients
    Aya Torii-Goto, Kana Hirai, Yuri Inukai, Yoshimi Hoshina, Kazumi Shiomi, Junko Ito, Masae Yoshikawa
    Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Care and Sciences.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Machine Learning-Based Prediction of Abdominal Subcutaneous Fat Thickness During Pregnancy
    Moon Sook Hwang, Eunjeong Song, Jeonghee Ahn, Seungmi Park
    Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders.2023; 21(9): 479.     CrossRef
  • Human continuous glucose monitors for measurement of glucose in dairy cows
    M.K.H. Byrd, A.G. Arneson, D.R. Soffa, J.W. Stewart, M.L. Rhoads
    JDS Communications.2022; 3(1): 78.     CrossRef
  • A finite element model of abdominal human tissue for improving the accuracy in insulin absorption assessment: A feasibility study
    Pasquale Arpaia, Davide Cuneo, Sabrina Grassini, Francesca Mancino, Simone Minucci, Nicola Moccaldi, Isabella Sannino
    Measurement: Sensors.2021; 18: 100218.     CrossRef
  • Abdominal skin subcutaneous fat thickness over the gestational period in Korean pregnant women: a descriptive observational study
    Moon Sook Hwang
    Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing.2021; 27(4): 318.     CrossRef
  • User experience for manual injection of 2 mL viscous solutions is enhanced by a new prefillable syringe with a staked 8 mm ultra-thin wall needle
    Aurélie Pager, Anne Combedazou, Karen Guerrero, Tzvetelina Tzvetkova-Chevolleau, Didier Morel, Cécile Frolet, Stanislav Glezer
    Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery.2020; 17(10): 1485.     CrossRef
  • Evaluating the Impact of Human Factors and Pen Needle Design on Insulin Pen Injection
    Christopher Rini, Bruce C. Roberts, Didier Morel, Rick Klug, Benjamin Selvage, Ronald J. Pettis
    Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology.2019; 13(3): 533.     CrossRef
  • Subcutaneous Injection of Drugs: Literature Review of Factors Influencing Pain Sensation at the Injection Site
    Iris Usach, Rafael Martinez, Teodora Festini, José-Esteban Peris
    Advances in Therapy.2019; 36(11): 2986.     CrossRef
  • The Injection Technique Factor: What You Don’t Know or Teach Can Make a Difference
    Laurence J. Hirsch, Kenneth W. Strauss
    Clinical Diabetes.2019; 37(3): 227.     CrossRef
  • Factors associated with removal difficulties of etonogestrel-containing contraceptive implants (Nexplanon ® )
    Julien Chevreau, David Krief, Osama Abou Arab, Mickaël Zitoun, Arthur Foulon, Fabrice Sergent, Jean Gondry
    European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology.2018; 224: 81.     CrossRef
