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Changes in Patterns of Physical Activity and Risk of Heart Failure in Newly Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus Patients
Inha Jung, Hyemi Kwon, Se Eun Park, Kyung-Do Han, Yong-Gyu Park, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(2):327-336.   Published online November 24, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0046
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  • 4 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Exercise is recommended for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients to prevent cardiovascular disease. However, the effects of physical activity (PA) for reducing the risk of heart failure (HF) has yet to be elucidated. We aimed to assess the effect of changes in patterns of PA on incident HF, especially in newly diagnosed diabetic patients.
Methods
We examined health examination data and claims records of 294,528 participants from the Korean National Health Insurance Service who underwent health examinations between 2009 and 2012 and were newly diagnosed with T2DM. Participants were classified into the four groups according to changes in PA between before and after the diagnosis of T2DM: continuously inactive, inactive to active, active to inactive, and continuously active. The development of HF was analyzed until 2017.
Results
As compared with those who were continuously inactive, those who became physically active after diagnosis showed a reduced risk for HF (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 0.93). Those who were continuously active had the lowest risk for HF (aHR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.96). As compared with those who were inactive, those who exercised regularly, either performing vigorous or moderate PA, had a lower HF risk (aHR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.91).
Conclusion
Among individuals with newly diagnosed T2DM, the risk of HF was reduced in those with higher levels of PA after diagnosis was made. Our results suggest either increasing or maintaining the frequency of PA after the diagnosis of T2DM may lower the risk of HF.

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  • Associations Between Physical Activity and the Risk of Hip Fracture Depending on Glycemic Status: A Nationwide Cohort Study
    Kyoung Min Kim, Kyoung Jin Kim, Kyungdo Han, Yumie Rhee
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2024; 109(3): e1194.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation and Management of Patients With Diabetes and Heart Failure: A Korean Diabetes Association and Korean Society of Heart Failure Consensus Statement
    Kyu-Sun Lee, Junghyun Noh, Seong-Mi Park, Kyung Mook Choi, Seok-Min Kang, Kyu-Chang Won, Hyun-Jai Cho, Min Kyong Moon
    International Journal of Heart Failure.2023; 5(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation and Management of Patients with Diabetes and Heart Failure: A Korean Diabetes Association and Korean Society of Heart Failure Consensus Statement
    Kyu-Sun Lee, Junghyun Noh, Seong-Mi Park, Kyung Mook Choi, Seok-Min Kang, Kyu-Chang Won, Hyun-Jai Cho, Min Kyong Moon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(1): 10.     CrossRef
  • Association of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and frailty in community-dwelling older adults
    Eun Roh, Soon Young Hwang, Eyun Song, Min Jeong Park, Hye Jin Yoo, Sei Hyun Baik, Miji Kim, Chang Won Won, Kyung Mook Choi
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The associations between changes in hepatic steatosis and heart failure and mortality: a nationwide cohort study
    Jiyun Park, Gyuri Kim, Hasung Kim, Jungkuk Lee, Sang-Man Jin, Jae Hyeon Kim
    Cardiovascular Diabetology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Low Levels of Physical Activity Are Associated with Increased Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors in Korean Adults
Dong Hoon Lee, Yoon Myung Kim, Yoonsuk Jekal, Sukyung Park, Kyong-Chol Kim, Masayo Naruse, Sun Hyun Kim, Sang-Hwan Kim, Ji-Hye Park, Mi Kyung Lee, Sang Hui Chu, Justin Y. Jeon
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(2):132-139.   Published online April 16, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.2.132
  • 4,617 View
  • 32 Download
  • 22 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Low levels of physical activity (PA) are strongly associated with the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and chronic diseases. However, few studies have examined this association in Koreans. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the associations between PA and MetS risks in Korean adults.

Methods

A total of 1,016 Korean adults (494 males and 522 females) participated in this study. PA levels were assessed using the International PA Questionnaire. MetS risk factors were determined using clinically established diagnostic criteria.

