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Pathophysiology
Nuclear Receptors Resolve Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress to Improve Hepatic Insulin Resistance
Jae Man Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2017;41(1):10-19.   Published online February 16, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.41.1.10
  • 4,845 View
  • 95 Download
  • 13 Web of Science
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress culminating in proteotoxicity contributes to the development of insulin resistance and progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pharmacologic interventions targeting several different nuclear receptors have emerged as potential treatments for insulin resistance. The mechanistic basis for these antidiabetic effects has primarily been attributed to multiple metabolic and inflammatory functions. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of the association of ER stress with insulin resistance and the role of nuclear receptors in promoting ER stress resolution and improving insulin resistance in the liver.

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Role of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 4 in Regulation of Blood Glucose Levels
Nam Ho Jeoung, Robert A. Harris
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(5):274-283.   Published online October 31, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.5.274
  • 5,563 View
  • 70 Download
  • 48 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

In the well-fed state a relatively high activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) reduces blood glucose levels by directing the carbon of pyruvate into the citric acid cycle. In the fasted state a relatively low activity of the PDC helps maintain blood glucose levels by conserving pyruvate and other three carbon compounds for gluconeogenesis. The relative activities of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs) and the opposing pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatases determine the activity of PDC in the fed and fasted states. Up regulation of PDK4 is largely responsible for inactivation of PDC in the fasted state. PDK4 knockout mice have lower fasting blood glucose levels than wild type mice, proving that up regulation of PDK4 is important for normal glucose homeostasis. In type 2 diabetes, up regulation of PDK4 also inactivates PDC, which promotes gluconeogenesis and thereby contributes to the hyperglycemia characteristic of this disease. When fed a high fat diet, wild type mice develop fasting hyperglycemia but PDK4 knockout mice remain euglycemic, proving that up regulation of PDK4 contributes to hyperglycemia in diabetes. These finding suggest PDK4 inhibitors might prove useful in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

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