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Lifestyle
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Associations of Ultra-Processed Food Intake with Body Fat and Skeletal Muscle Mass by Sociodemographic Factors
Sukyoung Jung, Jaehee Seo, Jee Young Kim, Sohyun Park
Received September 19, 2023  Accepted November 7, 2023  Published online February 2, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0335    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
The effects of excessive ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption on body composition measures or sociodemographic disparities are understudied in Korea. We aimed to investigate the association of UPF intake with percent body fat (PBF) and percent appendicular skeletal muscle mass (PASM) by sociodemographic status in adults.
Methods
This study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2011 (n=11,123 aged ≥40 years). We used a NOVA system to classify all foods reported in a 24-hour dietary recall, and the percentage of energy intake (%kcal) from UPFs was estimated. PBF and PASM were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Tertile (T) 3 of PBF indicated adiposity and T1 of PASM indicated low skeletal muscle mass, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) after adjusting covariates.
Results
UPF intake was positively associated with PBF-defined adiposity (ORper 10% increase, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.002 to 1.08) and low PASM (ORper 10% increase, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.09). These associations were stronger in rural residents (PBF: ORper 10% increase, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.23; PASM: ORper 10% increase, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.23) and not college graduates (PBF: ORper 10% increase, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.11; PASM: ORper 10% increase, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.12) than their counterparts.
Conclusion
A higher UPF intake was associated with higher adiposity and lower skeletal muscle mass among Korean adults aged 40 years and older, particularly in those from rural areas and with lower education levels.
Basic Research
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Glucagon-Like Peptide Receptor Agonist Inhibits Angiotensin II-Induced Proliferation and Migration in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells and Ameliorates Phosphate-Induced Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Calcification
Jinmi Lee, Seok-Woo Hong, Min-Jeong Kim, Sun Joon Moon, Hyemi Kwon, Se Eun Park, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2024;48(1):83-96.   Published online January 3, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0363
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  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA), which is a therapeutic agent for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, has a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system.
Methods
To examine the protective effects of GLP-1RAs on proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), A-10 cells exposed to angiotensin II (Ang II) were treated with either exendin-4, liraglutide, or dulaglutide. To examine the effects of GLP-1RAs on vascular calcification, cells exposed to high concentration of inorganic phosphate (Pi) were treated with exendin-4, liraglutide, or dulaglutide.
Results
Ang II increased proliferation and migration of VSMCs, gene expression levels of Ang II receptors AT1 and AT2, proliferation marker of proliferation Ki-67 (Mki-67), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (Pcna), and cyclin D1 (Ccnd1), and the protein expression levels of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-Erk), phospho-c-JUN N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), and phospho-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (p-Pi3k). Exendin-4, liraglutide, and dulaglutide significantly decreased the proliferation and migration of VSMCs, the gene expression levels of Pcna, and the protein expression levels of p-Erk and p-JNK in the Ang II-treated VSMCs. Erk inhibitor PD98059 and JNK inhibitor SP600125 decreased the protein expression levels of Pcna and Ccnd1 and proliferation of VSMCs. Inhibition of GLP-1R by siRNA reversed the reduction of the protein expression levels of p-Erk and p-JNK by exendin-4, liraglutide, and dulaglutide in the Ang II-treated VSMCs. Moreover, GLP-1 (9-36) amide also decreased the proliferation and migration of the Ang II-treated VSMCs. In addition, these GLP-1RAs decreased calcium deposition by inhibiting activating transcription factor 4 (Atf4) in Pi-treated VSMCs.
Conclusion
These data show that GLP-1RAs ameliorate aberrant proliferation and migration in VSMCs through both GLP-1Rdependent and independent pathways and inhibit Pi-induced vascular calcification.