Results

Compared with the highest PA group, the group with the lowest level of PA was at greater risk of high triglyceride (TG) in males (odds ratio [OR], 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 3.24) and of hemoglobin A1c ≥5.5% in females (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.00 to 3.04) after adjusting for age and body mass index. Compared with subjects who met the PA guidelines, those who did not meet the guidelines were more likely to have low high density lipoprotein cholesterol in both males (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.58), and females (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.20 to 2.77). Furthermore, those who did not meet the PA guidelines were at increased risk of high TG levels in males (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.86) and abnormal fasting glucose (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.17 to 3.20) and MetS (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.15 to 3.84) in females.

Conclusion

Increased levels of PA are significantly associated with a decreased risk of abnormal MetS components.

Citations

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  • Effects of a Physical Exercise Programme through Service-Learning Methodology on Physical Activity, Physical Fitness and Perception of Physical Fitness and Health in University Students from Spain: A Preliminary Study
    Antonio Jesús Casimiro-Andújar, Eva Artés-Rodríguez, David M. Díez-Fernández, María-Jesús Lirola
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2023; 20(4): 3377.     CrossRef
  • The Effect of a Mobile and Wearable Device Intervention on Increased Physical Activity to Prevent Metabolic Syndrome: Observational Study
    Hee Jin Kim, Kang Hyun Lee, Jung Hun Lee, Hyun Youk, Hee Young Lee
    JMIR mHealth and uHealth.2022; 10(2): e34059.     CrossRef
  • Does the Presence of Metabolic Syndrome Alter Serum Uric Acid Concentrations, Pain, and Well-Being in Patient with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain?
    Şeyda TOPRAK ÇELENAY, Derya ÖZER KAYA, Senem ŞAŞ
    Clinical and Experimental Health Sciences.2022; 12(4): 793.     CrossRef
  • Associations of Preoperative Irisin Levels of Paired Cerebrospinal Fluid and Plasma with Physical Dysfunction and Muscle Wasting Severity in Residents of Surgery Wards
    Q. Ruan, Y. Huang, L. Yang, J. Li, W. Gu, Z. Bao, X. Zhang, Zhuowei Yu
    The Journal of nutrition, health and aging.2020; 24(4): 412.     CrossRef
  • The mulberry-derived 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) inhibits high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hypercholesteremia and modulates the gut microbiota in a gender-specific manner
    Yougui Li, Shi Zhong, Jiaqi Yu, Yuqing Sun, Jianxun Zhu, Dongfeng Ji, Chongming Wu
    Journal of Functional Foods.2019; 52: 63.     CrossRef
  • Association between Metabolic Syndrome Criteria and Lifestyle Category among University Academic Staff in West Java, Indonesia
    Vita Murniati T, Siti Nur Fatima, Titing Nurhayati, Mohammad Rizki Akba, Putri Teesa Radh, Ambrosius Purba, Ieva Baniasih A, Hanna Goenawan
    Pakistan Journal of Nutrition.2018; 17(12): 709.     CrossRef
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    Shengjie Li, Danhui Li, Yudong Zhang, Jisen Teng, Mingxi Shao, Wenjun Cao
    BMJ Open.2018; 8(4): e021496.     CrossRef
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    Yong-Moon Mark Park, Susan E. Steck, Teresa T. Fung, Jiajia Zhang, Linda J. Hazlett, Kyungdo Han, Seung-Hwan Lee, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Anwar T. Merchant
    Clinical Nutrition.2017; 36(5): 1301.     CrossRef
  • The association between metabolic health, obesity phenotype and the risk of breast cancer
    Yong‐Moon Mark Park, Alexandra J. White, Hazel B. Nichols, Katie M. O'Brien, Clarice R. Weinberg, Dale P. Sandler
    International Journal of Cancer.2017; 140(12): 2657.     CrossRef
  • Sedentary Occupation Workers Who Meet the Physical Activity Recommendations Have a Reduced Risk for Metabolic Syndrome
    Rodrigo Alberto Vieira Browne, Luiz Fernando Farias-Junior, Yuri Alberto Freire, Daniel Schwade, Geovani de Araújo Dantas de Macêdo, Vilma Bayma Montenegro, Thiago Jambo Alves Lopes, Filipe Fernandes Oliveira Dantas, Eduardo Caldas Costa
    Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine.2017; 59(11): 1029.     CrossRef
  • Mediterranean diet and mortality risk in metabolically healthy obese and metabolically unhealthy obese phenotypes
    Y-M Park, S E Steck, T T Fung, J Zhang, L J Hazlett, K Han, A T Merchant
    International Journal of Obesity.2016; 40(10): 1541.     CrossRef
  • Diet Quality and Mortality Risk in Metabolically Obese Normal-Weight Adults
    Yong-Moon Mark Park, Teresa T. Fung, Susan E. Steck, Jiajia Zhang, Linda J. Hazlett, Kyungdo Han, Seung-Hwan Lee, Anwar T. Merchant
    Mayo Clinic Proceedings.2016; 91(10): 1372.     CrossRef
  • Gender Difference in the Epidemiological Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Olfactory Dysfunction: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Se-Hwan Hwang, Jun-Myung Kang, Jae-Hyun Seo, Kyung-do Han, Young-Hoon Joo, Yiqing Song
    PLOS ONE.2016; 11(2): e0148813.     CrossRef
  • Renal posttransplantation diabetes mellitus: An overview
    Ana Laura Pimentel, Andrea Carla Bauer, Joíza Lins Camargo
    Clinica Chimica Acta.2015; 450: 327.     CrossRef
  • Metabolic Syndrome and Chronic Laryngitis
    Choung-Soo Kim, Seong-Soo Lee, Kyung-do Han, Young-Hoon Joo
    Medicine.2015; 94(43): e1890.     CrossRef
  • Gender differences in the association between food insecurity and insulin resistance among U.S. adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2010
    Junxiu Liu, Yong-Moon Mark Park, Seth A. Berkowitz, Qingwei Hu, Kyungdo Han, Andrew Ortaglia, Robert E. McKeown, Angela D. Liese
    Annals of Epidemiology.2015; 25(9): 643.     CrossRef
  • Implication of Circulating Irisin Levels with Brown Adipose Tissue and Sarcopenia in Humans
    Hae Yoon Choi, Sungeun Kim, Ji Woo Park, Nam Seok Lee, Soon Young Hwang, Joo Young Huh, Ho Cheol Hong, Hye Jin Yoo, Sei Hyun Baik, Byung-Soo Youn, Christos S. Mantzoros, Kyung Mook Choi
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2014; 99(8): 2778.     CrossRef
  • Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Amount of Alcohol Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Male Drinkers
    Byung-Sung Kim, Myeong-Jin Kim, Hyun-Rim Choi, Cahng-Won Won, Sun-Young Kim
    The Korean Journal of Sports Medicine.2014; 32(2): 97.     CrossRef
  • Association between cardiorespiratory fitness and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Korean adults: a cross sectional study
    Sunghyun Hong, Junga Lee, Jihye Park, Mikyung Lee, Ji Young Kim, Kyong-Chol Kim, Sun Hyun Kim, Jee Aee Im, Sang Hui Chu, Sang Hoon Suh, Sang Hwan Kim, Justin Y Jeon
    BMC Public Health.2014;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Impact of lifestyle on metabolic syndrome in apparently healthy people
    Silvio Buscemi, Delia Sprini, Giuseppe Grosso, Fabio Galvano, Antonio Nicolucci, Giuseppe Lucisano, Fatima M. Massenti, Emanuele Amodio, Giovam B. Rini
    Eating and Weight Disorders - Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity.2014; 19(2): 225.     CrossRef
  • Gender Difference in the Association of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components with Age-Related Cataract: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010
    Young-Hoon Park, Jeong Ah Shin, Kyungdo Han, Hyeon Woo Yim, Won-Chul Lee, Yong-Moon Park, Yingfeng Zheng
    PLoS ONE.2014; 9(1): e85068.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Relationship with Physical Activity in Suburban Beijing, China
    Wei-Hong Zhang, Peng Xue, Meng-Ying Yao, Hai-Min Chang, Yan Wu, Lei Zhang
    Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism.2013; 63(4): 298.     CrossRef
The Usefulness of an Accelerometer for Monitoring Total Energy Expenditure and Its Clinical Application for Predicting Body Weight Changes in Type 2 Diabetic Korean Women
Ji Yeon Jung, Kyung Ah Han, Hwi Ryun Kwon, Hee Jung Ahn, Jae Hyuk Lee, Kang Seo Park, Kyung Wan Min
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(6):374-383.   Published online December 31, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.6.374
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  • 24 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of an accelerometer in predicting body weight (BW) change during a lifestyle intervention and to find out whether exercise or overall physical activity is associated with change in insulin sensitivity and body composition.

