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Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
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Fetal Abdominal Obesity Detected At 24 to 28 Weeks of Gestation Persists Until Delivery Despite Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Wonjin Kim, Soo Kyung Park, Yoo Lee Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(4):547-557.   Published online March 5, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0078
  • 6,287 View
  • 188 Download
  • 7 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Fetal abdominal obesity (FAO) has been reported to be affected at gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnosis at 24 to 28 weeks of gestation in older and/or obese women. This study investigated whether the management of GDM improves FAO in GDM subjects near term.
Methods
Medical records of 7,099 singleton pregnant women delivering at CHA Gangnam Medical Center were reviewed retrospectively. GDM was diagnosed by 100-g oral glucose tolerance test after 50-g glucose challenge test based on Carpenter–Coustan criteria. GDM subjects were divided into four study groups according to maternal age and obesity. FAO was defined as ≥90th percentile of fetal abdominal overgrowth ratios (FAORs) of the ultrasonographically estimated gestational age (GA) of abdominal circumference per actual GA by the last menstruation period, biparietal diameter, or femur length, respectively.
Results
As compared with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects near term, FAORs and odds ratio for FAO were significantly higher in old and/or obese women with GDM but not in young and nonobese women with GDM. For fetuses of GDM subjects with FAO at the time of GDM diagnosis, the odds ratio for exhibiting FAO near term and being large for GA at birth were 7.87 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.38 to 14.15) and 10.96 (95% CI, 5.58 to 20.53) compared with fetuses of NGT subjects without FAO at GDM diagnosis.
Conclusion
Despite treatment, FAO detected at the time of GDM diagnosis persisted until delivery. Early diagnosis and treatment might be necessary to prevent near term FAO in high-risk older and/or obese women.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The effects of gestational diabetes mellitus on fetal growth: is it different for low-risk and medium–high-risk pregnant women?
    Jie Wang, Xin Cheng, Zhen-Hua Li, Yi-Cheng Mao, Xin-Qiang Wang, Kang-Di Zhang, Wen-Jie Yu, Ying-Qing Li, Jia-wen Zhao, Mao-Lin Chen, Guo-peng Gao, Cheng-Yang Hu, Xiu-Jun Zhang
    Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Fetal abdominal obesity and the ensuing adverse perinatal outcomes in older obese pregnant women with or without obesity and with normal glucose tolerance
    Wonjin Kim, Soo Kyung Park, Yoo Lee Kim
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Early-life exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus predisposes offspring to pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
    Qian-Ren Zhang, Yan Dong, Jian-Gao Fan
    Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Gestational diabetes mellitus and adverse pregnancy outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis
    Wenrui Ye, Cong Luo, Jing Huang, Chenglong Li, Zhixiong Liu, Fangkun Liu
    BMJ.2022; : e067946.     CrossRef
  • Fetal abdominal overgrowth is already present at 20–24 gestational weeks prior to diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus
    Wonjin Kim, Soo Kyung Park, Yoo Lee Kim
    Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
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A Comparison of Predictive Performances between Old versus New Criteria in a Risk-Based Screening Strategy for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Subeen Hong, Seung Mi Lee, Soo Heon Kwak, Byoung Jae Kim, Ja Nam Koo, Ig Hwan Oh, Sohee Oh, Sun Min Kim, Sue Shin, Won Kim, Sae Kyung Joo, Errol R. Norwitz, Souphaphone Louangsenlath, Chan-Wook Park, Jong Kwan Jun, Joong Shin Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(5):726-736.   Published online April 13, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0126
  • 6,885 View
  • 124 Download
  • 9 Web of Science
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background

The definition of the high-risk group for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) defined by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists was changed from the criteria composed of five historic/demographic factors (old criteria) to the criteria consisting of 11 factors (new criteria) in 2017. To compare the predictive performances between these two sets of criteria.

Methods

This is a secondary analysis of a large prospective cohort study of non-diabetic Korean women with singleton pregnancies designed to examine the risk of GDM in women with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Maternal fasting blood was taken at 10 to 14 weeks of gestation and measured for glucose and lipid parameters. GDM was diagnosed by the two-step approach.