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  • Incretin Hormone Secretion in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Roles of Obesity, Insulin Sensitivity and Treatment with Metformin and GLP-1s
    Andrea Etrusco, Mislav Mikuš, Antonio D’Amato, Fabio Barra, Petar Planinić, Trpimir Goluža, Giovanni Buzzaccarini, Jelena Marušić, Mara Tešanović, Antonio Simone Laganà
    Biomedicines.2024; 12(3): 653.     CrossRef
Complications
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Association of Muscle Mass Loss with Diabetes Development in Liver Transplantation Recipients
Sejeong Lee, Minyoung Lee, Young-Eun Kim, Hae Kyung Kim, Sook Jung Lee, Jiwon Kim, Yurim Yang, Chul Hoon Kim, Hyangkyu Lee, Dong Jin Joo, Myoung Soo Kim, Eun Seok Kang
Diabetes Metab J. 2024;48(1):146-156.   Published online January 3, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0100
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is one of the most significant complications after transplantation. Patients with end-stage liver diseases requiring transplantation are prone to sarcopenia, but the association between sarcopenia and PTDM remains to be elucidated. We aimed to investigate the effect of postoperative muscle mass loss on PTDM development.
Methods
A total of 500 patients who underwent liver transplantation at a tertiary care hospital between 2005 and 2020 were included. Skeletal muscle area at the level of the L3–L5 vertebrae was measured using computed tomography scans performed before and 1 year after the transplantation. The associations between the change in the muscle area after the transplantation and the incidence of PTDM was investigated using a Cox proportional hazard model.
Results
During the follow-up period (median, 4.9 years), PTDM occurred in 165 patients (33%). The muscle mass loss was greater in patients who developed PTDM than in those without PTDM. Muscle depletion significantly increased risk of developing PTDM after adjustment for other confounding factors (hazard ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.23 to 1.84; P=0.001). Of the 357 subjects who had muscle mass loss, 124 (34.7%) developed PTDM, whereas of the 143 patients in the muscle mass maintenance group, 41 (28.7%) developed PTDM. The cumulative incidence of PTDM was significantly higher in patients with muscle loss than in patients without muscle loss (P=0.034).
Conclusion
Muscle depletion after liver transplantation is associated with increased risk of PTDM development.
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
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Association of Myosteatosis with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Severity, and Liver Fibrosis Using Visual Muscular Quality Map in Computed Tomography
Hwi Seung Kim, Jiwoo Lee, Eun Hee Kim, Min Jung Lee, In Young Bae, Woo Je Lee, Joong-Yeol Park, Hong-Kyu Kim, Chang Hee Jung
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(1):104-117.   Published online January 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0081
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  • 7 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
The association of myosteatosis measured using visual muscular quality map in computed tomography (CT) with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), its severity, and fibrosis was analyzed in a large population.
Methods
Subjects (n=13,452) with abdominal CT between 2012 and 2013 were measured total abdominal muscle area (TAMA) at L3 level. TAMA was segmented into intramuscular adipose tissue and skeletal muscle area (SMA), which was further classified into normal attenuation muscle area (NAMA) and low attenuation muscle area (LAMA). The following variables were adopted as indicators of myosteatosis: SMA/body mass index (BMI), NAMA/BMI, NAMA/TAMA, and LAMA/BMI. NAFLD and its severity were assessed by ultrasonography, and liver fibrosis was measured by calculating the NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) and fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4) scores.
Results
According to multiple logistic regression analyses, as quartiles of SMA/BMI, NAMA/BMI, and NAMA/TAMA increased, the odds ratios (ORs) for NAFLD decreased in each sex (P for trend <0.001 for all). The ORs of moderate/severe NAFLD were significantly higher in the Q1 group than in the Q4 group for SMA/BMI, NAMA/BMI, and NAMA/TAMA in men. The ORs of intermediate/high liver fibrosis scores assessed by NFS and FIB-4 scores increased linearly with decreasing quartiles for SMA/BMI, NAMA/BMI, and NAMA/TAMA in each sex (P for trend <0.001 for all). Conversely, the risk for NAFLD and fibrosis were positively associated with LAMA/BMI quartiles in each sex (P for trend <0.001 for all).
Conclusion
A higher proportion of good quality muscle was associated with lower risks of NAFLD and fibrosis.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association of Myosteatosis with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Severity, and Liver Fibrosis Using Visual Muscular Quality Map in Computed Tomography (Diabetes Metab J 2023;47:104-17)
    Hwi Seung Kim, Hong-Kyu Kim, Chang Hee Jung
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(2): 304.     CrossRef
  • Association of Myosteatosis with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Severity, and Liver Fibrosis Using Visual Muscular Quality Map in Computed Tomography (Diabetes Metab J 2023;47:104-17)
    Eun Roh
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(2): 301.     CrossRef
  • Sarcopenia, a condition shared by various diseases: can we alleviate or delay the progression?
    Giovanni Tarantino, Gaia Sinatti, Vincenzo Citro, Silvano Santini, Clara Balsano
    Internal and Emergency Medicine.2023; 18(7): 1887.     CrossRef
  • Association of Visceral Fat Obesity, Sarcopenia, and Myosteatosis with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease without Obesity
    Hong-Kyu Kim, Sung-Jin Bae, Min Jung Lee, Eun Hee Kim, Hana Park, Hwi Seung Kim, Yun Kyung Cho, Chang Hee Jung, Woo Je Lee, Jaewon Choe
    Clinical and Molecular Hepatology.2023; 29(4): 987.     CrossRef
  • Current view of the surgical anatomy of the anterolateral abdominal wall muscles and their aponeuroses
    A.V. Pavlov, A.S. Baranova, A.V. Fedoseyev, A.I. Vvedensky, G.S. Lazutina, N.V. Ovchinnikova, I.V. Bakharev
    Operativnaya khirurgiya i klinicheskaya anatomiya (Pirogovskii nauchnyi zhurnal).2023; 7(3): 44.     CrossRef
  • Muscle Fat Content Is Associated with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Liver Fibrosis in Chinese Adults
    W. Guo, X. Zhao, D. Cheng, X. Liang, M. Miao, X. Li, J. Lu, N. Xu, Shuang Hu, Qun Zhang
    The Journal of nutrition, health and aging.2023; 27(11): 960.     CrossRef
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Higher Muscle Mass Protects Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus from Progression to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Yujin Shin, Joon Ho Moon, Tae Jung Oh, Chang Ho Ahn, Jae Hoon Moon, Sung Hee Choi, Hak Chul Jang
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(6):890-900.   Published online April 28, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0334
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  • 3 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
We evaluated whether postpartum muscle mass affects the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Korean women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).
Methods
A total of 305 women with GDM (mean age, 34.9 years) was prospectively evaluated for incident prediabetes and T2DM from 2 months after delivery and annually thereafter. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was assessed with bioelectrical impedance analysis at the initial postpartum visit, and ASM, either divided by body mass index (BMI) or squared height, and the absolute ASM were used as muscle mass indices. The risk of incident prediabetes and T2DM was assessed according to tertiles of these indices using a logistic regression model.
Results
After a mean follow-up duration of 3.3 years, the highest ASM/BMI tertile group had a 61% lower risk of incident prediabetes and T2DM compared to the lowest tertile group, and this remained significant after we adjusted for covariates (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15 to 0.92; P=0.032). Equivalent findings were observed in normal weight women (BMI <23 kg/m2), but this association was not significant for overweight women (BMI ≥23 kg/m2). Absolute ASM or ASM/height2 was not associated with the risk of postpartum T2DM.
Conclusion
A higher muscle mass, as defined by the ASM/BMI index, was associated with a lower risk of postpartum prediabetes and T2DM in Korean women with GDM.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • More appendicular lean mass relative to body mass index is associated with lower incident diabetes in middle-aged adults in the CARDIA study
    Melanie S. Haines, Aaron Leong, Bianca C. Porneala, Victor W. Zhong, Cora E. Lewis, Pamela J. Schreiner, Karen K. Miller, James B. Meigs, Mercedes R. Carnethon
    Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases.2023; 33(1): 105.     CrossRef
  • The Association of the Triglyceride and Muscle to Fat Ratio During Early Pregnancy with the Development of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
    Fang Wang, Yuan-Yuan Bao, Kang Yu
    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity.2023; Volume 16: 3187.     CrossRef
  • Correlation of body composition in early pregnancy on gestational diabetes mellitus under different body weights before pregnancy
    Li Xintong, Xu Dongmei, Zhang Li, Cao Ruimin, Hao Yide, Cui Lingling, Chen Tingting, Guo Yingying, Li Jiaxin
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
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Normalized Creatinine-to-Cystatin C Ratio and Risk of Diabetes in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study
Shanhu Qiu, Xue Cai, Bo Xie, Yang Yuan, Zilin Sun, Tongzhi Wu
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(3):476-485.   Published online March 7, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0074
  • 5,181 View
  • 212 Download
  • 8 Web of Science
  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Creatinine-to-cystatin C ratio is recently suggested to be a surrogate marker for sarcopenia. However, little is known about its association with diabetes. This study aimed to fill in this gap based on a large-scale prospective cohort.
Methods
A population-based representative sample of 5,055 participants aged ≥45 years from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study was enrolled between 2011 and 2012 and followed at least once during the subsequent surveys at 2013, 2015, or 2018. Creatinine-to-cystatin C ratio was calculated and normalized by body weight. Incident diabetes was ascertained by plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, self-reported history, or use of anti-diabetic drugs. Logistic regression analysis and mediation analysis were employed.
Results
During follow-up, 634 participants developed diabetes. The risk of diabetes was gradually and significantly decreased with increased normalized creatinine–cystatin C ratio. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for diabetes was 0.91 (95% confidence interval, 0.83 to 0.99) per 1 standard deviation higher of normalized creatinine-to-cystatin C ratio, and this relationship remained significant after controlling for muscle strength. The risk reduction in diabetes was significantly larger in participants with normal-weight and high normalized creatinine-to-cystatin C ratio compared with those with overweight/obesity and high normalized creatinine-to-cystatin C ratio (Pinteraction=0.01). Insulin resistance and inflammation appeared to be key mediators accounting for the observed relationship between normalized creatinine-to-cystatin C ratio and risk of diabetes, with their mediating effect being 93.1% and 22.0%, respectively.
Conclusion
High normalized creatinine-to-cystatin C ratio is associated with reduced risk of diabetes in middle-aged and older adults.

