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Normalized Creatinine-to-Cystatin C Ratio and Risk of Diabetes in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study
Shanhu Qiu, Xue Cai, Bo Xie, Yang Yuan, Zilin Sun, Tongzhi Wu
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(3):476-485.   Published online March 7, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0074
  • 5,068 View
  • 208 Download
  • 7 Web of Science
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Creatinine-to-cystatin C ratio is recently suggested to be a surrogate marker for sarcopenia. However, little is known about its association with diabetes. This study aimed to fill in this gap based on a large-scale prospective cohort.
Methods
A population-based representative sample of 5,055 participants aged ≥45 years from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study was enrolled between 2011 and 2012 and followed at least once during the subsequent surveys at 2013, 2015, or 2018. Creatinine-to-cystatin C ratio was calculated and normalized by body weight. Incident diabetes was ascertained by plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, self-reported history, or use of anti-diabetic drugs. Logistic regression analysis and mediation analysis were employed.
Results
During follow-up, 634 participants developed diabetes. The risk of diabetes was gradually and significantly decreased with increased normalized creatinine–cystatin C ratio. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for diabetes was 0.91 (95% confidence interval, 0.83 to 0.99) per 1 standard deviation higher of normalized creatinine-to-cystatin C ratio, and this relationship remained significant after controlling for muscle strength. The risk reduction in diabetes was significantly larger in participants with normal-weight and high normalized creatinine-to-cystatin C ratio compared with those with overweight/obesity and high normalized creatinine-to-cystatin C ratio (Pinteraction=0.01). Insulin resistance and inflammation appeared to be key mediators accounting for the observed relationship between normalized creatinine-to-cystatin C ratio and risk of diabetes, with their mediating effect being 93.1% and 22.0%, respectively.
Conclusion
High normalized creatinine-to-cystatin C ratio is associated with reduced risk of diabetes in middle-aged and older adults.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Muscle Quality in Relation to Prediabetes Phenotypes: A Population-Based Study With Mediation Analysis
    Shanhu Qiu, Xue Cai, Xiaoying Zhou, Jinshui Xu, Zilin Sun, Haijian Guo, Tongzhi Wu
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2024; 109(3): e1151.     CrossRef
  • Sex‐specific associations between skeletal muscle mass and incident diabetes: A population‐based cohort study
    Dan Liu, Nan Li, Yiling Zhou, Miye Wang, Peige Song, Changzheng Yuan, Qingyang Shi, Hui Chen, Kaixin Zhou, Huan Wang, Tao Li, Xiong‐Fei Pan, Haoming Tian, Sheyu Li
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2024; 26(3): 820.     CrossRef
  • Diabetes Mellitus Should Be Considered While Analysing Sarcopenia-Related Biomarkers
    Justyna Rentflejsz, Zyta Beata Wojszel
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2024; 13(4): 1107.     CrossRef
  • Associations of muscle mass and strength with new-onset diabetes among middle-aged and older adults: evidence from the China health and retirement longitudinal study (CHARLS)
    Yun-Yun He, Mei-Ling Jin, Xiang-Yang Fang, Xiao-Juan Wang
    Acta Diabetologica.2024; 61(7): 869.     CrossRef
  • The serum creatinine to cystatin C to waist circumference ratios predicts risk for type 2 diabetes: A Chinese cohort study
    Yinfei Chen, Weiheng Wen, Zhiliang Mai, Ming Wang, Hong Chen, Jia Sun
    Journal of Diabetes.2023; 15(10): 808.     CrossRef
  • Associations of sarcopenia with peak expiratory flow among community-dwelling elderly population: based on the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS)
    Yun-Yun He, Mei-Ling Jin, Jing Chang, Xiao-Juan Wang
    European Geriatric Medicine.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Eyun Song, Soon Young Hwang, Min Jeong Park, Ahreum Jang, Kyeong Jin Kim, Ji Hee Yu, Nam Hoon Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Ji A. Seo, Sin Gon Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Sei Hyun Baik, Kyung Mook Choi
    Metabolism.2023; 148: 155678.     CrossRef
The Correlations between Extremity Circumferences with Total and Regional Amounts of Skeletal Muscle and Muscle Strength in Obese Women with Type 2 Diabetes
Hwi Ryun Kwon, Kyung Ah Han, Hee Jung Ahn, Jae Hyuk Lee, Gang Seo Park, Kyung Wan Min
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(4):374-383.   Published online August 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.4.374
  • 4,534 View
  • 44 Download
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Insulin resistance is related to central obesity and the amount of skeletal muscle. A simple and practical anthropometric marker for muscle mass is not known, although waist circumference (WC) is used as an indicator of abdominal obesity. The aims of this study were to investigate whether arm (AC) and thigh circumferences (TC) can be used as an indicator of muscle mass and if they are related to muscle strength.

