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Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
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Trends and Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Adolescents, 2007 to 2018
Jiun Chae, Moon Young Seo, Shin-Hye Kim, Mi Jung Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(6):880-889.   Published online July 6, 2021
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  • 243 Download
  • 17 Web of Science
  • 19 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
There is a lack of recent research on the changes in risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the Asian pediatric population. We aimed to determine the 12-year trends in the prevalence of MetS and relevant lifestyle factors such as smoking, exercise, and calorie intake among Korean adolescents.
We investigated trends in MetS and lifestyle factors among 6,308 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007 to 2018.
The prevalence of MetS was stable from 2007 to 2018 (1.7% to 2.2%). There were significant increases in the prevalence of central obesity (from 8.1% to 11.2%, P=0.012) and hyperglycemia (from 5.3% to 10.4%, P<0.001) and decreases in hypo-high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterolemia (from 22.4% to 14.8%, P<0.001). Total calorie intake and calorie intake from fat significantly increased (P<0.001), whereas calorie intake from carbohydrates significantly decreased (P<0.001) during the study period. The proportions of tobacco smokers and regular walkers significantly decreased from 2007 to 2018. After controlling for all covariates, total calorie intake was positively correlated with waist circumference (P<0.05). HDL-cholesterol was negatively associated with carbohydrate consumption (P<0.01) and positively associated with fat consumption (P<0.001). Regular walking and regular strength training were associated with lower waist circumference (P<0.05). Smoking was associated with lower fasting glucose levels (P<0.01).
Although the prevalence rate of MetS is stable among Korean adolescents, the prevalence of central obesity and hyperglycemia has increased greatly in the recent decade. Public education on proper dietary intake and lifestyle modification is required.


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    Dae Jung Kim
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Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
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Dose-Dependent Effect of Smoking on Risk of Diabetes Remains after Smoking Cessation: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study in Korea
Se Eun Park, Mi Hae Seo, Jung-Hwan Cho, Hyemi Kwon, Yang-Hyun Kim, Kyung-Do Han, Jin-Hyung Jung, Yong-Gyu Park, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(4):539-546.   Published online March 4, 2021
  • 8,206 View
  • 194 Download
  • 10 Web of Science
  • 12 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
This study aimed to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of smoking on risk of diabetes among those quitting smoking.
We analyzed clinical data from a total of 5,198,792 individuals age 20 years or older who received health care check-up arranged by the national insurance program of Korea between 2009 and 2016 using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Cumulative smoking was estimated by pack-years. Smokers were classified into four categories according to the amount of smoking: light smokers (0.025 to 5 smoking pack-years), medium smokers (5 to 14 smoking pack-years), heavy smokers (14 to 26 smoking pack-years), and extreme smokers (more than 26 smoking pack-years).
During the study period, 164,335 individuals (3.2% of the total population) developed diabetes. Compared to sustained smokers, the risk of diabetes was significantly reduced in both quitters (hazard ratio [HR], 0.858; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.838 to 0.878) and nonsmokers (HR, 0.616; 95% CI, 0.606 to 0.625) after adjustment for multiple risk factors. The risk of diabetes gradually increased with amount of smoking in both quitters and current smokers. The risk of diabetes in heavy (HR, 1.119; 95% CI, 1.057 to 1.185) and extreme smokers (HR, 1.348; 95% CI, 1.275 to 1.425) among quitters was much higher compared to light smokers among current smokers.
Smoking cessation was effective in reducing the risk of diabetes regardless of weight change. However, there was a potential dose-dependent association between smoking amount and the development of diabetes. Diabetes risk still remained in heavy and extreme smokers even after smoking cessation.


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Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Association between Cigarette Smoking and New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus in 78,212 Koreans Using Self-Reported Questionnaire and Urine Cotinine
Ji Hye Kim, Dae Chul Seo, Byung Jin Kim, Jeong Gyu Kang, Seung Jae Lee, Sung Ho Lee, Bum Soo Kim, Jin Ho Kang
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(3):426-435.   Published online November 1, 2019
  • 6,994 View
  • 94 Download
  • 14 Web of Science
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   

No study has assessed association between cigarette smoking and new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) incidence using two different smoking classification systems: self-reported questionnaire and urine cotinine. The objective of this longitudinal study was to evaluate NODM risk using the above two systems in Korean adults.


