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2 "Single-cell gene expression analysis"
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Original Article
Basic Research
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Single-Cell Landscape and a Macrophage Subset Enhancing Brown Adipocyte Function in Diabetes
Junfei Gu, Jiajia Jin, Xiaoyu Ren, Xinjie Zhang, Jiaxuan Li, Xiaowei Wang, Shucui Zhang, Xianlun Yin, Qunye Zhang, Zhe Wang
Received August 16, 2023  Accepted February 7, 2024  Published online May 29, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0278    [Epub ahead of print]
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Background
Metabolic dysregulation is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), in which the abnormalities in brown adipose tissue (BAT) play important roles. However, the cellular composition and function of BAT as well as its pathological significance in diabetes remain incompletely understood. Our objective is to delineate the single-cell landscape of BAT-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and their characteristic alterations in T2DM rats.
Methods
T2DM was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin and high-fat diet feeding. Single-cell mRNA sequencing was then performed on BAT samples and compared to normal rats to characterize changes in T2DM rats. Subsequently, the importance of key cell subsets in T2DM was elucidated using various functional studies.
Results
Almost all cell types in the BAT-derived SVF of T2DM rats exhibited enhanced inflammatory responses, increased angiogenesis, and disordered glucose and lipid metabolism. The multidirectional differentiation potential of adipose tissue-derived stem cells was also reduced. Moreover, macrophages played a pivotal role in intercellular crosstalk of BAT-derived SVF. A novel Rarres2+macrophage subset promoted the differentiation and metabolic function of brown adipocytes via adipose-immune crosstalk.
Conclusion
BAT SVF exhibited strong heterogeneity in cellular composition and function and contributed to T2DM as a significant inflammation source, in which a novel macrophage subset was identified that can promote brown adipocyte function.
Review
Basic Research
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Heterogeneity of Islet Cells during Embryogenesis and Differentiation
Shugo Sasaki, Takeshi Miyatsuka
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(2):173-184.   Published online January 12, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0324
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Diabetes is caused by insufficient insulin secretion due to β-cell dysfunction and/or β-cell loss. Therefore, the restoration of functional β-cells by the induction of β-cell differentiation from embryonic stem (ES) and induced-pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, or from somatic non-β-cells, may be a promising curative therapy. To establish an efficient and feasible method for generating functional insulin-producing cells, comprehensive knowledge of pancreas development and β-cell differentiation, including the mechanisms driving cell fate decisions and endocrine cell maturation is crucial. Recent advances in single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) technologies have opened a new era in pancreas development and diabetes research, leading to clarification of the detailed transcriptomes of individual insulin-producing cells. Such extensive high-resolution data enables the inference of developmental trajectories during cell transitions and gene regulatory networks. Additionally, advancements in stem cell research have not only enabled their immediate clinical application, but also has made it possible to observe the genetic dynamics of human cell development and maturation in a dish. In this review, we provide an overview of the heterogeneity of islet cells during embryogenesis and differentiation as demonstrated by scRNA-seq studies on the developing and adult pancreata, with implications for the future application of regenerative medicine for diabetes.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Newly discovered knowledge pertaining to glucagon and its clinical applications
    Dan Kawamori, Shugo Sasaki
    Journal of Diabetes Investigation.2023; 14(7): 829.     CrossRef

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