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Epidemiology of Micro- and Macrovascular Complications of Type 2 Diabetes in Korea
Jung Hee Kim, Dae Jung Kim, Hak Chul Jang, Sung Hee Choi
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(6):571-577.   Published online December 26, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.6.571
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  • 61 Download
  • 34 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

The prevalence of diabetes in Korea has increased six- to sevenfold over the past 40 years with its complications becoming major causes of morbidity and mortality. The rate of death among patients with diabetes is about twice as high as that among persons without diabetes and the most common cause of death is cardiovascular disease (30.6%). Despite the seriousness of diabetic complications, 30 to 70% of patients receive inadequate care, and only 40% of treated diabetic patients achieve the optimal control with HbA1c level <7% in Korea. In 2006, over 30 to 40% of patients with diabetes have microvascular complications and around 10% of them have macrovascular complications from our national data. Despite there are some debates about intensive glycemic control resulting in the deterioration of macrovascular complication, multifactorial treatment approaches including proper glycemic control are important to prevent diabetic complications. There have been needs for finding proper biomarkers for predicting diabetic complications properly but we still need more longitudinal studies to find this correlation with causal relationship. In this article, we wanted to review the recent status of micro- and macrovascular complications of type 2 diabetes in Korea from integration of many epidemiologic studies.

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Original Articles
Clinical Characteristics and Direct Medical Costs of Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Eun Joon Moon, Young Eun Jo, Tae Chin Park, Yun Kyung Kim, Sun Hye Jung, Hae Jin Kim, Dae Jung Kim, Yoon Sok Chung, Kwan Woo Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(4):358-365.   Published online August 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.4.358
  • 2,547 View
  • 38 Download
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an expensive chronic metabolic disorder and its prevalence has been increasing rapidly in South Korea, owing to a westernized lifestyle. We analyzed the annual direct medical costs attributable to type 2 diabetes and its chronic complications in Korea retrospectively. METHODS: We randomly selected 1,051 patients with type 2 diabetes who visited Ajou University Hospital as an outpatient in 2005. Clinical characteristics, duration of diabetes, and microvascular and macrovascular complications were assessed from a medical chart review. The annual direct medical costs included insurance covered and uncovered medical costs. RESULTS: Of the 1,051 patients with type 2 diabetes, 48.2% had at least one microvascular complication, 5.6% had at least one macrovascular complication, and 12.4% of the patients had both microvascular and macrovascular complications. The average annual direct medical cost was found to be 3,348,488won per patient. In patients with microvascular complications, the total cost of management was increased 1.4 times compared to those without complications. Direct medical costs for patients with macrovascular complications were 2.1-fold as high as patients with no complications. Those patients with both microvascular and macrovascular complications, increased costs by 3.1-fold over those without complications. CONCLUSION: Chronic complications have a substantial impact on the direct medical costs of type 2 diabetes. The prevention of chronic diabetic complications will not only influence the mortality and morbidity of patients with type 2 diabetes, but also potentially reduce medical costs.

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  • Importance of family history of diabetes in computing a diabetes risk score in Korean prediabetic population
    Morena Ustulin, Sang Youl Rhee, Suk Chon, Kyu Keung Ahn, Ji Eun Lim, Bermseok Oh, Sung-Hoon Kim, Sei Hyun Baik, Yongsoo Park, Moon Suk Nam, Kwan Woo Lee, Young Seol Kim, Jeong-Taek Woo
    Scientific Reports.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Features of Long-Standing Korean Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy: A Study Based on Standardized Clinical Data
    Sejeong Park, Sang Youl Rhee, Su Jin Jeong, Kiyoung Kim, Suk Chon, Seung-Young Yu, Jeong-Taek Woo
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    Kwan Woo Lee
    Journal of Korean Diabetes.2011; 12(1): 2.     CrossRef
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    Kwan Woo Lee
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2011; 35(6): 567.     CrossRef
  • The Epidemiology of Diabetes in Korea
    Dae Jung Kim
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    Ie Byung Park, Sei Hyun Baik
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    Hye-Yeon Kim, Woo-Jun Yun, Min-Ho Shin, Sun-Seong Kweon, Hye-Ran Ahn, Seong-Woo Choi, Young-Hoon Lee, Dong-Hyeok Cho, Jung-Ae Rhee
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Direct Medical Costs of Type 2 Diabetic Patients in the Tertiary Hospital.
Joo An Hwang, Tae Chin Park, Sun Hye Jung, Hae Jin Kim, Dae Jung Kim, So Hun Kim, Moon Suk Nam, Tae Hyun Kim, Moon Kyu Lee, Kwan Woo Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(3):259-268.   Published online June 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.3.259
  • 2,361 View
  • 36 Download
  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common, chronic and costly disease. Its prevalence is rapidly increasing worldwide. Diabetes has big economic burden mainly because of its chronic complications. We analyzed the annual direct medical costs of type 2 diabetic patients, including the costs associated with its complications in Korea retrospectively. METHODS: We enrolled 531 type 2 diabetic patients who had been treated in the 3 Tertiary Hospital in 2005. Clinical characteristics, duration of diabetes, modality of glycemic control, and presence of microvascular and macrovascular complications were assessed by the review of medical records. The annual direct medical costs were assessed using the hospital electronic database and included insurance covered and uncovered medical costs. RESULTS: The annual direct medical costs of type 2 diabetic patients without any complications was 1,184,563 won (95% CI for mean: 973,006~1,396,121 won). Compared to diabetic patients without complications, annual total medical costs increased 4.7-fold, 10.7-fold, and 8.8-fold in patients with microvascular complications, macrovascular complications and both complications, respectively. Hospitalization costs largely increased by 78.7-fold and 61.0-fold in patients with macrovascular complications and both complications, respectively. Major complications to increase medical costs were kidney transplantation (23.1-fold), dialysis (21.0-fold), PTCA or CABG (12.4-fold), and leg amputation (11.8-fold). The total medical costs dramatically increased according to the stage of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy. CONCLUSION: Diabetic complications have a substantial impact on the direct medical costs of type 2 diabetic patients. The prevention of diabetic complications will benefit the patients as well as the overall healthcare expenditures.

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  • Policy Proposals for Infection Control in Patients with Chronic Wounds
    Kyung-Chul Moon, Donghyeok Shin, Kyu-Won Baek, Changsik John Pak, Young-Joon Jun
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    Kwan Woo Lee
    Journal of Korean Diabetes.2011; 12(1): 2.     CrossRef
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Mitochondrial DNA 5178 C>A Polymorphism is Associated with Serum Lipid Levels.
Hyeon Jae Kim, Min Young Cho, Min Kim, Ku Cheol Park, Goo Jun Kang, Cheol Hak Jang, Yeon Seong Kim, Kyu Hong Lee, Soo Kyong Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(6):501-510.   Published online December 1, 2004
  • 993 View
  • 18 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The mitochondrial DNA 5178 C>A polymorphism (Mt5178A) has been reported to the be associated with longevity, serum lipid levels and acute myocardial infarction in Japanese population. However, most of the studies on this subject have been confined to the Japanese population, and there have been fewer studies that tried to prove the association between Mt5178A polymorphism and type 2 diabetes or diabetic macrovascular complication. METHODS: The mt5178A polymorphism was genotyped in 658 type 2 diabetic patients and 334 non-diabetic controls subjects, and information on all the subjects' coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease was obtained from chart records. The anthropometric parameters, fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipid profiles were then measured. RESULTS: The frequency of the Mt5178A genotype in the control group (109/334; 32.6%) was not different from that found in the type 2 diabetic patients (223/658; 33.9%). The prevalence of cerebrovascular disease and coronary heart disease in the type 2 diabetic patients was not different between the Mt5178A genotype and the Mt5178C genotype. However, after adjustments for age and the body mass index, the HDL cholesterol concentration in men carrying the Mt5178A genotype was significantly higher than the HDL cholesterol concentration in men carrying the Mt5178C genotype (P = 0.007). The triglyceride concentration in women carrying the Mt5178A genotype was significantly lower than that in women carrying the Mt5178C genotype (P = 0.007). In addition, the frequency of the Mt5178A genotype in the control group increased with advanced age (P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: We could not find the association between Mt5178A and type 2 diabetes or diabetic macrovascular complication. However, the Mt5178 C>A polymorphism is associated with serum lipid levels and its frequency is increased with advanced age
Relationship between Serum Homocysteine Levels and Vascular Complications in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Seung Jin Choi, Jae Taek Kim, Yeon Sahng Oh, Soon Hyun Shinn
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(2):112-125.   Published online April 1, 2002