Citations

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  • Muscle Quality in Relation to Prediabetes Phenotypes: A Population-Based Study With Mediation Analysis
    Shanhu Qiu, Xue Cai, Xiaoying Zhou, Jinshui Xu, Zilin Sun, Haijian Guo, Tongzhi Wu
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2024; 109(3): e1151.     CrossRef
  • Sex‐specific associations between skeletal muscle mass and incident diabetes: A population‐based cohort study
    Dan Liu, Nan Li, Yiling Zhou, Miye Wang, Peige Song, Changzheng Yuan, Qingyang Shi, Hui Chen, Kaixin Zhou, Huan Wang, Tao Li, Xiong‐Fei Pan, Haoming Tian, Sheyu Li
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2024; 26(3): 820.     CrossRef
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    Justyna Rentflejsz, Zyta Beata Wojszel
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2024; 13(4): 1107.     CrossRef
  • Associations of muscle mass and strength with new-onset diabetes among middle-aged and older adults: evidence from the China health and retirement longitudinal study (CHARLS)
    Yun-Yun He, Mei-Ling Jin, Xiang-Yang Fang, Xiao-Juan Wang
    Acta Diabetologica.2024; 61(7): 869.     CrossRef
  • Lower serum creatinine to cystatin C ratio associated with increased incidence of frailty in community-dwelling elderly men but not in elderly women
    Shixian Zhou, Peixia Wang, Linlin Sun, Xinxiu Zhao, Caixia Gong, Yichen Yang, Wen Ren, Yunmei Yang, Qin Zhang, JingJin Jiang
    Aging Clinical and Experimental Research.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The serum creatinine to cystatin C to waist circumference ratios predicts risk for type 2 diabetes: A Chinese cohort study
    Yinfei Chen, Weiheng Wen, Zhiliang Mai, Ming Wang, Hong Chen, Jia Sun
    Journal of Diabetes.2023; 15(10): 808.     CrossRef
  • Associations of sarcopenia with peak expiratory flow among community-dwelling elderly population: based on the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS)
    Yun-Yun He, Mei-Ling Jin, Jing Chang, Xiao-Juan Wang
    European Geriatric Medicine.2023; 15(1): 95.     CrossRef
  • Additive impact of diabetes and sarcopenia on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: A longitudinal nationwide population-based study
    Eyun Song, Soon Young Hwang, Min Jeong Park, Ahreum Jang, Kyeong Jin Kim, Ji Hee Yu, Nam Hoon Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Ji A. Seo, Sin Gon Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Sei Hyun Baik, Kyung Mook Choi
    Metabolism.2023; 148: 155678.     CrossRef
Review
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Article image
Computed Tomography-Derived Myosteatosis and Metabolic Disorders
Iva Miljkovic, Chantal A. Vella, Matthew Allison
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(4):482-491.   Published online July 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0277
  • 6,823 View
  • 248 Download
  • 45 Web of Science
  • 47 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
The role of ectopic adipose tissue infiltration into skeletal muscle (i.e., myosteatosis) for metabolic disorders has received considerable and increasing attention in the last 10 years. The purpose of this review was to evaluate and summarize existing studies focusing on computed tomography (CT)-derived measures of myosteatosis and metabolic disorders. There is consistent evidence that CT-derived myosteatosis contributes to dysglycemia, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and inflammation, and, to some extent, dyslipidemia, independent of general obesity, visceral fat, and other relevant risk factors, suggesting that it may serve as a tool for metabolic risk prediction. Identification of which muscles should be examined, and the standardized CT protocols to be employed, are necessary to enhance the applicability of findings from epidemiologic studies of myosteatosis. Additional and longer longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm a role of myosteatosis in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and examine these associations in a variety of muscles across multiple race/ethnic populations. Given the emerging role of myosteatosis in metabolic health, well-designed intervention studies are needed to investigate relevant lifestyle and pharmaceutical approaches.