Methods

A total of 49 overweight (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 23 kg/m2) women with diabetes were enrolled and performed lifestyle intervention while monitoring BW, total energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) using an accelerometer, and energy intake (EI) using a three-day dietary record at baseline and every 2 weeks for 12 weeks. We assessed body composition using bioimpedance analysis and compared the actual BW change to the predicted BW change, which was calculated from the energy deficit (ED) between EI and TEE (ED = EI-TEE).

Results

Mean age was 57.2 years, duration of diabetes was 8.0 years, and BMI was 27.8 kg/m2. There was no significant difference between EI and TEE at baseline. For 12 weeks, the ED was 474.0 kcal·day-1, which was significantly correlated with BW change (-3.1 kg) (r = 0.725, P < 0.001). However, the actual BW change was 50% lower than the predicted BW change. Both TEE and PAEE correlated with change in KITT (r = 0.334, P = 0.019; r = 0.358, P = 0.012, respectively), BMI (r = -0.395, P = 0.005; r = -0.347, P = 0.015, respectively), and fat mass (r = -0.383, P = 0.007; r = -0.395, P = 0.005, respectively), but only TEE correlated with fat free mass change (r = -0.314, P = 0.030).

Conclusion

The accelerometer appears to be a useful tool for measuring TEE under free-living conditions for both short- and long-term periods.

Citations

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  • Whether Smaller Plates Reduce Consumption Depends on Who’s Serving and Who’s Looking: A Meta-Analysis
    Stephen S. Holden, Natalina Zlatevska, Chris Dubelaar
    Journal of the Association for Consumer Research.2016; 1(1): 134.     CrossRef
Effects of Walking and Physical Activity on Glucose Regulation among Type 2 Diabetics.
Yoonsuk Jekal, Mi Kyung Lee, Eun Sung Kim, Ji Hye Park, Hyun Ji Lee, Seung Jin Han, Eun Seok Kang, Hyun Chul Lee, So Hun Kim, Justin Y Jeon
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(1):60-67.   Published online February 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.1.60
  • 2,279 View
  • 39 Download
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Physical activity, especially walking is strongly recommended to control blood glucose among type 2 diabetic patients. Furthermore, physical activity is one of the most important tools to prevent secondary diabetes complications among type 2 diabetic patients such as retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy etc. The purpose of the study was to examine the association between the level of walking and physical activity and glucose control among Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 250 patients with type 2 diabetes (98 males and 152 females) were recruited (mean age = 62.1 +/- 10.2 years) in the current study. The height, weight, waist and hip circumference were measured, and the level of physical activity and total walking hour were measured by physical activity scale for elderly (PASE). High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting glucose and oral glucose tolerance test, creatinine, uric acid, total protein, albumin, hemoglobin A1c were measured. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential covariates such as age, education, occupation income, smoking, and drinking, male patients who spent least time in walking were more likely to have 2 hour serum glucose level in oral glucose tolerance above 200 mg/dL than counterparts who spent most time in walking with age adjusted (Relative Risk (RR) = 11.75, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.94-71.00). Male patients who were in the least active group were 5.92 time (95% CI = 1.39-25.28) more likely to have 2 hour serum glucose level in oral glucose tolerance over 200 mg/dL than counterparts in the most active group. However, there was no significant finding in females. CONCLUSIONS: The current study showed that physical activity and walking are effective method to maintain glucose tolerance among type 2 diabetic male patients.

Citations

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  • 호남권 지역주민의 건강행태와 만성질환 관리현황
    선아 김, 정은 이
    Public Health Weekly Report.2024; 17(2): 46.     CrossRef
  • Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Obesity, Metabolic Parameters and Clinical Values in the South Korean Adult Population
    Anna Kim, Eun-yeob Kim, Jaeyoung Kim
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2024; 13(10): 2814.     CrossRef
  • A Study Analyzing the Relationship among Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG), Obesity Index, Physical Activity, and Beverage and Alcohol Consumption Frequency in 20s and 30s:The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2013-2015
    Yujin Lee, Jung-Hyun Kim
    The Korean Journal of Community Living Science.2022; 33(1): 19.     CrossRef
  • Travel Guidance for People with Diabetes
    Izadi Morteza, Hosseini Mahboobeh Sadat, Pazham Hossein
    International Journal of Travel Medicine and Global Health.2015; 3(4): 149.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes According to Gender among Korean Employees
    Sang-A Kim, Woong-Sub Park, Su Jeong Yu, Young Ran Chae, Donghee Choi
    Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society.2015; 16(11): 7589.     CrossRef
  • Low Levels of Physical Activity Are Associated with Increased Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors in Korean Adults
    Dong Hoon Lee, Yoon Myung Kim, Yoonsuk Jekal, Sukyung Park, Kyong-Chol Kim, Masayo Naruse, Sun Hyun Kim, Sang-Hwan Kim, Ji-Hye Park, Mi Kyung Lee, Sang Hui Chu, Justin Y. Jeon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2013; 37(2): 132.     CrossRef
  • Association between Obesity and Physical Fitness, and Hemoglobin A1c Level and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults
    Yoonsuk Jekal, Mi-Kyung Lee, Sukyung Park, Seung-Hwan Lee, Jun-Young Kim, Jung-Ui Kang, Masayo Naruse, Sang-Hwan Kim, Sun-Hyeon Kim, Sang Hui Chu, Sang-Hoon Suh, Justin Y Jeon
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2010; 34(3): 182.     CrossRef
Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity in Type 2 Diabetes in Korea.
Sang Ah Chang, Jung Min Lee, Tae Seo Sohn, Hyun Shik Son, Sung Woo Park, Sei Hyun Baik, Jae Myung Yu, Yeon Ah Sung, Chul Woo Ahn, Kyung Wan Min, Kyung Ah Han
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(1):83-88.   Published online January 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2007.31.1.83
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Walking is a popular, convenient and relatively safe form of exercise. However, there is few objective data for walking exercise. The aim of this study was to evaluate pedometer-determined physical activity defined as steps/day in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, it could be the basic data for programming walking exercise in diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Participants with type 2 diabetes who visited in 6 university hospitals on February, 2006 in Seoul and Kyung-gi area were recruited. The participants were asked their ambulatory activity with the given pedometer and calorimeter for 1 week. Total 240 (Male 122, Female 118) subjects who walked above 1000 steps/day were analyzed. We also collected their biochemical data from the medical records. RESULTS: Participants took 8532 +/- 4130 steps for day (step/day) and energy expenditure were 320 +/- 161 Cal/day. Steps/day was not significantly different between male and female, but energy expenditure was higher in male than female ( P < 0.05). Steps/day was significantly lower in obese patients than non-obese patients (P < 0.001). BMI (r = -0.325, P < 0.001), waist circumference (r = -0.287, P < 0.001), triglyceride (r = 0.164, P < 0.018) showed significant inverse correlation with steps/day, but BUN (r = 0.165, P = 0.019) and HDL-cholesterol (r = 0.164, P = 0.018) were positive correlated with steps/day significantly. BMI (r = -0.14, P < 0.032) and cholesterol (r = -0.139, P < 0.041) showed significantly inverse correlation with energy expenditure and BUN (r = 0.187, P = 0.008) and HDL cholesterol (r = 0.145, P < 0.037) positively correlated with energy expenditure. Pedometer-determined steps/day was positively associated with energy expenditure (r2 = 0.824, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study showed the objective quantification of physical activity measured by simple and inexpensive pedometers. It could be used to recommend walking exercise since the practitioners can estimate steps/day for required energy expenditure.
