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Diabetes Promotes Myocardial Fibrosis via AMPK/EZH2/PPAR-γ Signaling Pathway
Shan-Shan Li, Lu Pan, Zhen-Ye Zhang, Meng-Dan Zhou, Xu-Fei Chen, Ling-Ling Qian, Min Dai, Juan Lu, Zhi-Ming Yu, Shipeng Dang, Ru-Xing Wang
Received February 3, 2023  Accepted November 13, 2023  Published online February 27, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0031    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
Diabetes-induced cardiac fibrosis is one of the main mechanisms of diabetic cardiomyopathy. As a common histone methyltransferase, enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) has been implicated in fibrosis progression in multiple organs. However, the mechanism of EZH2 in diabetic myocardial fibrosis has not been clarified.
Methods
In the current study, rat and mouse diabetic model were established, the left ventricular function of rat and mouse were evaluated by echocardiography and the fibrosis of rat ventricle was evaluated by Masson staining. Primary rat ventricular fibroblasts were cultured and stimulated with high glucose (HG) in vitro. The expression of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) trimethylation, EZH2, and myocardial fibrosis proteins were assayed.
Results
In STZ-induced diabetic ventricular tissues and HG-induced primary ventricular fibroblasts in vitro, H3K27 trimethylation was increased and the phosphorylation of EZH2 was reduced. Inhibition of EZH2 with GSK126 suppressed the activation, differentiation, and migration of cardiac fibroblasts as well as the overexpression of the fibrotic proteins induced by HG. Mechanical study demonstrated that HG reduced phosphorylation of EZH2 on Thr311 by inactivating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which transcriptionally inhibited peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) expression to promote the fibroblasts activation and differentiation.
Conclusion
Our data revealed an AMPK/EZH2/PPAR-γ signal pathway is involved in HG-induced cardiac fibrosis.

Citations

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  • An update on chronic complications of diabetes mellitus: from molecular mechanisms to therapeutic strategies with a focus on metabolic memory
    Tongyue Yang, Feng Qi, Feng Guo, Mingwei Shao, Yi Song, Gaofei Ren, Zhao Linlin, Guijun Qin, Yanyan Zhao
    Molecular Medicine.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Farrerol Alleviates Diabetic Cardiomyopathy by Regulating AMPK-Mediated Cardiac Lipid Metabolic Pathways in Type 2 Diabetic Rats
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    Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Adipose Gene Expression Profiles Related to Metabolic Syndrome Using Microarray Analyses in Two Different Models
Hye Jin Yoo, Hwan-Jin Hwang, Tae Woo Jung, Ja Young Ryu, Ho Cheol Hong, Hae Yoon Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Kyung Mook Choi
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(5):356-365.   Published online October 17, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2014.38.5.356
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  • 7 Web of Science
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonist has a wide-ranging influence on multiple components of metabolic syndrome. The Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat is a useful animal model of metabolic syndrome. To determine genes related to metabolic syndrome, we examined overlapping genes that are simultaneously decreased by PPAR-γ agonists and increased in OLETF rats using microarrays in two different models.

Methods

In the first microarray analysis, PPAR-γ agonist-treated db/db mice were compared to standard diet-fed db/db mice. In the second microarray analysis, OLETF rats were compared to Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats (control of OLETF rats).

Results

Among the overlapping genes, in the present study, we validated that lipocalin-2 expression was significantly decreased in the visceral adipose tissue of PPAR-γ agonist-treated db/db mice compared to standard diet-fed db/db mice and increased in OLETF rats compared to LETO rats using real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, we showed for the first time that lipocalin-2 expression was significantly increased in the visceral adipose tissues of obese humans compared with nonobese humans. In addition, the expression level of lipocalin-2 in human visceral adipose tissue had a significant positive correlation with body mass index, serum interleukin-6, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein levels, and white blood cell count.

Conclusion

Lipocalin-2 was confirmed to be a significant adipokine affected by PPAR-γ agonist and obesity in the present study. Also, for the first time in human visceral adipose tissue, it was determined that the expression of lipocalin-2 from obese humans was significantly increased and correlated with circulating inflammatory markers.

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Review
Targeting the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ to Counter the Inflammatory Milieu in Obesity
Cesar Corzo, Patrick R. Griffin
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(6):395-403.   Published online December 12, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.6.395
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  • 34 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Adipose tissue, which was once viewed as a simple organ for storage of triglycerides, is now considered an important endocrine organ. Abnormal adipose tissue mass is associated with defects in endocrine and metabolic functions which are the underlying causes of the metabolic syndrome. Many adipokines, hormones secreted by adipose tissue, regulate cells from the immune system. Interestingly, most of these adipokines are proinflammatory mediators, which increase dramatically in the obese state and are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Drugs that target peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of diabetes. These findings, and the link between inflammation and the metabolic syndrome, will be reviewed here.

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Original Article
Effects of Sulfonylureas on Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Activity and on Glucose Uptake by Thiazolidinediones
Kyeong Won Lee, Yun Hyi Ku, Min Kim, Byung Yong Ahn, Sung Soo Chung, Kyong Soo Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(4):340-347.   Published online August 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.4.340
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  • 41 Download
  • 21 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Sulfonylurea primarily stimulates insulin secretion by binding to its receptor on the pancreatic β-cells. Recent studies have suggested that sulfonylureas induce insulin sensitivity through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), one of the nuclear receptors. In this study, we investigated the effects of sulfonylurea on PPARγ transcriptional activity and on the glucose uptake via PPARγ.

Methods

Transcription reporter assays using Cos7 cells were performed to determine if specific sulfonylureas stimulate PPARγ transactivation. Glimepiride, gliquidone, and glipizide (1 to 500 µM) were used as treatment, and rosiglitazone at 1 and 10 µM was used as a control. The effects of sulfonylurea and rosiglitazone treatments on the transcriptional activity of endogenous PPARγ were observed. In addition, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with rosiglitazone (10 µM), glimepiride (100 µM) or both to verify the effect of glimepiride on rosiglitazone-induced glucose uptake.

Results

Sulfonylureas, including glimepiride, gliquidone and glipizide, increased PPARγ transcriptional activity, gliquidone being the most potent PPARγ agonist. However, no additive effects were observed in the presence of rosiglitazone. When rosiglitazone was co-treated with glimepiride, PPARγ transcriptional activity and glucose uptake were reduced compared to those after treatment with rosiglitazone alone. This competitive effect of glimepiride was observed only at high concentrations that are not achieved with clinical doses.

Conclusion

Sulfonylureas like glimepiride, gliquidone and glipizide increased the transcriptional activity of PPARγ. Also, glimepiride was able to reduce the effect of rosiglitazone on PPARγ agonistic activity and glucose uptake. However, the competitive effect does not seem to occur at clinically feasible concentrations.

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Review
Diabetes and Osteoporosis.
Ki Won Oh
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(3):169-177.   Published online June 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.3.169
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Increased life expectancy and increased obesity have contributed to an increasing incidence of osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus. Recent meta-analyses and cohort studies confirm that diabetes is associated with a higher risk of fracture. Patients with type 2 diabetes exhibit increased fracture risks despite a higher bone mass, which are mainly attributable to non-skeletal risk factors. Patients with type 1 diabetes may have impaired bone formation because of absence of the anabolic effects of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) system. Several clinical studies have reported adverse skeletal actions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonist in humans. Obesity regulates bone metabolism not only by increasing weight loading but also by modulating adipokines that are known to affect bone remodeling.

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