Korean Diabetes Journal 2003;27(2):115-122.
Published online April 1, 2003.
Fetal Protein Deficiency Causes Long Term Changes in Mitochondrial DNA Content of Liver and Muscle in Female Sprague-Dawley Rats.
Suk Kyeong Kim, Min Seon Kim, Youn Young Kim, Do Joon Park, Kyong Soo Park, Ki Up Lee, Hong Kyu Lee
1Department of Internal Medicine, Kangwon National University College of Medicine, Korea.
2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Ulsan School of Medicine, Korea.
3Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Korea.
Epidemiological data suggest a strong association between low birth weight and the increased risk of metabolic syndrome, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, in adult life. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In our previous study, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in peripheral blood leukocytes was decreased in patients with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. To test the hypothesis that mitochondrial changes may serve as a link between fetal under nutrition and insulin resistance in later life, the effects of fetal protein malnutrition on the mitochondria of the liver and skeletal muscle, the main sites of insulin action in adulthood, were investigated. METHODS: Eight-week old female rats were divided into 2 groups and fed on either a control diet (casein 180 g/kg diet) (n=5) or a low protein diet (casein 80 g/kg diet) (n=7) for 15 days prior to mating. They were mated with 10 week-old male Sprague Dawley rats that had been fed on the control diet. The female offspring, born to the mothers fed the low protein diet, were randomly divided into 2 groups 4 weeks after birth, and weaned on either the low protein (low protein group, n=48) or control diet (resuscitated group, n=48). As a control group, the offspring born to the mothers fed the control diet were weaned on the control diet (n=48). The animals in each group were again randomly divided into 4 groups, and sacrificed at 5, 10, 15 and 20 weeks of age, respectively (n=12 per group). The body weight, liver and muscle mtDNA content were measured at weeks 5, 10, 15 and 20. RESULTS: The mtDNA contents of the liver and skeletal muscle were reduced in fetal malnourished adult rats, and were not restored to normal levels even when proper nutrition was supplied after weaning. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that under nutrition in early life causes long lasting changes in the mitochondria DNA content of the liver and muscles, which may contribute to the development of insulin resistance in later life.
Key Words: Thrifty phenotype, Insulin resistance, Mitochondrial DNA content, Diabetes mellitus
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