Citations

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  • Association of Muscle Fat Content and Muscle Mass With Impaired Lung Function in Young Adults With Obesity: Evaluation With MRI
    Xin Yu, Yan-Hao Huang, You-Zhen Feng, Zhong-Yuan Cheng, Cun-Chuan Wang, Xiang-Ran Cai
    Academic Radiology.2024; 31(1): 9.     CrossRef
  • Skeletal muscle alterations indicate poor prognosis in cirrhotic patients: a multicenter cohort study in China
    Xin Zeng, Zhi-Wen Shi, Jia-Jun Yu, Li-Fen Wang, Chun-Yan Sun, Yuan-Yuan Luo, Pei-Mei Shi, Yong Lin, Yue-Xiang Chen, Jia Guo, Chun-Qing Zhang, Wei-Fen Xie
    Hepatology International.2024; 18(2): 673.     CrossRef
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    Seung Shin Park, Chang Ho Ahn, Sang Wan Kim, Ji Won Yoon, Jung Hee Kim
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2024; 109(2): e788.     CrossRef
  • Myosteatosis as a novel predictor of new‐onset diabetes mellitus after kidney transplantation
    Takahito Wakamiya, Takuya Fujimoto, Takahito Endo, Shun Nishioka, Naoki Yokoyama, Shimpei Yamashita, Kazuro Kikkawa, Yoji Hyodo, Takeshi Ishimura, Yasuo Kohjimoto, Isao Hara, Masato Fujisawa
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    Gertraud Maskarinec, Yurii Shvetsov, Michael C. Wong, Devon Cataldi, Jonathan Bennett, Andrea K. Garber, Steven D. Buchthal, Steven B. Heymsfield, John A. Shepherd
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    Adam A. Jasper, Kush H. Shah, Helmet Karim, Swathi Gujral, Iva Miljkovic, Caterina Rosano, Aaron Barchowsky, Amrita Sahu
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    Víctor Navas-Moreno, Fernando Sebastian-Valles, Víctor Rodríguez-Laval, Carolina Knott-Torcal, Mónica Marazuela, Nuria Sánchez de la Blanca, Jose Alfonso Arranz Martín, Rosa María Girón, Miguel Antonio Sampedro-Núñez
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    Leon Lenchik, Valentina Mazzoli, Peggy M. Cawthon, Russell T. Hepple, Robert D. Boutin
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    Carla Maria Avesani, Aline Miroski de Abreu, Heitor S. Ribeiro, Torkel B. Brismar, Peter Stenvinkel, Alice Sabatino, Bengt Lindholm
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    Minyoung Lee, Sungha Park
    Hypertension Research.2023; 46(6): 1603.     CrossRef
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    Min Jeong Park, Kyung Mook Choi
    Metabolism.2023; 144: 155577.     CrossRef
  • Association between sarcopenic obesity and poor muscle quality based on muscle quality map and abdominal computed tomography
    Yun Kyung Cho, Han Na Jung, Eun Hee Kim, Min Jung Lee, Joong‐Yeol Park, Woo Je Lee, Hong‐Kyu Kim, Chang Hee Jung
    Obesity.2023; 31(6): 1547.     CrossRef
  • Chest CT opportunistic biomarkers for phenotyping high-risk COVID-19 patients: a retrospective multicentre study
    Anna Palmisano, Chiara Gnasso, Alberto Cereda, Davide Vignale, Riccardo Leone, Valeria Nicoletti, Simone Barbieri, Marco Toselli, Francesco Giannini, Marco Loffi, Gianluigi Patelli, Alberto Monello, Gianmarco Iannopollo, Davide Ippolito, Elisabetta Maria
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  • Early menopause and premature ovarian insufficiency may increase the risk of sarcopenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Efstathios Divaris, Panagiotis Anagnostis, Nifon K. Gkekas, Evangelia Kouidi, Dimitrios G. Goulis
    Maturitas.2023; 175: 107782.     CrossRef
  • The Important Role of Intermuscular Adipose Tissue on Metabolic Changes Interconnecting Obesity, Ageing and Exercise: A Systematic Review
    I Gusti Putu Suka Aryana, Ivana Beatrice Paulus, Sanjay Kalra, Dian Daniella, Raden Ayu Tuty Kuswardhani, Ketut Suastika, Sony Wibisono
    European Endocrinology.2023; 19(1): 54.     CrossRef
  • Increase in skeletal muscular adiposity and cognitive decline in a biracial cohort of older men and women
    Caterina Rosano, Anne Newman, Adam Santanasto, Xiaonan Zhu, Bret Goodpaster, Iva Miljkovic
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.2023; 71(9): 2759.     CrossRef
  • Myosteatosis and bone marrow adiposity are not associated among postmenopausal women with fragility fractures
    Sammy Badr, Héloïse Dapvril, Daniela Lombardo, Huda Khizindar, Claire Martin, Bernard Cortet, Anne Cotten, Julien Paccou
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Relationship between trunk intramuscular adipose tissue content and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged Japanese men
    Noriko I. Tanaka, Masataka Suwa, Hisashi Maeda, Aya Tomita, Takayuki Imoto, Hiroshi Akima
    Nutrition.2023; 113: 112083.     CrossRef
  • Sarcopenic obesity and its relation with muscle quality and mortality in patients on chronic hemodialysis
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    Jiacheng Liu, Jinqiang Ma, Chongtu Yang, Manman Chen, Qin Shi, Chen Zhou, Songjiang Huang, Yang Chen, Yingliang Wang, Tongqiang Li, Bin Xiong
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    Rebecca De Lorenzo, Anna Palmisano, Antonio Esposito, Chiara Gnasso, Valeria Nicoletti, Riccardo Leone, Davide Vignale, Elisabetta Falbo, Marica Ferrante, Marta Cilla, Cristiano Magnaghi, Sabina Martinenghi, Giordano Vitali, Alessio Molfino, Patrizia Rove
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    Ningxin Chen, Tingting Han, Hongxia Liu, Jie Cao, Wenwen Liu, Didi Zuo, Ting Zhang, Xiucai Lan, Xian Jin, Yurong Weng, Yaomin Hu
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Original Articles
Basic Research
Article image
The Effects of Exercise and Restriction of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages on Muscle Function and Autophagy Regulation in High-Fat High-Sucrose-Fed Obesity Mice
Didi Zhang, Ji Hyun Lee, Hyung Eun Shin, Seong Eun Kwak, Jun Hyun Bae, Liang Tang, Wook Song
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(5):773-786.   Published online March 25, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0157
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Autophagy maintains muscle mass and healthy skeletal muscles. Several recent studies have associated sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption with diseases. We investigated whether muscle dysfunction due to obesity could be restored by SSB restriction (SR) alone or in combination with exercise (EX) training.
Methods
Obese mice were subjected to SR combined with treadmill EX. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, grip strength test, hanging time test, and body composition analysis were performed. Triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) serum concentrations and TG concentrations in quadriceps muscles were analyzed. Western blot and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction helped analyze autophagy-related protein and mRNA expression, respectively.
Results
SR alone had no significant effect on fasting blood glucose levels, glucose tolerance, and muscle function. However, it had effect on serum TC, serum TG, and BCL2 interacting protein 3 expression. SR+EX improved glucose tolerance and muscle function and increased serum TC utilization than SR alone. SR+EX reduced P62 levels, increased glucose transporter type 4 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α protein expression, and improved grip strength relative to the high-fat and high-sucrose liquid (HFHS) group, and this was not observed in the HFHS+EX group.
Conclusion
SR induced mitophagy-related protein expression in quadriceps, without affecting muscle function. And, the combination of SR and EX activated mitophagy-related proteins and improved muscle function.

