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Effect of Livingstone Potato (Plectranthus esculenthus N.E.Br) on Diabetes and Its Complications in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes in Rats
Chinedum Ogbonnaya Eleazu, Kate Chinedum Eleazu, Adanma Ironkwe, Mercy Amarachi Iroaganachi
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(5):366-374.   Published online October 17, 2014
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  • 5 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

The effect of livingstone potato (Plectranthus esculenthus N.E.Br) on diabetes and its complications in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats was investigated. The duration of the experiment was 4 weeks.


The blood glucose level of the rats was measured with a glucometer, the protein and glucose and specific gravity in the urine samples of the rats were measured using urine assay strips and urinometer respectively. The liver and kidney function parameters in the serum of the rats were determined using Biosystem Kits.


The diabetic rats given livingstonepotato incorporated feeds, had 129.7% decrease in their hyperglycemia with corresponding amelioration of their elevated urinary protein, sugars, specific gravity, renal growth, liver growth as well as 15.64% decrease in body weights compared with the nondiabetic rats that had 5.54% decrease in blood glucose and 20.39% increase in body weight unlike the diabetic control rats that had 18.34% decrease in blood glucose and 52.68% decrease in body weight. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in the relative liver, pancreas, and kidney weights of the diabetic rats given livingstone potato feeds compared with the diabetic control while there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the relative heart weights of all the rats in the three different groups. In terms of liver and kidney function parameters, values obtained for the diabetic rats given livingstone potato incorporated feeds were not significantly different from that of the nondiabetic rats except for total bilurubin, aspartate transaminase, and creatinine (P>0.05) while they were significantly different from the values obtained for the diabetic control rats (P<0.05). In addition, the serum amylase of the diabetic control rats were significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of the nondiabetic and diabetic rats treated with livingstone potato incorporated feeds.


Results show the antidiabetic actions of livingstone potato and its ability to ameliorate glomerular complication and liver hypertrophy in diabetics.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Plectranthus esculentus (Livingstone potato)

    CABI Compendium.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Biogenic Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Phagnalon niveum and Its In Vivo Anti-Diabetic Effect against Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats
    Muhammad Nisar Ul Haq, Ghulam Mujtaba Shah, Alia Gul, Ahmed Ibrahim Foudah, Mohammad Hamed Alqarni, Hasan Soliman Yusufoglu, Masroor Hussain, Huda Mohammed Alkreathy, Ihsan Ullah, Amir Muhammad Khan, Shahid Jamil, Mushtaq Ahmed, Rahmat Ali Khan
    Nanomaterials.2022; 12(5): 830.     CrossRef
  • Green Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Taverniera couneifolia Elicits Effective Anti-Diabetic Effect in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats
    Muhammad Nisar Ul Haq, Ghulam Mujtaba Shah, Farid Menaa, Rahmat Ali Khan, Norah A. Althobaiti, Aishah E. Albalawi, Huda Mohammed Alkreathy
    Nanomaterials.2022; 12(7): 1035.     CrossRef
  • Nutrient Composition, Antioxidant Capacity and Natural Products in Livingstone Potato (Plectranthus esculentus )
    C.O. Eleazu, K.C. Eleazu
    Journal of Food Processing and Preservation.2015; 39(6): 3050.     CrossRef
Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Seung Hyun Ko, Hyuk Sang Kwon, Jung Min Lee, Sung Rae Kim, Jae Hyung Cho, Ki Dong Yoo, Yong Moon Park, Won Chul Lee, Ki Ho Song, Kun Ho Yoon, Bong Yun Cha, Ho Young Son, Yu Bai Ahn
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(3):226-235.   Published online May 1, 2006
  • 2,650 View
  • 28 Download