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  • 18 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Chronic complications in type 2 diabetic patients have microvascular and macrovascular components. Previous studies have shown that incidence of macrovascular complications correlates with the serum homocysteine levels, but the relationship is unclear. In addition, the connection between the microvascular complications and the serum homocysteine levels is still obscure and controversial. In this study, the relationship between the serum homocysteine levels and microvascular and macrovascular complications were evaluated in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: In 58 type 2 diabetic patients, the serum homocysteine levels, folic acid levels, Vit B12 levels, PAI-1 levels, the standard risk factors for macrovascular complications, the fasting serum glucose levels, the HbA1C levels, and the fasting insulin and C-peptide concentrations, the renal function tests, and the carotid intima-media thickness were measured and the relationship between them and the serum homocysteine level was analyzed according to the presence and absence of macrovascular and microvascular complications. RESULTS: 1) In type 2 diabetic patients, the mean serum homocysteine level was 9.9+/-.2 mol/L. The serum homocysteine level showed no relationship with the clinical and biochemical variables including the risk factors for atherosclerosis except the serum creatinine and creatinine clearance. 2) The maximum, minimum, and mean of the intima- media thickness of right carotid artery were 4.00+/-.20, 0.50+/-.04, 1.04+/-.62 mm, of left carotid artery were 3.54+/-.00, 0.31+/-.02, 1.03+/-.55 mm, and means were 3.77+/-.10, 0.44+/-.03, 1.03+/-.54 mm, and correlated with the serum homocysteine leve l (p=0.03), but only the serum LDL cholesterol level independently correlated with the intima-media thickness (p=0.04). 3) The serum homocysteine level (p=0.01) and intima-media thickness (p<0.01) was significantly higher in type 2 diabetic patients with macrovascular complications than without it. 4) The serum homocysteine level did not correlate with the incidence microvascular complications, but the intima-media thickness did correlate with diabetic nephropathy (p=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The serum homocysteine level did not correlated with the incidence of diabetic microvascular complications. However, there was a small correlation with the risk factors of macrovascular complications. The intima- media thickness correlated with the incidence of macrovascular complications, and the relationship with diabetic nephropathy requires further study.
Intima-media Thickness of the Common Carotid Artery and Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques as Predictors for Occurrence of Clinical Macrovascular Complication in Type 2 Diabetes.
Byoung Hyun Park, Chung Gu Cho
Korean Diabetes J. 2000;24(5):603-613.   Published online January 1, 2001
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  • 16 Download
AbstractAbstract
BACKGROUND
This study was undertaken to investigate that intima-media thickness and plaque of the carotid artery, as measured by high resolution B-mode ultrasonography, can be used as predictors for occurrence of clinical macrovascular complication in type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS: High resolution B-mode ultrasonographic examination was performed in 39 type 2 diabetes, including 16 diabetes with macrovascular complication, and in 18 non-diabetic control subjects. Concurrently serum total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoprotein (a), HbA1c, C-peptide levels and body mass index (BMI) were measured and history of hypertension, smoking, duration of diabetes and occurrence of macrovascular complication during the last 6 months were investigated. RESULTS: 1) Significant differences in common carotid IMT (0.72+/-0.08 mm, vs 0.93+/- 0.26 mm), existence of atherosclerotic plaque (50%, vs 69%), plaque number (0.5+/- 0.86, vs 0.69+/-2.37) and carotid stenosis (0%, vs 18%) were found between control and type 2 diabetes (p<0.05). 2) Significant differences in age (67.63+/-4.30, vs 60.6+/-12.0), lipoprotein (a) (63.65+/- 32.2 mg/dL, vs 35.22+/-34.74 mg/dL), common carotid IMT (1.08+/-0.27 mm, vs 0.82+/- 0.20 mm), existence of atherosclerotic plaque (87.5%, vs 56.5%), plaque number (2.88+/-3.16, vs 0.91+/-1.02), end diastolic ventricular septal thickness (10.82+/-1.88 mm, vs 8.76+/-2.92 mm) and end diastolic left ventricular posterior wall thickness (10.79+/-1.60 mm, vs 9.1+/-2.56 mm) were found between type 2 diabetes patients with macrovascular complication and without macrovascular complication (p<0.05). 3) Age (r=0.363, p=0.023), hypertension (r=0.32, p=0.047), carotid plaque existence (r=0.377, p=0.018) and plaque number (r=0.662, p=0.000) showed a correlation with the IMT in type 2 diabetes. 4) Most common involving site of atherosclerotic plaques was carotid bulb and more extensive involvement was showed in type 2 diabetes with macrovascular complication than without macrovascular complication. 5) The sensitivity of common carotid IMT (> control mean IMT + 2 SD; >1.22 mm) for prediction of macrovascular complication in type 2 diabetes patients was 25%, the specificity 95.7%, the positive predictive value 80%, the negative predictive value 61.8%. 6) The sensitivity of existence of carotid plaque for prediction of macrovascular complication in type 2 diabetes patients was 87.5%, the specificity 60.9%, the positive predictive value 60.9%, the negative predictive value 87.5%. CONCLUSION: Increases in IMT and plaque of the carotid artery, as measured by high resolution B-mode ultrasonography, can be used as predictors for occurrence of clinical macrovascular complication in type 2 diabetes patients.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
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