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3 "Visceral fat"
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The Relationship between Visceral & Subcutaneous Fat and Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Concentration in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Wan Sub Shim, Soo Kyung Kim, Hae Jin Kim, Eun Seok Kang, Chul Woo Ahn, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee, Bong Soo Cha
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(3):207-216.   Published online May 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.3.207
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BACKGROUND
Visceral obesity is closely associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Small dense (sd) LDL is closely associated with CVD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between visceral and subcutaneous fat accumulation and sd LDL-C concentration. METHODS: 264 type 2 diabetic patients underwent ultrasonography to estimate visceral & subcutaneous fat accumulation and sd LDL-C concentrations were measured. RESULTS: BMI, total cholesterol, sd LDL-C concentration and percentage of sd LDL-C were higher in highest tertile of visceral fat length in male than those in lowest tertile. BMI, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, sd LDL-C concentration and percentage of sd LDL-C were higher in highest tertile of visceral fat length in female than those in lowest tertile. But sd LDL-C concentration and percentage of sd LDL-C were not different among three groups based on the tertile of subcutaneous fat length in male and female. Visceral fat length was correlated with sd LDL-C concentration and percentage of sd LDL-C, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, but negatively with percentage of large buoyant LDL-C and HDL-C after adjustment of age, sex and BMI. Subcutaneous fat length was not correlated with sd LDL-C and percentage of sd LDL-C, total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C and LDL-C. CONCLUSION: The association between visceral fat length and sd LDL-C could be a factor that explains the association between visceral obesity and CVD.
Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, Body Fat Distribution and Insulin Resistance in Premenopausal Women.
Young Sook Lee, Hye Jin Lee, Jee Young Oh, Young Sun Hong, Yeon Ah Sung
Korean Diabetes J. 2003;27(1):63-72.   Published online February 1, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Low levels of sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), an indirect index of androgenicity, have been reported to be associated with obesity, especially central obesity. In women, increased androgenicity is related to hyperinsulinemia, impaired glucose tolerance and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recent studies have suggested that the relationship between SHBG and insulin resistance was mediated by the change in total or visceral adiposity, and that ethnical differences in the relationship between sex hormone and body fat distribution might exist. METHODS: We examined the associations of SHBG to the body fat distribution and insulin resistance in Korean premenopausal women. The fasting serum level of SHBG was measured by RIA, and the insulin sensitivity by the minimal model derived sensitivity index (SI), using the insulin modified intravenous glucose tolerance test. The amount of body fat, and its distribution, were assessed by anthropometric measurement, bioelectric impedance analyses, and computed tomography at the level of the umbilicus. RESULTS: 1. SHBG was significantly inversely correlated with the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, visceral fat area, and fasting insulin levels, and was significantly positively correlated to the SI. 2. SHBG was significantly lower in premenopausal women with an impaired glucose tolerance, compared to those with a normal glucose tolerance, and significantly lower in those with hypertension (systolic BP> or =140 mmHg or diastolic BP> or =90 mmHg), compared to those with normal blood pressure. SHBG was also significantly lower in persons with central obesity(waist circumference > or = 80 cm) compared to those without. 3. In a multiple linear regression analysis, the SI was significantly associated with SHBG, after adjustment for age, BMI, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL- cholesterol, and percentage body fat, but this association disappeared after additional adjustment for visceral fat area. 4. In a multiple linear regression analysis, the fasting plasma insulin, BMI and percentage body fat were significant independent factors associated with SHBG. CONCLUSION: Increased androgenicity as assessed by decreased serum SHBG concentrations, is strongly associated with an unfavorable body fat distribution, hypertension, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance.
Visceral Fat Accumulation and the Fatty Acid Composition of Serum Phospholipids in Middle-Aged Women with Different Degrees of Glucose Tolerance.
Jee Young Yoon, Jong Ho Lee, Yang Cha Lee, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
Korean Diabetes J. 1997;21(4):444-456.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The aim of this study was to determine visceral fat accumulation and the fatty acid composition of serum phospholipids(PL) in middleaged female volunteers with different degrees of glucose tolerance and to analyze the factors that could be responsible for the observed differences between different degrees of glucose tolerance. METHODS: Anthropometric measurements and computed tomography measurements at umbilicus and thigh midway between the patella and pubis were performed in 125 subjects with normal glucose tolerance(NGT), 62 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance(IGT) and 50 subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus(NIDDM), Normal weight subjects were divided into 3 groups; NGT, IGT and long term NIDDM and overweight subjects into 4 groups; NGT, IGT, newly-onset NIDDM and long-term NIDDM. An oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT), the fatty acid composition of serum PL, fasting serum levels of IGF-1 were determined. RESULTS: Visceral fat area and visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio were higher in overweight control than normal weight control and higher in long-term NIDDM groups than controls. Thigh fat and muscle areas and serum levels of growth hormone and IGF-1 were lower in long-term NIDDM groups than controls. Insulin response area during OGTT was the highest in IGT groups and the lowest in NIDDM groups. The progression from the NGT group to the NGT and NlDDM groups was associated with an increase in glucose and free fatty acid areas during OGTT. Overweight long-term NIDDM group showed the lowest serum level of IGF-1 and the highest areas of glucose and FFA. The low ratio(about 0.64.~0.71) of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids in serum PL was found in diabetic groups. Long-term NIDDM groups showed an increase in proportions of palrnitic (C16:0), stearic(C18:0), dihomo-r-linolenic(C20:3w6) and docosapentaenoic(C22:3w6) and and a decrease in linoleic(C18:2w6), a-linolenic(C18;3w3), C20:4/20:3 (5-desaturase activity) and C18:1/18:0(9-desa-turase activity) in their serum PL compared with NGT groups. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that an increase in visceral fat and a decrease in thigh fat and muscle may be related to reduced secretion of growth hormone and insulin in long-term NIDDM subjects, These endocrine perturbations can be exacerbated by the prolonged exposure of hyperglycemia and high serum level of free fatty acid. In addition, lang term NIDDM may decrease 5-desaturase activity and 9-desaturase activity. Thus, the factors regulating fatty acid composition of serum PL in long-term NIDDM are affected by not only dietary fat but stored fat and serum concentrations of glucose and hormones, including insulin.

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