Methods

A total of 110 obese (body mass index [BMI]≥25 kg/m2) women with type 2 diabetes were enrolled, and WC, AC, and TC were measured. Abdominal visceral fat (AVF), subcutaneous fat (ASF), and total fat (ATF) were assessed by computed tomography, regional muscle (MM), and fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, muscle strength by one repetition maximum (1RM) of both extremities (chest and leg press) and insulin resistance by KITT.

Results

The mean age was 56.2±7.3 years, duration of diabetes was 4.2±4.4 years, and BMI was 27.2±2.8 kg/m2. WC was correlated with ATF, AVF, and ASF (r=0.728, P<0.001; r=0.515, P<0.001; r=0.608, P<0.001, respectively). Arm MM was correlated with AC (r=0.500, P<0.001), and leg MM with TC (r=0.291, P=0.002). Upper 1RM was related to AC/WC ratio (r=0.359, P<0.001), and lower 1RM was to TC/WC ratio (r=0.286, P=0.003). Insulin resistance had significant relations with AVF, WC, and total MM (r=-0.262, P=0.008; r=-0.217, P=0.029; r=0.160, P=0.031, respectively).

Conclusion

The muscle mass was related to extremity circumferences, and muscle strength was to extremity/waist circumference ratio in obese women with type 2 diabetes.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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The Effects of Resistance Training on Muscle and Body Fat Mass and Muscle Strength in Type 2 Diabetic Women
Hwi Ryun Kwon, Kyung Ah Han, Yun Hyi Ku, Hee Jung Ahn, Bo-Kyung Koo, Ho Chul Kim, Kyung Wan Min
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(2):101-110.   Published online April 30, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.2.101
  • 5,294 View
  • 74 Download
  • 56 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Our goal was to investigate the effects of low intensity resistance training on body fat, muscle mass and strength, cardiovascular fitness, and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes.

Methods

Twenty-eight overweight women with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to a resistance training group (RG, n = 13) or a control group (CG, n = 15). RG performed resistance training using elastic bands, of which strength was equal to 40 to 50% of one repetition maximum (1RM), for three days per week. Each exercise consisted of three sets for 60 minutes. We assessed abdominal fat using computed tomography, muscle mass using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and muscle strength using Keiser's chest and leg press. Insulin sensitivity was measured using the insulin tolerance test, and aerobic capacity was expressed as oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold (AT-VO2) before and after the 12-week exercise program.

Results

The age of participants was 56.4 ± 7.1 years, duration of diabetes was 5.9 ± 5.5 years, and BMI was 27.4 ± 2.5 kg/m2, without significant differences between two groups. During intervention, a greater increase in muscle mass and greater decreases in both total fat mass and abdominal fat were observed in RG compared to those of CG (P = 0.015, P = 0.011, P = 0.010, respectively). Increase in 1RM of upper and lower extremities was observed in the RG (P = 0.004, P = 0.040, respectively), without changes in AT-VO2 and insulin resistance in either group.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the low intensity resistance training was effective in increasing muscle mass and strength and reducing total fat mass without change of insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients.

Citations

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Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Abdominal Fat, Thigh Muscle Mass and Muscle Strength in Type 2 Diabetic Subject
Hwi Ryun Kwon, Kyung Wan Min, Hee Jung Ahn, Hee Geum Seok, Bo Kyung Koo, Ho Chul Kim, Kyung Ah Han
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(1):23-31.   Published online February 28, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.1.23
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Aerobic exercise can effectively reduce visceral fat. However, few studies have examined the effect of daily physical activity on obesity and cardiopulmonary function in the subjects with diabetes. We examined the effect of moderate intensity of walking in obese diabetes patients by monitoring of daily activity and measuring the change in abdominal fat area, muscle are and maximal muscle strength.

