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Original Article
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
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Healthy Lifestyle and the Risk of Metabolic Dysfunction-Associated Fatty Liver Disease: A Large Prospective Cohort Study
Qing Chang, Yixiao Zhang, Tingjing Zhang, Zuyun Liu, Limin Cao, