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Basic Research
Roles of Histone Deacetylase 4 in the Inflammatory and Metabolic Processes
Hyunju Kang, Young-Ki Park, Ji-Young Lee, Minkyung Bae
Received June 5, 2023  Accepted February 7, 2024  Published online March 22, 2024  
DOI:    [Epub ahead of print]
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  • 31 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4), a class IIa HDAC, has gained attention as a potential therapeutic target in treating inflammatory and metabolic processes based on its essential role in various biological pathways by deacetylating non-histone proteins, including transcription factors. The activity of HDAC4 is regulated at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational levels. The functions of HDAC4 are tissue-dependent in response to endogenous and exogenous factors and their substrates. In particular, the association of HDAC4 with non-histone targets, including transcription factors, such as myocyte enhancer factor 2, hypoxia-inducible factor, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1, and forkhead box proteins, play a crucial role in regulating inflammatory and metabolic processes. This review summarizes the regulatory modes of HDAC4 activity and its functions in inflammation, insulin signaling and glucose metabolism, and cardiac muscle development.
A Journey to Understand Glucose Homeostasis: Starting from Rat Glucose Transporter Type 2 Promoter Cloning to Hyperglycemia
Yong Ho Ahn
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(6):465-471.   Published online November 2, 2018
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  • 6 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

My professional journey to understand the glucose homeostasis began in the 1990s, starting from cloning of the promoter region of glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2) gene that led us to establish research foundation of my group. When I was a graduate student, I simply thought that hyperglycemia, a typical clinical manifestation of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), could be caused by a defect in the glucose transport system in the body. Thus, if a molecular mechanism controlling glucose transport system could be understood, treatment of T2DM could be possible. In the early 70s, hyperglycemia was thought to develop primarily due to a defect in the muscle and adipose tissue; thus, muscle/adipose tissue type glucose transporter (GLUT4) became a major research interest in the diabetology. However, glucose utilization occurs not only in muscle/adipose tissue but also in liver and brain. Thus, I was interested in the hepatic glucose transport system, where glucose storage and release are the most actively occurring.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Physiological functions of glucose transporter-2: From cell physiology to links with diabetes mellitus
    Zhean Shen, Yingze Hou, Guo Zhao, Libi Tan, Jili Chen, Ziqi Dong, Chunxiao Ni, Longying Pei
    Heliyon.2024; 10(3): e25459.     CrossRef
  • Estimation and implications of the genetic architecture of fasting and non-fasting blood glucose
    Zhen Qiao, Julia Sidorenko, Joana A. Revez, Angli Xue, Xueling Lu, Katri Pärna, Harold Snieder, Peter M. Visscher, Naomi R. Wray, Loic Yengo
    Nature Communications.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Umbilical Cord-Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Conditioned Medium Improves Insulin Resistance in C2C12 Cell
    Kyung-Soo Kim, Yeon Kyung Choi, Mi Jin Kim, Jung Wook Hwang, Kyunghoon Min, Sang Youn Jung, Soo-Kyung Kim, Yong-Soo Choi, Yong-Wook Cho
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2021; 45(2): 260.     CrossRef
  • Aging-related modifications to G protein-coupled receptor signaling diversity
    Jaana van Gastel, Hanne Leysen, Jan Boddaert, Laura vangenechten, Louis M. Luttrell, Bronwen Martin, Stuart Maudsley
    Pharmacology & Therapeutics.2021; 223: 107793.     CrossRef
  • Glucose transporters in the small intestine in health and disease
    Hermann Koepsell
    Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology.2020; 472(9): 1207.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Generation of Insulin-Expressing Cells in Mouse Small Intestine by Pdx1, MafA, and BETA2/NeuroD
So-Hyun Lee, Marie Rhee, Ji-Won Kim, Kun-Ho Yoon
Diabetes Metab J. 2017;41(5):405-416.   Published online September 5, 2017
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  • 64 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   

To develop surrogate insulin-producing cells for diabetes therapy, adult stem cells have been identified in various tissues and studied for their conversion into β-cells. Pancreatic progenitor cells are derived from the endodermal epithelium and formed in a manner similar to gut progenitor cells. Here, we generated insulin-producing cells from the intestinal epithelial cells that induced many of the specific pancreatic transcription factors using adenoviral vectors carrying three genes: PMB (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 [Pdx1], V-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A [MafA], and BETA2/NeuroD).