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  • Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, and Inter-Organ Miscommunications in T2D Progression
    Rajakrishnan Veluthakal, Diana Esparza, Joseph M. Hoolachan, Rekha Balakrishnan, Miwon Ahn, Eunjin Oh, Chathurani S. Jayasena, Debbie C. Thurmond
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    Marzieh Mahmoodi, Zainab Shateri, Mehran Nouri, Mohebat Vali, Nasrin Nasimi, Zahra Sohrabi, Mohammad Hossein Dabbaghmanesh, Maede Makhtoomi
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    Min Jeong Park, Kyung Mook Choi
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    Yunjie Zhang, Pan Xu, Yongjing Song, Nan Ma, Jinkui Lu
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  • Muscle strength and prediabetes progression and regression in middle‐aged and older adults: a prospective cohort study
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  • INTENSITY OF FREE RADICAL PROCESSES IN RAT SKELETAL MUSCLES UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF DIFFERENT DIETARY SUPPLY WITH NUTRIENTS
    O.M. Voloshchuk, Н.P. Kopylchuk
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Basic Research
Article image
Umbilical Cord-Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Conditioned Medium Improves Insulin Resistance in C2C12 Cell
Kyung-Soo Kim, Yeon Kyung Choi, Mi Jin Kim, Jung Wook Hwang, Kyunghoon Min, Sang Youn Jung, Soo-Kyung Kim, Yong-Soo Choi, Yong-Wook Cho
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(2):260-269.   Published online July 10, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0191
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background

Umbilical cord-mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium (UC-MSC-CM) has emerged as a promising cell-free therapy. The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic effects of UC-MSC-CM on insulin resistance in C2C12 cell.

Methods

Insulin resistance was induced by palmitate. Effects of UC-MSC-CM on insulin resistance were evaluated using glucose uptake, glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) translocation, the insulin-signaling pathway, and mitochondrial contents and functions in C2C12 cell.

Results

Glucose uptake was improved by UC-MSC-CM. UC-MSC-CM treatment increased only in membranous GLUT4 expression, not in cytosolic GLUT4 expression. It restored the insulin-signaling pathway in insulin receptor substrate 1 and protein kinase B. Mitochondrial contents evaluated by mitochondrial transcription factor A, mitochondrial DNA copy number, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha were increased by UC-MSC-CM. In addition, UC-MSC-CM significantly decreased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and increased fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial membrane potential. There was no improvement in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) contents, but ATP synthesis was improved by UC-MSC-CM. Cytokine and active factor analysis of UC-MSC-CM showed that it contained many regulators inhibiting insulin resistance.

Conclusion

UC-MSC-CM improves insulin resistance with multiple mechanisms in C2C12 cell.

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  • Neurotransmitters in Type 2 Diabetes and the Control of Systemic and Central Energy Balance
    Amnah Al-Sayyar, Maha M. Hammad, Michayla R. Williams, Mohammed Al-Onaizi, Jehad Abubaker, Fawaz Alzaid
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Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Article image
Age- and Sex-Related Differential Associations between Body Composition and Diabetes Mellitus
Eun Roh, Soon Young Hwang, Jung A Kim, You-Bin Lee, So-hyeon Hong, Nam Hoon Kim, Ji A Seo, Sin Gon Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Hye Jin Yoo
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(2):183-194.   Published online June 16, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0171
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background

The age- and sex-related differences on the impacts of body composition on diabetes mellitus (DM) remain uncertain.

Methods

The fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey included 15,586 subjects over 30 years of age who completed dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate whether muscle mass index (MMI), defined as appendicular skeletal muscle divided by body mass index (BMI), and fat mass index (FMI), defined as trunk fat mass divided by BMI, were differently associated with DM according to age and sex.