Long Term Effects of Exercise on Waist-Hip Ratio, BMI, HbA1c.
Keun Hee An, Kyung Ah Han, Kyung Wan Min
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(6):526-532.   Published online November 1, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Korean Diabetes Association recommends exercise over than 3 times per week. But the compliance is poor and researches about physical activity of Korean type 2 diabetics are limited. The purpose of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of self report methods on the adherence to physical training and the long term effects of exercise on waist hip ratio, BMI and HbA1c. METHODS: The subjects were trained to exercise over 3 times per week with the load of anaerobic threshold(AT). During 1 year 7 times follow up education were carried out with self -report exercise diary by exercise physiologist bimonthly. The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to duration of exercise : Exercise group(> or =12 months), new exercise group(> or =6 months) control group(<6 months). RESULTS: The subjects were total 27 patients (male 13, female 14). Mean age was 52.4 +/- 7.4 and the duration of DM was 4.0 +/- 3.7 yea rand mean BMI was 25.5 +/- 3.9 year. There were no differences in ratio of BMI after exercise training among groups. Waist hip ratio increased in all groups but the ratio of change in waist hip ratio was significantly lower in exercise group than in control group. The ratio of change in BMI was positively correlated with the ratio of change in muscle mass and percent fat. But the ratio of change in percent fat(r=0.835) was more prominent than in muscle mass(r=0.686). The Mets of peak exercise was significantly increased in all groups. CONCLUSION: The physical training using the self-report method was effective in promoting physical activity. The effects of physical training were detected earlier in the change of waist hip ratio than in BMI change. Exercise capacity was increased not only by exercise training but also metabolic control .
The Study of Physical Activity in the Korean with Type 2 Diabetes.
Kyung Wan Min, Keun Hee An, Tae Seo Sohn, Yong Moon Park, Yeong Sun Hong, Yeon Su Kim, Yi Byeong Park, Kang Seo Park, Gwan Woo Lee, In Ju Kim, Kyung Ah Han, Jae Myoung Yu, Hyun Shik Son, Sei Hyun Baik, Won Cheol Lee, Chung Gu Cho, Hyoung Woo Lee, Sung Woo Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(6):517-525.   Published online November 1, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Despite the importance of exercise, little is known about the epidemiology of exercise among persons with diabetes in the Korea. We do not have any standard method to evaluate physical activity of diabetics. So exercise committee of Korean diabetic association decided to survey the physical activities of Korean type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 1073 type 2 diabetics (509 males, 564 females) over 18 age. 34 general hospitals collected data about physical activity from Dec. 2004 to Feb.2005. Data were randomly collected by interviewers using numeration table. Respondents were asked about the physical activities or exercise during recent 7 days and frequency, duration of each activity. To compare with normal population, we use 2001 KNHANES (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) results. RESULTS: People with type 2 diabetes were more likely to report exercising regularly than people without this disease (52.5% vs. 27.5%) (p<0.0001), but 47.5% of type 2 diabetics didn't take exercise. Walking time of type 2 diabetics wasmore than that of people without this disease (p<0.0001). Type 2 diabetics exerting <700kcal/week of energy expenditure with physical activity were 45.5% in the exercising type 2 diabetics (males:44.2%, females:55.8%). Energy expenditure was positively correlated with frequency of physical exercise and exercise period (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: 47.5% of Korean type 2 diabetics and 72.5% of normal population did not take exercise. 45.5% of exercising type 2 diabetics exerted energy expenditure under 700kcal/week with physical activity. Therefore, various programs for initiating physical activity and increasing energy expenditure are required.

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