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Diabetic autonomic neuropathy has a significant negative impact on survival and quality of life in type 2 diabetic patients. Especially cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is clinically important, because of its correlation to cardiovascular death. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence of CAN in Korean type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: 1798 type 2 diabetic patients, 727 males and 1071 females, visited Diabetes Clinic at St. Vincent Hospital, Korea, were included from January 2001 to December 2005. Clinical evaluation, laboratory test and assessment of diabetic complication were completed. Standard test for CAN were performed: 1) heart rate variability (HRV) during deep breathing (E/I ratio) 2) Valsalva maneuver 3) 30:15 ratio 4) blood pressure response to standing. CAN score was determined according to the results of the test as following: 0 = normal, 1 = abnormal. RESULTS: Mean age and diabetic duration of patients were 56.7 +/- 10.9, and 9.4 +/- 7.5 years. Normal and abnormal CAN were detected in 815 (45.3%) and 983 (54.7%) of the patients, respectively. Abnormal E/I, valsalva, and 30:15 ratio were found in 333 (18.5%), 717 (39.9%), and 546 (30.4%) patients, respectively. Age, diabetic duration, postprandial hyperglycemia, HbA1c, C-reactive protein, and microalbumuria levels were significantly different between normal and abnormal CAN groups. 49 (6.0%) patients of normal and 100 (10.2%) patients of abnormal CAN group showed previous attack of stroke (P = 0.004). In addition, diabetic foot was more frequent in patients with CAN (normal vs. abnormal, 14 (1.7%) vs. 73 (7.4%), P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: CAN is frequently found in Korean type 2 diabetic patients. It was associated with diabetic duration, uncontrolled diabetes, increased albumin excretion rate, presence of retinopathy, postprandial hyperglycemia.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Effects of High-Dose α-Lipoic Acid on Heart Rate Variability of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy in Korea
    Sol Jae Lee, Su Jin Jeong, Yu Chang Lee, Yong Hoon Lee, Jung Eun Lee, Chong Hwa Kim, Kyung Wan Min, Bong Yun Cha
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2017; 41(4): 275.     CrossRef
  • Screening of Autonomic Neuropathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
    Bo Kyung Koo
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2014; 38(5): 346.     CrossRef
  • Decision trees and multi-level ensemble classifiers for neurological diagnostics
    Herbert F. Jelinek, Jemal H. Abawajy, Andrei V. Kelarev, Morshed U. Chowdhury, Andrew Stranieri
    AIMS Medical Science.2014; 1(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Correlation between Predictors for Diabetic Gastroparesis and Gastric Emptying Scintigraphy
    Kyung-Ju Lee, Kyoung-Ho Ryu, Jin-Ook Chung, Dong-Hyeok Cho, Dong-Jin Chung, Min-Young Chung
    Chonnam Medical Journal.2009; 45(3): 175.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiologic Characteristics of Diabetes Mellitus in Korea: Current Status of Diabetic Patients Using Korean Health Insurance Database
    Ie Byung Park, Sei Hyun Baik
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2009; 33(5): 357.     CrossRef
  • The Status of Diabetes Mellitus and Effects of Related Factors on Heart Rate Variability in a Community
    Kyeong-Soon Chang, Kwan Lee, Hyun-Sul Lim
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2009; 33(6): 537.     CrossRef
Clinical Characteristics of Non-obese, Adult-onset Diabetes Requiring Insulin Treatment.
Se Eun Park, Wan Sub Shim, Mi Young Do, Eun Seok Kang, Yumie Rhee, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(6):557-565.   Published online November 1, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The aim of this study is to clarify the clinical characteristics of non-obese, adult-onset diabetes requiring insulin treatment and to compare the different characteristics of the three groups categorized according to diabetes classification. METHODS: Total 128 diabetic patients who were non-obese (BMI < 25kg/m2) and had been diagnosed with diabetes after 20 years old, requiring insulin treatment were enrolled in the study. We divided the patients into three groups : 56 patients with type 1, 37 with unclassifiable, and 35 with type 2 diabetes. The type of diabetes was assigned by comparing serum C-peptide concentration and clinical phenotypes. RESULTS: Type 2 and unclassifiable diabetes had no differences in BMI, the interval to use insulin, daily insulin dose, the level of HDL cholesterol and the positive rate for GAD Ab, but type 1 diabetes didn't. However, type 1 diabetes and unclassifiable group was lower prevalence of microvascular complications than type 2 diabetes (retinopathy 38.2, 52.8, 84.8 % ; nephropathy 37.7, 36.7, 74.2 % ; neuropathy 36.7, 36.7, 72.7 %, P<0.05). The prevalence of macrovascular complications was higher in the order of type 1, unclassifiable, and type 2 diabetes (11.1, 29.4, 72.7 %, respectively, all P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The clinical characteristics were similar between unclassifiable and type 2 diabetes, but the prevalence of microvascular complication in unclassifiable group had no significant difference compared with type 1 diabetes. The prevalence of macrovascular complications was significantly higher in the order of type 1, unclassifiable, and type 2 diabetes.
Simple Diagnostic Method of Diabetic Distal Polyneuropathy in Type 2 Diabetics.