Results

Among 820 women, 42 (5.1%) were diagnosed with GDM. Using the old criteria, 29.8% (n=244) of women would have been identified as high risk versus 16.0% (n=131) using the new criteria. Of the 42 women who developed GDM, 45.2% (n=19) would have been mislabeled as not high risk by the old criteria versus 50.0% (n=21) using the new criteria (1-sensitivity, 45.2% vs. 50.0%, P>0.05). Among the 778 patients who did not develop GDM, 28.4% (n=221) would have been identified as high risk using the old criteria versus 14.1% (n=110) using the new criteria (1-specificity, 28.4% vs. 14.1%, P<0.001).

Conclusion

Compared with the old criteria, use of the new criteria would have decreased the number of patients identified as high risk and thus requiring early GDM screening by half (from 244 [29.8%] to 131 [16.0%]).

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Predicting the Risk of Insulin-Requiring Gestational Diabetes before Pregnancy: A Model Generated from a Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study in Korea
    Seung-Hwan Lee, Jin Yu, Kyungdo Han, Seung Woo Lee, Sang Youn You, Hun-Sung Kim, Jae-Hyoung Cho, Kun-Ho Yoon, Mee Kyoung Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(1): 129.     CrossRef
  • Metabolic Dysfunction-Associated Fatty Liver Disease and Subsequent Development of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes
    Seung Mi Lee, Young Mi Jung, Eun Saem Choi, Soo Heon Kwak, Ja Nam Koo, Ig Hwan Oh, Byoung Jae Kim, Sun Min Kim, Sang Youn Kim, Gyoung Min Kim, Sae Kyung Joo, Bo Kyung Koo, Sue Shin, Errol R. Norwitz, Chan-Wook Park, Jong Kwan Jun, Won Kim, Joong Shin Park
    Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.2022; 20(11): 2542.     CrossRef
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and early prediction of gestational diabetes mellitus using machine learning methods
    Seung Mi Lee, Suhyun Hwangbo, Errol R. Norwitz, Ja Nam Koo, Ig Hwan Oh, Eun Saem Choi, Young Mi Jung, Sun Min Kim, Byoung Jae Kim, Sang Youn Kim, Gyoung Min Kim, Won Kim, Sae Kyung Joo, Sue Shin, Chan-Wook Park, Taesung Park, Joong Shin Park
    Clinical and Molecular Hepatology.2022; 28(1): 105.     CrossRef
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease-based risk prediction of adverse pregnancy outcomes: Ready for prime time?
    Seung Mi Lee, Won Kim
    Clinical and Molecular Hepatology.2022; 28(1): 47.     CrossRef
  • Postprandial Free Fatty Acids at Mid-Pregnancy Increase the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Newborns in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
    So-Yeon Kim, Young Shin Song, Soo-Kyung Kim, Yong-Wook Cho, Kyung-Soo Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(1): 140.     CrossRef
  • Effect of Different Types of Diagnostic Criteria for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus on Adverse Neonatal Outcomes: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Meta-Regression
    Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani, Marzieh Saei Ghare Naz, Razieh Bidhendi-Yarandi, Samira Behboudi-Gandevani
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2022; 46(4): 605.     CrossRef
  • Development of early prediction model for pregnancy-associated hypertension with graph-based semi-supervised learning
    Seung Mi Lee, Yonghyun Nam, Eun Saem Choi, Young Mi Jung, Vivek Sriram, Jacob S. Leiby, Ja Nam Koo, Ig Hwan Oh, Byoung Jae Kim, Sun Min Kim, Sang Youn Kim, Gyoung Min Kim, Sae Kyung Joo, Sue Shin, Errol R. Norwitz, Chan-Wook Park, Jong Kwan Jun, Won Kim,
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Clinical Characteristics of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Korea: A National Health Information Database Study
    Kyung-Soo Kim, Sangmo Hong, Kyungdo Han, Cheol-Young Park
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2021; 36(3): 628.     CrossRef
  • The risk of pregnancy‐associated hypertension in women with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
    Young Mi Jung, Seung Mi Lee, Subeen Hong, Ja Nam Koo, Ig Hwan Oh, Byoung Jae Kim, Sun Min Kim, Sang Youn Kim, Gyoung Min Kim, Sae Kyung Joo, Sue Shin, Errol R. Norwitz, Chan‐Wook Park, Jong Kwan Jun, Won Kim, Joong Shin Park
    Liver International.2020; 40(10): 2417.     CrossRef

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