Among individuals enrolled in Kangbuk Samsung Health Study and Cohort Study who visited between 2011 and 2012 at baseline and 2014 at follow-up, 78,212 participants without baseline diabetes mellitus were followed up for a median of 27 months. Assessment of NODM incidence was made at the end of follow-up period. Cotinine-verified current smoking was having urinary cotinine ≥50 ng/mL.


Percentages of self-reported and cotinine-verified current smokers were 25.9% and 23.5%, respectively. Overall incidence of NODM was 1.5%. According to multivariate regression analyses, baseline self-reported current smoking (relative risk [RR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 1.65) and cotinine-verified current smoking (RR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.49) increased NODM risk compared to baseline self-reported never smoking and cotinine-verified current non-smoking. Higher daily amount and longer duration of smoking were also associated with increased NODM risk (P for trends <0.05). In particular, self-reported current smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day (RR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.25 to 2.15) and ≥10 years (RR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.67) had the highest RRs for NODM. These results remained significant in males, although there was no gender interaction.


This longitudinal study showed that baseline self-reported and cotinine-verified current smoking were associated with increased risks of NODM, especially in males.


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  • Letter: Association between Cigarette Smoking and New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus in 78,212 Koreans Using Self-Reported Questionnaire and Urine Cotinine (Diabetes Metab J 2020;44:426–35)
    Bo-Yeon Kim
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  • Response: Association between Cigarette Smoking and New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus in 78,212 Koreans Using Self-Reported Questionnaire and Urine Cotinine (Diabetes Metab J 2020;44:426–35)
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    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2020; 44(4): 623.     CrossRef
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Smoking and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Sang Ah Chang
Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(6):399-403.   Published online December 12, 2012
  • 8,181 View
  • 181 Download
  • 129 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Cigarette smoking is a well-known risk factor in many diseases, including various kinds of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Many studies have also reported the unfavorable effects of smoking for diabetes mellitus. Smoking increases the risk of developing diabetes, and aggravates the micro- and macro-vascular complications of diabetes mellitus. Smoking is associated with insulin resistance, inflammation and dyslipidemia, but the exact mechanisms through which smoking influences diabetes mellitus are not clear. However, smoking cessation is one of the important targets for diabetes control and the prevention diabetic complications.


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Original Article
Effects of Smoking on Plasma Lipid Metabolism in Patients with non-insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.
Seon Min Jeon, Yeun Kyung Lee, Hye Sung Lee, Bo Wan Kim, Young Bok Park, Myung Sook Choi
Korean Diabetes J. 1997;21(4):457-468.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Diabetes mellitus has been identified as a risk factor in the development of coronary vascular disease. Smoking also has been known as an independent risk factor in the development of coronary artery disease, causing a dislipidemia. This study was carried out to examine the effects of smoking on plasma lipids and lipoproteins metabolism in patients with NIDDM and in normal healthy subjects among Korean population in Taegu. METHODS: The 80 patients with NIDDM and 60 normal subjects were suMivided into non-stnoker, ex-smoker, and smoker group. Antbropornetric assessments, mean intake of nutrients, and the levels of plasma lipids, Apo A-I, L,p(a), CETP activity, and antioxidant vitamins such as vitamin A, E were measured, RESULTS: WHR in non-smoker of patients with NIDDM was greater than that in non-smoker of normal control. There were no differences in the nutrient intakes among groups, but protein intake was even higher in smoker of NIDDM group than that of normal group. There were no smoking effect on total cholesterol, LDL-C, AI, Apo A-I, Lp(a) and lipid peroxide in plasma of two groups, but they were higher in NIDDM group than normal group. Plasma TG concentrations were higher in smoker group than other groups within normal group, HDL-C levels were lower in non-smoker group than other groups within NIDDM group. CETP activities were higher in smoker group than non-smoker within normal group. And CEPT activities in NIDDM group were mostly higher than those of normal group. Vit. A levels of non-smoker in normal group were higher than ex-smoker within same group, and were also higher than non-smoker in NIDDM group. Vit. E levels showed no difference within each group, but they were mostly lower in NIDDM group than normal group. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that smoking was not a major factor for changing lipid metabolism in NIDDM patients as well as normal subjects unlike others findings. Their abnormal lipid rnetabolism may be induced from other risk factors for NIDDM rather than smoking itself. However, present study was done only for a short period, thus more studies are needed for longer term to investigate the effects af smoking on lipid metabolism in NIDDM among Korean population.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
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