  • Insulin Injection Technique in China Compared with the Rest of the World
    Zhenqiang Song, Xiaohui Guo, Linong Ji, Xiao Huang, Laurence J. Hirsch, Kenneth W. Strauss
    Diabetes Therapy.2018; 9(6): 2357.     CrossRef
  • Ultrasound-guided measurement of skin and subcutaneous tissue thickness in children with diabetes and recommendations for giving insulin injections
    Soo Ting Joyce Lim, Yuen Ching Angela Hui, Pei Kwee Lim, Chin Choo Evelyn Lim, Yen Yen Chia, Rashida Farhad Vasanwala
    Journal of Clinical & Translational Endocrinology.2018; 12: 26.     CrossRef
  • Comment on the New Indian Injection Technique Recommendations: Critical Appraisal of the Real-World Implementation of the Current Guidelines
    Felice Strollo, Sandro Gentile
    Diabetes Therapy.2017; 8(3): 507.     CrossRef
  • Worldwide Injection Technique Questionnaire Study
    Anders H. Frid, Laurence J. Hirsch, Astrid R. Menchior, Didier R. Morel, Kenneth W. Strauss
    Mayo Clinic Proceedings.2016; 91(9): 1212.     CrossRef
  • Skin and subcutaneous tissue thickness at insulin injection sites in Chinese diabetes patients: Clinical implications
    W. Wang, X. Guo, G. Shen, G. Bai, Z. Wei, J. Liu, L. Hirsch, K. Strauss
    Diabetes & Metabolism.2016; 42(5): 374.     CrossRef
  • New Insulin Delivery Recommendations
    Anders H. Frid, Gillian Kreugel, Giorgio Grassi, Serge Halimi, Debbie Hicks, Laurence J. Hirsch, Mike J. Smith, Regine Wellhoener, Bruce W. Bode, Irl B. Hirsch, Sanjay Kalra, Linong Ji, Kenneth W. Strauss
    Mayo Clinic Proceedings.2016; 91(9): 1231.     CrossRef
  • Le tissu sous-cutané et l’insuline : Une cohabitation délicate Revue de la littérature
    K. Strauss, S. Halimi
    Médecine des Maladies Métaboliques.2015; 9(5): 504.     CrossRef
  • Subcutaneous Injection Depth Does Not Affect the Pharmacokinetics or Glucodynamics of Insulin Lispro in Normal Weight or Healthy Obese Subjects
    Amparo de la Peña, Kwee P. Yeo, Helle Linnebjerg, Edward Catton, Shobha Reddy, Patricia Brown-Augsburger, Linda Morrow, Debra A. Ignaut
    Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology.2015; 9(4): 824.     CrossRef
Comparison of EGF with VEGF Non-Viral Gene Therapy for Cutaneous Wound Healing of Streptozotocin Diabetic Mice
Junghae Ko, Haejung Jun, Hyesook Chung, Changshin Yoon, Taekyoon Kim, Minjeong Kwon, Soonhee Lee, Soojin Jung, Mikyung Kim, Jeong Hyun Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(3):226-235.   Published online June 30, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.3.226
  • 4,756 View
  • 35 Download
  • 20 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