Methods

We randomly assigned 27 obese women with type 2 diabetes to an aerobic exercise group (AG, n = 13) and control group (CG, n = 14). The AG performed moderate intensity walking for 60 minutes per exercise, 5 times per week, and for 12 weeks. The activity energy expenditure was monitored by a multi-record accelerometer. The CG maintained routine daily activities. At the time of the initiation of the study and after 12 weeks of exercise, the aerobic exercise capacity was assessed using oxygen consumption rate at anaerobic threshold (VO2-AT). The abdominal fat area and the quadriceps muscle area were measured by computed tomography, and the maximum muscle strength of the upper and lower limbs was measured by a chest press and a leg press, respectively.

Results

The mean age of the study subjects was 56.6 ± 8.0 years, the mean duration of diabetes was 6.3 ± 6.0 years, and the body weight index (BMI) was 27.3 ± 2.7 kg/m2. The BMI of the AG was significantly decreased (P = 0.003). In the AG, the visceral fat area and subcutaneous fat area were also significantly decreased (P = 0.018 and P < 0.001, respectively) but not in CG. VO2-AT of the AG was significantly improved, while that of the CG did not change (P = 0.009 and P = 0.115, respectively). The quadriceps muscle mass and the maximal muscle strength of the AG did not change, however, the CG showed a significant decrease. Duration of moderate intensity exercise was correlated with the decrease in total abdominal fat area (r = -0.484; P = 0.011) and that of high intensity exercise was correlated with improvement of cardiopulmonary function (r = 0.414; P = 0.032).

Conclusion

Daily moderate intensity aerobic exercise is effective at reducing abdominal fat mass, while high intensity exercise improves cardiopulmonary function.

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  • The Therapeutic Effects of Mild to Moderate Intensity Aerobic Exercise on Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials
    Siyao Gao, Jialing Tang, Guozhong Yi, Zhong Li, Zhenyin Chen, Ling Yu, Feng Zheng, Yajing Hu, Zhangui Tang
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Relationship of Maximal Muscle Strength with Body Mass Index and Aerobics Capacity in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Hwi Ryun Kwon, Kyung Ah Han, Yun Hyi Ku, Hee Jung Ahn, Bo Kyung Koo, Kyung Wan Min
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(6):511-517.   Published online December 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.6.511
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Combination fitness regimens (including aerobic and resistance exercises) are effective for improving cardio-respiratory fitness, reducing visceral fat and increasing insulin sensitivity in diabetic patients. The combination exercise intensity that a patient is capable of is limited by his or her aerobic capacity and one repetition maximum (1RM). We investigated the relationships between 1RM, aerobic exercise capacity and body mass index in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A total of 177 (men: 85, women: 92) diabetic subjects with HbA1c < or = 10% were enrolled. Muscle strength and 1RM were assessed bychest press (upper body) and leg press (lower body). We assessed aerobic capacity by VO2max and muscle mass by bioimpedance analysis. RESULTS: There was no correlation between 1RM and VO2max in type 2 diabetic patients (upper: P = 0.122, lower: P = 0.138 for men, and upper: P = 0.952, lower: P = 0.570 for women). However, 1RM was significantly correlated with muscle mass both in men and women (upper: r = 0.493, P < 0.001, r = 0.315, P = 0.002 lower: r = 0.437 P < 0.001, r = 0.307, P =0.003, respectively). There was also a significant correlation between 1RM and BMI. In obese male subjects with BMI > or = 25 kg/m2, we observed a significant correlation between muscle mass and BMI (r = 0.374, P = 0.032), but this correlation was not observed in women. CONCLUSION: Clinicians treating Korean type 2 diabetic subjects should recommend resistance exercise to their patients. In particular, obese women with diabetes may receive greater benefits by increasing muscle mass through resistance exercises.

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  • Evaluation of Muscle Strength and Endurance in Postmenopausal Women: A Cross-sectional Study
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  • The Correlations between Extremity Circumferences with Total and Regional Amounts of Skeletal Muscle and Muscle Strength in Obese Women with Type 2 Diabetes
    Hwi Ryun Kwon, Kyung Ah Han, Hee Jung Ahn, Jae Hyuk Lee, Gang Seo Park, Kyung Wan Min
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2011; 35(4): 374.     CrossRef
  • The Effects of Aerobic/Resistance Exercise on Body Fat Mass, Muscle Strength and Endothelial Function in Korean Type 2 Diabetes mellitus Patients
    Kyung Wan Min
    Journal of Korean Diabetes.2011; 12(1): 6.     CrossRef
  • The Effects of Resistance Training on Muscle and Body Fat Mass and Muscle Strength in Type 2 Diabetic Women
    Hwi Ryun Kwon, Kyung Ah Han, Yun Hyi Ku, Hee Jung Ahn, Bo-Kyung Koo, Ho Chul Kim, Kyung Wan Min
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2010; 34(2): 101.     CrossRef
Maximal Muscle Strength Deteriorates with Age in Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Hwi Ryun Kwon, Yun Hyi Ku, Hee Jung Ahn, Ji Yun Jeong, Sang Ryol Ryu, Bo Kyung Koo, Kyung Ah Han, Kyung Wan Min
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(5):412-420.   Published online October 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.5.412
  • 2,521 View
  • 24 Download
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
It is difficult to improve muscle strength with only aerobic exercise training in type 2 diabetes patients. Resistance training is effective for improving muscle mass, muscle strength and insulin sensitivity. One repetition maxima (1RM), or the maximum amount of weight a subject can lift in a single repetition, may be a useful unit for evaluating the results of resistance training in type 2 diabetic patients. This study was aimed to assess baseline values for 1RM in a sample of Korean type 2 diabetes mellitus patients that are scaled for intensity and load of exercise, and to assess the relationship of 1RM to age. METHODS: A total of 266 (male: 95, female: 171) Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were included in the study sample. Maximal muscle strength was assessed by measuring 1RM for each subject (KEISER, Fresno, CA, USA). Two different exercises were used to measure 1RM: the chest press for the upper extremities, and the leg press for the lower extremities. RESULTS: Both upper and lower values of 1RM decreased with age in men and women; upper 1RM: r = -0.454, P<0.001 in men, r = -0.480, P< 0.001 in women, lower 1RM: r = -0.569, P<0.001 in men, and r = -0.452, P<0.001 in women. Values of 1RM significantly decreased in men only after the age of 70. In women, values of 1RM continuously decreased after the age of 60. CONCLUSION: The maximal muscle strength of individuals with type 2 diabetes decreases with age. We believe that resistance training is especially beneficial for type 2 diabetes mellitus patients after the sixth decade of life.

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    Min-Jung Choi, Kyeong-Yae Sohng
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  • The Effects of Aerobic/Resistance Exercise on Body Fat Mass, Muscle Strength and Endothelial Function in Korean Type 2 Diabetes mellitus Patients
    Kyung Wan Min
    Journal of Korean Diabetes.2011; 12(1): 6.     CrossRef
  • The Correlations between Extremity Circumferences with Total and Regional Amounts of Skeletal Muscle and Muscle Strength in Obese Women with Type 2 Diabetes
    Hwi Ryun Kwon, Kyung Ah Han, Hee Jung Ahn, Jae Hyuk Lee, Gang Seo Park, Kyung Wan Min
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2011; 35(4): 374.     CrossRef
  • The Effects of Resistance Training on Muscle and Body Fat Mass and Muscle Strength in Type 2 Diabetic Women
    Hwi Ryun Kwon, Kyung Ah Han, Yun Hyi Ku, Hee Jung Ahn, Bo-Kyung Koo, Ho Chul Kim, Kyung Wan Min
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2010; 34(2): 101.     CrossRef
  • Relationship of Maximal Muscle Strength with Body Mass Index and Aerobics Capacity in Type 2 Diabetic Patients
    Hwi Ryun Kwon, Kyung Ah Han, Yun Hyi Ku, Hee Jung Ahn, Bo Kyung Koo, Kyung Wan Min
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2009; 33(6): 511.     CrossRef

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