Chi Hak Kim, Kyung Il Lee, Sang Gil Han, Jeong Ho Heo, Kwang Jae Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 1998;22(4):561-567.   Published online January 1, 2001
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  • 18 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Early diagnosis of diabetic distal polyneuropathy, a common chronic complication of diabetes mellitus, is important in the management of diabetes mellitus. Michigan Diabetic Neuropathy Score(MDNS) is a good method for diagnosis of this complication but requires many check lists witb nerve conduction study, which may be troublesome in outpatients. This study was performed to investigate simple and convenient diagnostic means which can be substituted with MDNS. METHODS: 41 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were assessed with MDNS which include toe 128 Hz tuning fork test, 10 g filament test, pin wheel test and nerve conduction velocity(NCV). Additionally, l28 Hz tuning fork test, l0 g filament test, pin wheel test on fingers and Tacticon and vibration perception test with Bio-thesiometer on toes and fingers were performed. RESULTS: Toe and finger 128 Hz tuning fork, Tacticon and Bio-thesiometer tests were highly concordant with MDNS(kappa>0.40). Also combined tests such as toe and finger 128Hz tuning fork- Tacticon test and Tacticon-Bio-thesiometer test were highly concordant with MDNS(kappa > 0.40) and more sensitive than single tests. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that finger 128 Hz tuning fork - Tacticon combined test is good, simple and convenient in the diagnosis of diabetic distal polyneurapathy.
Clinical Characteristics and Pregnancy Outcome in Korean Women with Type I & Type II Diabetes Mellitus.
Yoon Huh, Dong Won Suh, Hak Chul Jang, Chang Hoon Yim, Ki Ok Han, Hyun Ku Yoon, In Kwon Han, Hun Ki Min, Eun Sung Kim, Moon Young Kim, Hyun Mi Ryu, Sung Won Yang, Hae Kyoung Han
Korean Diabetes J. 1998;22(3):353-362.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The prevalence of diabetes is gradually increasing iin Korean. Moreover, the prevalence of pregnancy complicated by established diabetes seems to be increasing. During the past decades, advances in the diabetes care as well as advances in fetal surveillance and neonatal care, have continued to improve pregnancy outcome of women with diabetes. However, the incidence of congenital anomalies and spontaneous abortion as well as the perinatal morbidity in the women with diabetes are still higher compared to those of the general population. In this study, we estimated the prevalence of prepmncy complicated by both type 1 and type 2 diabetes and described the clinical characteristics and outcome of diabetic pregnancies. METHODS: We analyzed data from four sources: 1) the mother(type and duration of diabetes, diabetic complication, preconceptional care), 2) obstetric outcome(method of delivery, obstetric complication), 3) neonatal outcome(birth weight, perinatal complication, congenital anomaly), 4) glycemic control during pregnancy, of women with pregestational diabetes delivered newborns at Samsung Cheil Hospital from 1992 to 1995. RESULTS: During the study period, 34 singleton infants were delivered by the 28 women with diabetes. The diabetic pregnancy was present in 0.14% of total deliveries in Samsung Cheil Hospital. Patients with IDDM comprised 18%(6/34) of total diabetic pregnancies, 82%(28/34) had NIDDM. The duration of diabetes was 6.3 and 2.1 years in patients with IDDM and NIDDM, respectively. Two IDDM patients presented with proliferative retinopathy, and 3 background retinopathy, one in IDDM and 2 in NIDDM. Three patients with IDDM and 2 patients with NIDDM had diabetic nephropathy. Insulin requirement during pregnancy was increased about 2 times at the time of delivery when compared to the initial in women with IDDM and NIDDM. Preeclampsia was the most common obstetric compliications, which were more frequently observed in women with diabetic complications. LGA was present in 43% of women with NIDDM. One infant of mother with NIDDM, delivered at 28 weeks gestation, was died because of respiratory distress and one infant of mother with IDDM had a congenital heart disease(TOF). Only 3 patients scught for the preconceptional care before pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Pregnancies complicated by diabetes was more frequent than was expected, even though it was much less than the rates in North America. Only 9% of women with diabetes had preconceptional care before pregnancy. The importance of planned pregnancy and prepregnancy counseling should be addressed in women with diabetes of child bearing age.
Upregulation of Aldose Reductase mRNA by Hyperglycemia in Claf Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cells.