To accelerate the healing of diabetic wounds, various kinds of growth factors have been employed. It is the short half-life of administered growth factors in hostile wound beds that have limited wide-spread clinical usage. To overcome this limitation, growth factor gene therapy could be an attractive alternative rather than direct application of factors onto the wound beds. We administered two growth factor DNAs, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) into a cutaneous wound on diabetic mice. We compared the different characteristics of the healing wounds.

Methods

Streptozotocin was injected intraperitoneally to induce diabetes into C57BL/6J mice. The ultrasound micro-bubble destruction method with SonoVue as a bubbling agent was used for non-viral gene delivery of EGF828 and VEGF165 DNAs. Each gene was modified for increasing efficacy as FRM-EGF828 or minicircle VEGF165. The degree of neoangiogenesis was assessed using qualitative laser Doppler flowmetry. We compared wound size and histological findings of the skin wounds in each group.

Results

In both groups, accelerated wound closure was observed in the mice receiving gene therapy compared with non treated diabetic control mice. Blood flow detected by laser doppler flowmetry was better in the VEGF group than in the EGF group. Wound healing rates and histological findings were more accelerated in the EGF gene therapy group than the VEGF group, but were not statistically significant.

Conclusion

Both non-viral EGF and VEGF gene therapy administrations could improve the speed and quality of skin wound healing. However, the detailed histological characteristics of the healing wounds were different.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Gene therapy to enhance angiogenesis in chronic wounds
    Elnaz Shaabani, Maryam Sharifiaghdam, Reza Faridi-Majidi, Stefaan C. De Smedt, Kevin Braeckmans, Juan C. Fraire
    Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids.2022; 29: 871.     CrossRef
  • Approaches to Modulate the Chronic Wound Environment Using Localized Nucleic Acid Delivery
    Adam G. Berger, Jonathan J. Chou, Paula T. Hammond
    Advances in Wound Care.2021; 10(9): 503.     CrossRef
  • Limited Treatment Options for Diabetic Wounds: Barriers to Clinical Translation Despite Therapeutic Success in Murine Models
    May Barakat, Luisa A. DiPietro, Lin Chen
    Advances in Wound Care.2021; 10(8): 436.     CrossRef
  • Minicircle‐based expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in mesenchymal stromal cells from diverse human tissues
    Joana Serra, Cláudia P. A. Alves, Joaquim M. S. Cabral, Gabriel A. Monteiro, Cláudia L. da Silva, Duarte Miguel F. Prazeres
    The Journal of Gene Medicine.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Mathematical Model Predicts that Acceleration of Diabetic Wound Healing is Dependent on Spatial Distribution of VEGF-A mRNA (AZD8601)
    S. Michaela Rikard, Paul J. Myers, Joachim Almquist, Peter Gennemark, Anthony C. Bruce, Maria Wågberg, Regina Fritsche-Danielson, Kenny M. Hansson, Matthew J. Lazzara, Shayn M. Peirce
    Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering.2021; 14(4): 321.     CrossRef
  • β-Neoendorphin Enhances Wound Healing by Promoting Cell Migration in Keratinocyte
    Dong Joo Yang, Sang Hyun Moh, Yun-Hee Choi, Ki Woo Kim
    Molecules.2020; 25(20): 4640.     CrossRef
  • Orf Virus IL-10 and VEGF-E Act Synergistically to Enhance Healing of Cutaneous Wounds in Mice
    Lyn M. Wise, Gabriella S. Stuart, Nicola C. Jones, Stephen B. Fleming, Andrew A. Mercer
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2020; 9(4): 1085.     CrossRef
  • Engineering of Human Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells with Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor–Encoding Minicircles for Angiogenic Ex Vivo Gene Therapy
    Joana Serra, Cláudia P.A. Alves, Liliana Brito, Gabriel A. Monteiro, Joaquim M.S. Cabral, Duarte Miguel F. Prazeres, Cláudia L. da Silva
    Human Gene Therapy.2019; 30(3): 316.     CrossRef
  • Therapeutic strategies for enhancing angiogenesis in wound healing
    Austin P. Veith, Kayla Henderson, Adrianne Spencer, Andrew D. Sligar, Aaron B. Baker
    Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews.2019; 146: 97.     CrossRef
  • Nanomedicines and gene therapy for the delivery of growth factors to improve perfusion and oxygenation in wound healing
    Céline M. Desmet, Véronique Préat, Bernard Gallez
    Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews.2018; 129: 262.     CrossRef
  • Electrospun Fibers as a Dressing Material for Drug and Biological Agent Delivery in Wound Healing Applications
    Mulugeta Gizaw, Jeffrey Thompson, Addison Faglie, Shih-Yu Lee, Pierre Neuenschwander, Shih-Feng Chou
    Bioengineering.2018; 5(1): 9.     CrossRef
  • Non-viral gene therapy: Gains and challenges of non-invasive administration methods
    Marianna Foldvari, Ding Wen Chen, Nafiseh Nafissi, Daniella Calderon, Lokesh Narsineni, Amirreza Rafiee
    Journal of Controlled Release.2016; 240: 165.     CrossRef
  • RETRACTED ARTICLE: Decellularized scaffolds containing hyaluronic acid and EGF for promoting the recovery of skin wounds
    Zhengzheng Wu, Yan Tang, Hongdou Fang, Zhongchun Su, Bin Xu, Yongliang Lin, Peng Zhang, Xing Wei
    Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine.2015;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Acute and chronic wound fluids inversely influence adipose‐derived stem cell function: molecular insights into impaired wound healing
    Paola Koenen, Timo A Spanholtz, Marc Maegele, Ewa Stürmer, Thomas Brockamp, Edmund Neugebauer, Oliver C Thamm
    International Wound Journal.2015; 12(1): 10.     CrossRef
  • Adipose‐derived stem cells and keratinocytes in a chronic wound cell culture model: the role of hydroxyectoine
    Oliver C Thamm, Panagiotis Theodorou, Ewa Stuermer, Max J Zinser, Edmund A Neugebauer, Paul C Fuchs, Paola Koenen
    International Wound Journal.2015; 12(4): 387.     CrossRef
  • Genetic and cellular techniques emerge as promising modalities for the treatment of diabetic foot syndrome
    Vladimir Iosifovich Konenkov, Vadim Valerievich Klimontov
    Diabetes mellitus.2014; 17(1): 63.     CrossRef
  • Analysis of blood flow and local expression of angiogenesis-associated growth factors in infected wounds treated with negative pressure wound therapy
    CHENG-YAN XIA, AI-XI YU, BAIWEN QI, MIN ZHOU, ZONG-HUAN LI, WEI-YANG WANG
    Molecular Medicine Reports.2014; 9(5): 1749.     CrossRef
  • Alteration of Skin Properties with Autologous Dermal Fibroblasts
    Rajesh Thangapazham, Thomas Darling, Jon Meyerle
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2014; 15(5): 8407.     CrossRef
  • Angiopoietin-like 4 Stimulates STAT3-mediated iNOS Expression and Enhances Angiogenesis to Accelerate Wound Healing in Diabetic Mice
    Han Chung Chong, Jeremy Soon Kiat Chan, Chi Qin Goh, Natalia V Gounko, Baiwen Luo, Xiaoling Wang, Selin Foo, Marcus Thien Chong Wong, Cleo Choong, Sander Kersten, Nguan Soon Tan
    Molecular Therapy.2014; 22(9): 1593.     CrossRef
  • Genome Editing of Mouse Fibroblasts by Homologous Recombination for Sustained Secretion of PDGF-B and Augmentation of Wound Healing
    Jenny C. Barker, Adam D. Barker, Jessica Bills, Jiying Huang, Mary Wight-Carter, Imelda Delgado, Debby L. Noble, Lily J. Huang, Matthew H. Porteus, Kathryn E. Davis
    Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.2014; 134(3): 389e.     CrossRef
Review
Impaired Wound Healing in Diabetes Mellitus.
Min Jeong Kwon, Jeong Hyun Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(2):83-90.   Published online April 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.2.83
  • 1,942 View
  • 41 Download
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
The normal healing of a cutaneous wound is achieved via well-orchestrated integration of complex biological and molecular events of cell migration, proliferation, extracellular matrix deposition and tissue remodeling. Chronic wounds fail to progress through the normal stages of healing, and enter a state of pathologic inflammation. Complicated diabetic patients show delayed wound healing caused by multiple factors including vascular insufficiency, abnormalities of the biochemical environment and hyperglycemia per se. Novel technologies including growth factor therapy, gene therapy, stem cell technologies, synthetic skins and hyperbaric oxygen treatment are under development. In the near future, these therapeutic strategies will be clinically available.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Promotion of wound healing through low-fluence ablative fractional laser treatment in diabetic mice
    Han Na Lee, Jung Min Bae, Bon Cheol Leo Goo, Young Min Park
    Lasers in Medical Science.2019; 34(2): 421.     CrossRef
  • Ethanol Extracts of Chungkookjang Stimulate the Proliferation and Migration of Human Umbilical Vascular Endothelial Cells
    Jae Sung Hwang, Dae Il Sung, Whan Myung Lee, Young Shin Chung, Han Bok Kim
    The Korean Journal of Microbiology.2014; 50(3): 223.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of Outcome of Trabeculectomy With Mitomycin C and Ahmed Valve Implantation for Uveitic Glaucoma
    Joo Yeon Kim, Hyoung Sub Shim, Hwang Ki Kim, Yong Ho Sohn
    Journal of the Korean Ophthalmological Society.2010; 51(4): 575.     CrossRef

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Close layer