By direct injection into the intestine through the cranial mesenteric artery, adenoviruses (Ad) were successfully delivered to the entire intestine. After virus injection, we could confirm that the small intestine of the mouse was appropriately infected with the Ad-Pdx1 and triple Ad-PMB.


Four weeks after the injection, insulin mRNA was expressed in the small intestine, and the insulin gene expression was induced in Ad-Pdx1 and Ad-PMB compared to control Ad-green fluorescent protein. In addition, the conversion of intestinal cells into insulin-expressing cells was detected in parts of the crypts and villi located in the small intestine.


These data indicated that PMB facilitate the differentiation of mouse intestinal cells into insulin-expressing cells. In conclusion, the small intestine is an accessible and abundant source of surrogate insulin-producing cells.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Harnessing gut cells for functional insulin production: Strategies and challenges
    Kelvin Baafi, John C. March
    Biotechnology Notes.2023; 4: 7.     CrossRef
  • Differential Morphological Diagnosis of Various Forms of Congenital Hyperinsulinism in Children
    Lubov Borisovna Mitrofanova, Anastasia Arkadyevna Perminova, Daria Viktorovna Ryzhkova, Anna Andreyevna Sukhotskaya, Vladimir Gireyevich Bairov, Irina Leorovna Nikitina
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Generation of iPSC-derived insulin-producing cells from patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes compared with healthy control
    Min Jung Kim, Eun Young Lee, Young-Hye You, Hae Kyung Yang, Kun-Ho Yoon, Ji-Won Kim
    Stem Cell Research.2020; 48: 101958.     CrossRef
  • ERK Regulates NeuroD1-mediated Neurite Outgrowth via Proteasomal Degradation
    Tae-young Lee, In-Su Cho, Narayan Bashyal, Francisco J Naya, Ming-Jer Tsai, Jeong Seon Yoon, Jung-Mi Choi, Chang-Hwan Park, Sung-Soo Kim, Haeyoung Suh-Kim
    Experimental Neurobiology.2020; 29(3): 189.     CrossRef
  • Generation of a PDX1–EGFP reporter human induced pluripotent stem cell line, KSCBi005-A-3, using the CRISPR/Cas9 system
    Youngsun Lee, Hye Young Choi, Ara Kwon, Hyeyeon Park, Mi-Hyun Park, Ji-Won Kim, Min Jung Kim, Yong-Ou Kim, Sungwook Kwak, Soo Kyung Koo
    Stem Cell Research.2019; 41: 101632.     CrossRef
The Role of Hypothalamic FoxO1 on Hyperphagia in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice.
Il Seong Nam-Goong, Jae Geun Kim, Se Jin Kim, Seong Jae Hur, Jin Woo Lee, Eun Sook Kim, Chang Ho Yun, Byung Ju Lee, Young Il Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(5):375-381.   Published online October 1, 2009
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals are characterized by hyperphagia due to deficiencies of insulin and leptin. Forkhead box-containing protein of the O subfamily-1 (FoxO1) regulates energy homeostasis by regulating energy expenditure and food intake as well as mediating insulin and leptin signals in the hypothalamus. To identify the mediator of diabetic hyperphagia, we examined the effects of insulin or leptin on hypothalamic FoxO1 expression in a diabetic animal model. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in mice (C57BL/6) by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (200 mg/kg). Stainless steel cannula was implanted into the lateral ventricle of the brain in each mouse. After three weeks, the mice were administered saline, insulin or leptin via intracerebroventricular (ICV) route. The medial hypothalamus was isolated to evaluate the mRNA expressions of FoxO1 and neuropeptides. RESULTS: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice exhibited significant elevations of blood glucose and food intake and significantly low levels of serum insulin and leptin. The levels of hypothalamic FoxO1 mRNA were significantly increased in diabetic mice. The hypothalamic expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA was increased, but the expression of preproopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA was decreased in diabetic mice. ICV administration of insulin or leptin attenuated the upregulation of hypothalamic FoxO1 mRNA, and resulted in downregulation of NPY mRNA and upregulation of POMC mRNA in diabetic mice. CONCLUSION: We observed that the expression of hypothalamic FoxO1 mRNA was increased in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, and that it was significantly attenuated by central administration of insulin or leptin. These results suggest that hypothalamic FoxO1 is the direct mediator of diabetic hyperphagia.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal