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9 "Reactive oxygen species"
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Reducing Oxidative Stress and Inflammation by Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 4 Inhibition Is Important in Prevention of Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Diabetic Mice
Ah Reum Khang, Dong Hun Kim, Min-Ji Kim, Chang Joo Oh, Jae-Han Jeon, Sung Hee Choi, In-Kyu Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2024;48(3):405-417.   Published online February 1, 2024
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  • 246 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation are reported to have a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, a leading cause of acute kidney injury. The present study investigated the role of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) in ROS production and inflammation following IR injury.
We used a streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57BL6/J mouse model, which was subjected to IR by clamping both renal pedicles. Cellular apoptosis and inflammatory markers were evaluated in NRK-52E cells and mouse primary tubular cells after hypoxia and reoxygenation using a hypoxia work station.
Following IR injury in diabetic mice, the expression of PDK4, rather than the other PDK isoforms, was induced with a marked increase in pyruvate dehydrogenase E1α (PDHE1α) phosphorylation. This was accompanied by a pronounced ROS activation, as well as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production. Notably, sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) attenuated renal IR injury-induced apoptosis which can be attributed to reducing PDK4 expression and PDHE1α phosphorylation levels. DCA or shPdk4 treatment reduced oxidative stress and decreased TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and MCP-1 production after IR or hypoxia-reoxygenation injury.
PDK4 inhibition alleviated renal injury with decreased ROS production and inflammation, supporting a critical role for PDK4 in IR mediated damage. This result indicates another potential target for reno-protection during IR injury; accordingly, the role of PDK4 inhibition needs to be comprehensively elucidated in terms of mitochondrial function during renal IR injury.


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    Jaemin Lee
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Basic Research
The Role of CD36 in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: β-Cell Dysfunction and Beyond
Jun Sung Moon, Udayakumar Karunakaran, Elumalai Suma, Seung Min Chung, Kyu Chang Won
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(2):222-233.   Published online April 23, 2020
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  • 175 Download
  • 18 Web of Science
  • 17 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Impaired β-cell function is the key pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and chronic exposure of nutrient excess could lead to this tragedy. For preserving β-cell function, it is essential to understand the cause and mechanisms about the progression of β-cells failure. Glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity, and glucolipotoxicity have been suggested to be a major cause of β-cell dysfunction for decades, but not yet fully understood. Fatty acid translocase cluster determinant 36 (CD36), which is part of the free fatty acid (FFA) transporter system, has been identified in several tissues such as muscle, liver, and insulin-producing cells. Several studies have reported that induction of CD36 increases uptake of FFA in several cells, suggesting the functional interplay between glucose and FFA in terms of insulin secretion and oxidative metabolism. However, we do not currently know the regulating mechanism and physiological role of CD36 on glucolipotoxicity in pancreatic β-cells. Also, the downstream and upstream targets of CD36 related signaling have not been defined. In the present review, we will focus on the expression and function of CD36 related signaling in the pancreatic β-cells in response to hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia (ceramide) along with the clinical studies on the association between CD36 and metabolic disorders.


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Original Article
Basic Research
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Inhibition of Ceramide Accumulation in Podocytes by Myriocin Prevents Diabetic Nephropathy
Chang-Yun Woo, Ji Yeon Baek, Ah-Ram Kim, Chung Hwan Hong, Ji Eun Yoon, Hyoun Sik Kim, Hyun Ju Yoo, Tae-Sik Park, Ranjan Kc, Ki-Up Lee, Eun Hee Koh
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(4):581-591.   Published online November 4, 2019
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  • 167 Download
  • 30 Web of Science
  • 32 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   

Ceramides are associated with metabolic complications including diabetic nephropathy in patients with diabetes. Recent studies have reported that podocytes play a pivotal role in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Also, mitochondrial dysfunction is known to be an early event in podocyte injury. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that ceramide accumulation in podocytes induces mitochondrial damage through reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in patients with diabetic nephropathy.


We used Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. We fed the animals either a control- or a myriocin-containing diet to evaluate the effects of the ceramide. Also, we assessed the effects of ceramide on intracellular ROS generation and on podocyte autophagy in cultured podocytes.


OLETF rats and HFD-fed mice showed albuminuria, histologic features of diabetic nephropathy, and podocyte injury, whereas myriocin treatment effectively treated these abnormalities. Cultured podocytes exposed to agents predicted to be risk factors (high glucose, high free fatty acid, and angiotensin II in combination [GFA]) showed an increase in ceramide accumulation and ROS generation in podocyte mitochondria. Pretreatment with myriocin reversed GFA-induced mitochondrial ROS generation and prevented cell death. Myriocin-pretreated cells were protected from GFA-induced disruption of mitochondrial integrity.


We showed that mitochondrial ceramide accumulation may result in podocyte damage through ROS production. Therefore, this signaling pathway could become a pharmacological target to abate the development of diabetic kidney disease.


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Roles of Reactive Oxygen Species on Insulin Resistance in Adipose Tissue
Chang Yeop Han
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(4):272-279.   Published online June 28, 2016
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  • 115 Web of Science
  • 115 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Obesity resulting from the delivery of an excess amount of energy to adipose tissue from glucose or free fatty acids is associated with insulin resistance and adipose tissue inflammation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated as contributors to both the onset and the progression of insulin resistance. ROS can be generated by overloading the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system, and also by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (NOX) produced by either adipocytes, which only produce NOX4, or by macrophages, which produce mainly NOX2. The source of the ROS might differ in the early, intermediate and late stages of obesity, switching from NOX4-dependence in the early phases to NOX2-dependence, in the intermediate phase, and transiting to mitochondria-dependence later in the time course of obesity. Thus, depending on the stage of obesity, ROS can be generated by three distinct mechanisms: i.e., NOX4, NOX2, and mitochondria. In this review, we will discuss whether NOX4-, NOX2-, and/or mitochondria-derived ROS is/are causal in the onset of adipocyte insulin resistance as obesity progresses. Moreover, we will review the pathophysiological roles of NOX4, NOX2, and mitochondria-derived ROS on adipose tissue inflammation.


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A Systematic Review of Oxidative Stress and Safety of Antioxidants in Diabetes: Focus on Islets and Their Defense
Udayakumar Karunakaran, Keun-Gyu Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(2):106-112.   Published online April 16, 2013
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

A growing body of evidence suggests that hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress plays an important role in diabetic complications, especially β-cell dysfunction and failure. Under physiological conditions, reactive oxygen species serve as second messengers that facilitate signal transduction and gene expression in pancreatic β-cells. However, under pathological conditions, an imbalance in redox homeostasis leads to aberrant tissue damage and β-cell death due to a lack of antioxidant defense systems. Taking into account the vulnerability of islets to oxidative damage, induction of endogenous antioxidant enzymes or exogenous antioxidant administration has been proposed as a way to protect β-cells against diabetic insults. Here, we consider recent insights into how the redox response becomes deregulated under diabetic conditions, as well as the therapeutic benefits of antioxidants, which may provide clues for developing strategies aimed at the treatment or prevention of diabetes associated with β-cell failure.


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Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in Pathogenesis of Vascular Complications of Diabetes
Seok Man Son
Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(3):190-198.   Published online June 14, 2012
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Macrovascular and microvascular diseases are currently the principal causes of morbidity and mortality in subjects with diabetes. Disorders of the physiological signaling functions of reactive oxygen species (superoxide and hydrogen peroxide) and reactive nitrogen species (nitric oxide and peroxynitrite) are important features of diabetes. In the absence of an appropriate compensation by the endogenous antioxidant defense network, increased oxidative stress leads to the activation of stress-sensitive intracellular signaling pathways and the formation of gene products that cause cellular damage and contribute to the vascular complications of diabetes. It has recently been suggested that diabetic subjects with vascular complications may have a defective cellular antioxidant response against the oxidative stress generated by hyperglycemia. This raises the concept that antioxidant therapy may be of great benefit to these subjects. Although our understanding of how hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress ultimately leads to tissue damage has advanced considerably in recent years, effective therapeutic strategies to prevent or delay the development of this damage remain limited. Thus, further investigation of therapeutic interventions to prevent or delay the progression of diabetic vascular complications is needed.


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Original Articles
Glucose Oxidation and Production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in INS-1 Cells and Rat Islet Cells Exposed to High Glucose.
Ji Sung Yoon, Kyu Chang Won, Hyoung Woo Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(4):246-253.   Published online July 1, 2006
  • 2,155 View
  • 25 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Chronic exposure of pancreatic islets to supraphysiologic concentrations of glucose causes beta cell dysfunction that is a process known as glucose toxicity. It has been reported that hyperglycemia increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human islets and that ROS accumulation causes beta cell dysfunction associated with low capacity of intrinsic antioxidant enzymes. Also it has been postulated that this increase in ROS is prevented by an inhibitor of electron transport chain complex. The purpose of this study were to determine whether prolonged exposure of pancreatic islets to supraphysiologic glucose concentrations disrupts the intracellular balance between ROS thereby causing defective insulin secretion and to evaluate the site of hyperglycemia-induced ROS production. METHODS: INS-1 cells & rat islets were incubated in increasing concentrations of glucose and either an inhibitor of complex I & II (TTFA), an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation (CCCP), aCCA, etc and also incubated in increasing concentration of glyceraldehyde and N-acetylcystein. Then intracellular peroxide levels by flow cytometric analysis and glucose induced insulin secretion were detected. RESULTS: We observed that incubation with 30 mM glucose increased intracellular peroxide levels but decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) (P < 0.05). Exposure to TTFA, CCCP, aCCA did not reduce this increased intracellular peroxide levels, and did not increase GSIS (P < 0.05). 24-h incubation with glyceraldehyde at 5.6 mM glucose increased intracellular peroxide levels and decreased insulin content. CONCLUSION: These observations indicate that there might be other origins in which ROS species are produced besides electron transport chain in mitochondria and glyceraldehyde may be a key molecule to produce ROS, and induce beta cell dysfunction.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Reactive oxygen species in biological systems: Pathways, associated diseases, and potential inhibitors—A review
    Abdur Rauf, Anees Ahmed Khalil, Samir Awadallah, Shahid Ali Khan, Tareq Abu‐Izneid, Muhammad Kamran, Hassan A. Hemeg, Mohammad S. Mubarak, Ahood Khalid, Polrat Wilairatana
    Food Science & Nutrition.2024; 12(2): 675.     CrossRef
  • The Protective Effects of Chrysanthemum cornarium L. var. spatiosum Extract on HIT-T15 Pancreatic β-Cells against Alloxan-induced Oxidative Stress
    In-Hye Kim, Kang-Jin Cho, Jeong-Sook Ko, Jae-Hyun Kim, Ae-Son Om
    The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition.2012; 25(1): 123.     CrossRef
Oxidative Stress of INS-1 Cell, HIT-T15 Cell and Rat Islet Cell as a Mechanism of Glucose Toxicity.
Mi Jung Eun, Kyu Chang Won, Jun Sung Moon, Sun Jung Mun, Ji Eun Lee, Ji Sung Yoon, Kyung Ah Chun, Ihn Ho Cho, Hyoung Woo Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(5):393-400.   Published online September 1, 2005
  • 1,320 View
  • 30 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGOUND: Chronic hyperglycemia is the proximate cause of many complications of diabetes. The beta cells in type 2 diabetes are also adversely affected by chronic hyperglycemia, with this relentless deterioration in cell function, due to constant exposure to supraphysiologic concentrations of glucose, is termed glucose toxicity; however, the mechanism of glucose toxicity is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prolonged exposure of pancreatic islets to supraphysiologic glucose concentration disrupts the intracellular balance between reactive oxygen species(ROS) and antioxidant enzyme; thereby, causing defective insulin secretion. METHODS: HIT-T15 cells were treated with H2O2(20, 50 and 100micrometer) directly added to the culture media, and then intracellular peroxide and insulin mRNA were then measured. The effects of H2O2 on the total peroxide level and insulin secretion were also examined. Isolated pancreatic islet cells from Wistar and 2 beta cell lines (INS-1, HIT-T15) were cultured in either a glucose or ribose (5.6, 11.1, 22.2, 30 and 50mM) containing culture media for 72hours. The intracellular peroxide was measured using flow cytometry and glucose stimulated insulin secretion(GSIS). RESULTS: The intracellular peroxide levels due to H2O2 in HIT-T15 cells were higher with a high concentration of H2O2, and the insulin mRNA in HIT-T15 cells decreased when the cells are treated with a high concentration H2O2. The insulin mRNA of the HIT-T15 cells cultured in a high concentration of ribose was lower than of those cultured in a low concentration of glucose. INS-1, HIT-T15 and rat islet cells, cultured for 72 hours, had progressively greater peroxide levels with higher concentrations of both glucose and ribose. The GSIS in the cells cultured in high concentrations of both glucose and ribose were decreased. CONCLUSION: These results suggest only one potential central mechanism for glucose toxicity in beta cells, this being the formation of excess ROS.
Disturbed Shear Stress Induces Inflammation and Atherosclerosis-Role of BMP4 as a Mechanosensitive and Inflammatory Cytokine.
Hanjoong Jo, Hannah Song
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(4):271-281.   Published online July 1, 2005
  • 724 View
  • 23 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease occurring preferentially in arterial regions exposed to disturbed flow conditions including oscillatory shear stress(OS). In contrast, the arterial regions exposed to laminar shear(LS) are relatively lesion-free. The opposite effects of LS(atheroprotective) and OS(atherogenic) are likely to be determined by differential expression of genes and proteins. Therefore, numerous investigators including us carried out transcript profiling studies to identify mechanosensitive genes that are turned on or off in response to different shear conditions. Through this and subsequent verification approaches using both cultured endothelial cells and human coronary arteries containing atherosclerotic lesions, we discovered that BMP4 expression is a highly regulated by different shear conditions. More importantly, we discovered a novel role of BMP4 as a mechanosensitive pro-inflammatory cytokine. Exposing endothelial cells to OS increased BMP4 protein expression while LS decreased it. Also, we found BMP4 expression only in the selective patches of endothelial cells overlying foam cell lesions in human coronary arteries. Chronic exposure of endothelial cells to OS stimulates inflammatory responses in endothelial cells such as production of intercellular adhesion molecule 1(ICAM-1) leading to monocyte adhesion to endothelium. A series of studies have revealed that exposure to OS induces inflammatory responses by producing BMP4 in endothelial cells. BMP4 then stimulates ICAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion by the reactive oxygen species(ROS) and NF kappa B-dependent mechanisms. ROS produced in response to OS and BMP4 are derived from NADPH oxidase involving nox1 and p47phox components. These findings strongly suggest that BMP4 is a mechanosensitive, inflammatory factor playing a critical role in early steps of atherogenesis in atheroprone areas. This review is written to summarize this emerging field of shear stress, inflammation and atherosclerosis.

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