Sang Yiup Nam, Jung Hyun Oh, Jin Chul Park, Ji Sung Yoon, Kyu Chang Won, Chan Woo Lee, Ihn Ho Cho, Choong Ki Lee, In Kyu Lee, Hyoung Woo Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 1998;22(3):290-298.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Hyperglycemia is thought to be an important etiologic factor in the development of diabetic macro- and microangiopathies. Several theories have been proposed to explain why diabetic patients are at an increased risk for such vascular disorders. In uncontrolled diabetes, excess glucose causes a glycation of various proteins, an increase in oxidative stress, an increase in DAG or PKC and an increase in polyol pathway. And, it has been proposed that hyperglycemia leads to the dysfunction or damage of endothelial cells through the activation of cellular aldose reductase(polyol pathway). METHODS: To verify this hypothesis, we quantitated AR(Aldose reductase) activity and mRNA in CPAE(Calf pulmonary artery endothelial) cell under normal and high ambient glucose levels in the culture medium. The time course of AR mRNA expression after exposure of CPAE cells to 22mM glucose was determined using PCR quantitative analysis. RESULTS: AR mRNA levels began to increase at 6h after glucose exposure, reached a maximum at 24h (about 2.3 fold increase), and then gradually decreased. Aldose reductase activity was found to strongly correlate with aldose reductase mRNA expression after cells were exposed to 22mM glucose. In contrast, aldose reductase mRNA expression at 24h after glucose exposure decreased following exposure to 50mM glucose. By testing other osmolytes, we also examined whether the AR activity is specific for glucose. There was an increase in AR activity only after the addition of 20mM mannitol to the medium. CONCLUSION: These observations suggest that hyperglycemia could induce the overexpression of aldose reductase mRNA in cultured CPAE cells and this could be an important step in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications.
The Oxidative Stress and the Antioxidant System in Type 2 Diabetics with Complications.
Ae Wha Ha, Hye Lim Noh, Yoon Sok Chung, Kawn Woo Lee, Hyeon Man Kim, Jung Soon Cho
Korean Diabetes J. 1998;22(3):253-261.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Diabetes mellitus represents a state of increased oxidative stress which is based on the evidence of increased peroxidation and glycosylation, and reduced antioxidant system. It has been suggested that increased oxidative stress may play an important role on the pathogenesis of diabetic complication in type 2 diabetes. However, limited informations regarding the oxidative stress and antioxidant system in diabetic complications are available. Therefore the purpose of this study is to determine the oxidative stress and antioxidant system in type 2 diabetes with diabetic complications. METHODS: The study population consisted of 94 type 2 diabetic patients and 44 normal subjects. The concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance(TBA-RS) and the activities of antioxidants enzymes, catalase, superoxide dismutase(SOD), glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px) in erythrocyte were detennined by using spectrophotometer. The plasma concantrations of b-carotene, lycopene, lutein, a-tocopherol and retinol were determined by using HPLC. RESULTS: The TBA-RS concentrations in type 2 diabetes(1.33+0.30nmol/mL) were significantly higher than those in normal subjects(1.10+0.17nmol/ mL). Also the TBA-RS concentrations between subjects with complications(1.37+0.27nmol/mL) and without complications(1.28+0.17nmol/mL) differed (p<0.05). The activities of SOD and GSH-Px in type 2 diabetes(2.99+0.80U/mgHb, 2.88+0.39U/ mgHb) were significantly lower than those in normal subjects(3.54+0.44U/mgHb, 3.14+0.39U/mgHb). GSH-Px between diabetics with(2.81+0.6U/mgHb) and without complications(3.17+0.4U/mgHb) differed significantly. The plasma concentrations of lycopene and b-carotene were significantly lower in type 2 diabetes(0.07+0.05umol/L, 0.54+0.27umol/L) than in control subjects(0.14+0.06umol/L, 0.67+0.32umol/L). Also, lycopene and b-carotene in subjects with complications(0.05+0.04umol/L, 0.45+0.23umol/L) were lower than in subjects without complications(0.08+0.05umol/L, 0.62+0.30umol/L). No significant differences in plasma a-tocopherol concentrations between subjects with and without complications(19.42+0.93umol/L vs 18.66+ 0.79umoll/L). CONCLUSION: This study showed that in diabetes with diabetic complications, the lipid peroxidation of erythrocytes are highly increased and the antioxidant reserves are significmtly depleted, compared with diabetes without diabetic complications, which suggests that diabetes with complications are under high oxidative stress and the supplementations of carotenoids could decrease the oxidative stress in diabetes with diabetic complications.

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