Results

In multivariate logistic regression, the risk for DM significantly increased across quartiles of FMI in men aged ≥70. Meanwhile, MMI showed a protective association with DM in men of the same age. The odds ratios (ORs) for the highest quartile versus the lowest quartile of FMI and MMI were 3.116 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.405 to 6.914) and 0.295 (95% CI, 0.157 to 0.554), respectively. In women, the ORs of DM was significantly different across FMI quartiles in those over age 50. The highest quartile of FMI exhibited increased ORs of DM in subjects aged 50 to 69 (OR, 1.891; 95% CI, 1.229 to 2.908) and ≥70 (OR, 2.275; 95% CI, 1.103 to 4.69) compared to lowest quartile. However, MMI was not significantly associated with DM in women of all age groups.

Conclusion

Both FMI and MMI were independent risk factors for DM in men aged 70 years or more. In women over 50 years, FMI was independently associated with DM. There was no significant association between MMI and DM in women.

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  • Research Progress on Correlation between Body Composition Changes and Disease Pro-gression of Type 2 Diabetes
    敏 张
    Advances in Clinical Medicine.2024; 14(03): 936.     CrossRef
  • Low Skeletal Muscle Mass Accompanied by Abdominal Obesity Additively Increases the Risk of Incident Type 2 Diabetes
    Ji Eun Jun, Seung-Eun Lee, You-Bin Lee, Gyuri Kim, Sang-Man Jin, Jae Hwan Jee, Jae Hyeon Kim
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    Hye Jin Yoo
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Basic Research
Article image
MondoA Is Required for Normal Myogenesis and Regulation of the Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Content in Mice
Hui Ran, Yao Lu, Qi Zhang, Qiuyue Hu, Junmei Zhao, Kai Wang, Xuemei Tong, Qing Su
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(3):439-451.   Published online May 18, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0212
Correction in: Diabetes Metab J 2021;45(5):797
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background

Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body, and it plays a major role in exerting force and maintaining metabolism homeostasis. The role of muscle transcription factors in the regulation of metabolism is not fully understood. MondoA is a glucose-sensing transcription factor that is highly expressed in skeletal muscle. Previous studies suggest that MondoA can influence systemic metabolism homeostasis. However, the function of MondoA in the skeletal muscle remains unclear.

Methods

We generated muscle-specific MondoA knockout (MAKO) mice and analyzed the skeletal muscle morphology and glycogen content. Along with skeletal muscle from MAKO mice, C2C12 myocytes transfected with small interfering RNA against MondoA were also used to investigate the role and potential mechanism of MondoA in the development and glycogen metabolism of skeletal muscle.

Results

MAKO caused muscle fiber atrophy, reduced the proportion of type II fibers compared to type I fibers, and increased the muscle glycogen level. MondoA knockdown inhibited myoblast proliferation, migration, and differentiation by inhibiting the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Further mechanistic experiments revealed that the increased muscle glycogen in MAKO mice was caused by thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) downregulation, which led to upregulation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), potentially increasing glucose uptake.

Conclusion

MondoA appears to mediate mouse myofiber development, and MondoA decreases the muscle glycogen level. The findings indicate the potential function of MondoA in skeletal muscle, linking the glucose-related transcription factor to myogenesis and skeletal myofiber glycogen metabolism.

Citations

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  • The Function of MondoA and ChREBP Nutrient—Sensing Factors in Metabolic Disease
    Byungyong Ahn
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2023; 24(10): 8811.     CrossRef
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    Edward V. Prochownik, Huabo Wang
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    Huiyi Ke, Yu Luan, Siming Wu, Yemin Zhu, Xuemei Tong
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Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Association between the Thigh Muscle and Insulin Resistance According to Body Mass Index in Middle-Aged Korean Adults
Ji Eun Heo, Jee-Seon Shim, Hokyou Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(3):446-457.   Published online April 16, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0110
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

We examined the associations between thigh muscle area (TMA) and insulin resistance (IR) according to body mass index (BMI) in middle-aged Korean general population.

Methods

TMA was measured using quantitative computed tomography and corrected by body weight (TMA/Wt) in 1,263 men, 788 premenopausal women, and 1,476 postmenopausal women all aged 30 to 64 years. The tertiles of TMA/Wt were calculated separately for men and for premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was performed using fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, and increased IR was defined according to sex-specific, top quartiles of HOMA-IR. Associations between the TMA/Wt tertiles and increased IR according to the BMI categories (<25 and ≥25 kg/m2) were assessed using multivariable logistic regression analysis.

Results

In men with higher BMIs, but not in those with lower BMIs, the presence of an increased IR had significantly higher odds ratios in the lower TMA/Wt tertiles, even after adjustment for visceral fat area. However, in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, there was no significant inverse association between TMA/Wt tertiles and increased IR, regardless of BMI category.

Conclusion

Our findings suggest that the thigh muscle is inversely associated with IR in men, particularly in those with higher BMIs.

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Epidemiology
Longitudinal Changes of Body Composition Phenotypes and Their Association with Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus during a 5-Year Follow-up in Koreans
Hong-Kyu Kim, Min Jung Lee, Eun-Hee Kim, Sung-Jin Bae, Jaewon Choe, Chul-Hee Kim, Joong-Yeol Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(5):627-639.   Published online April 19, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0141
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

To elucidate longitudinal changes of complex body composition phenotypes and their association with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods

A total of 17,280 (mean age, 48.1±8.2 years) Korean adults who underwent medical check-ups were included. The mean follow-up duration was 5.5±0.5 years. Body compositions were assessed using a bioelectrical impedance analysis. Four body composition phenotypes were defined using the median of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) index and fat mass index: low muscle/low fat (LM/LF); high muscle (HM)/LF; LM/high fat (HF); and HM/HF groups.

Results

Of the individuals in the LM/LF or HM/HF groups, over 60% remained in the same group, and over 30% were moved to the LM/HF group. Most of the LM/HF group remained in this group. In the baseline HM/LF group, approximately 30% stayed in the group, and the remaining individuals transitioned to the three other groups in similar proportions. Incident diabetes was significantly lower in participants who remained in the HM/LF group than those who transitioned to the LM/LF or LM/HF group from the baseline HM/LF group in men. ASM index was significantly associated with a decreased risk for incident diabetes in men regardless of obesity status (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.71 per kg/m2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52 to 0.97 in non-obese) (adjusted OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.98 in obese) after adjusting for other strong risk factors (e.g., baseline glycosylated hemoglobin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance).

Conclusion

Maintenance of ASM may be protective against the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in men, regardless of obesity status.

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    Hye Ah Lee, Hyesook Park
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Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome
Proportion and Characteristics of the Subjects with Low Muscle Mass and Abdominal Obesity among the Newly Diagnosed and Drug-Naïve Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients
Jung A Kim, Soon Young Hwang, Hye Soo Chung, Nam Hoon Kim, Ji A Seo, Sin Gon Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Hye Jin Yoo
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(1):105-113.   Published online September 28, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0036
  • 5,279 View
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Sarcopenic obesity (SO) is a serious public health concern, few studies have examined the clinical implications of SO in newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. We evaluated the prevalence of the newly diagnosed, drug-naïve T2DM patients with low muscle mass with abdominal obesity and its association with insulin resistance and other diabetic complications.

Methods

We classified 233 drug-naïve T2DM subjects into four groups according to abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥90 cm in men and ≥85 cm in women) and low muscle mass status (appendicular skeletal muscle <7.0 kg/m2 for men and <5.4 kg/m2 for women).

Results

The proportion of the subjects with low muscle mass and abdominal obesity among the newly diagnosed, drug-naïve T2DM patients was 8.2%. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) increased linearly according to body composition group from normal to abdominal obesity to both low muscle mass and abdominal obesity. The multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that subjects with low muscle mass and abdominal obesity (odds ratio [OR], 9.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.41 to 36.56) showed a higher risk for insulin resistance, defined as HOMA-IR ≥3, than those with abdominal obesity (OR, 5.36; 95% CI, 2.46 to 11.69), even after adjusting for other covariates. However, there were no differences in lipid profiles, microalbuminuria, or various surrogate markers for atherosclerosis among the four groups.

Conclusion

Subjects with both low muscle mass and abdominal obesity had a higher risk of insulin resistance than those with low muscle mass or abdominal obesity only.

Citations

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Epidemiology
Association of Thigh Muscle Mass with Insulin Resistance and Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Japanese Americans
Seung Jin Han, Edward J. Boyko, Soo-Kyung Kim, Wilfred Y. Fujimoto, Steven E. Kahn, Donna L. Leonetti
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(6):488-495.   Published online September 5, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0022
  • 4,865 View
  • 66 Download
  • 35 Web of Science
  • 35 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Skeletal muscle plays a major role in glucose metabolism. We investigated the association between thigh muscle mass, insulin resistance, and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk. In addition, we examined the role of body mass index (BMI) as a potential effect modifier in this association.

Methods

This prospective study included 399 Japanese Americans without diabetes (mean age 51.6 years) who at baseline had an estimation of thigh muscle mass by computed tomography and at baseline and after 10 years of follow-up a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and determination of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). We fit regression models to examine the association between thigh muscle area and incidence of T2DM and change in HOMA-IR, both measured over 10 years.

Results

Thigh muscle area was inversely associated with future HOMA-IR after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, HOMA-IR, fasting plasma glucose, total abdominal fat area, and thigh subcutaneous fat area at baseline (P=0.033). The 10-year cumulative incidence of T2DM was 22.1%. A statistically significant interaction between thigh muscle area and BMI was observed, i.e., greater thigh muscle area was associated with lower risk of incident T2DM for subjects at lower levels of BMI, but this association diminished at higher BMI levels.

Conclusion

Thigh muscle mass area was inversely associated with future insulin resistance. Greater thigh muscle area predicts a lower risk of incident T2DM for leaner Japanese Americans.

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  • Response: Association of Thigh Muscle Mass with Insulin Resistance and Incident Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Japanese Americans (Diabetes Metab J 2018;42:488–95)
    Seung Jin Han, Edward J. Boyko
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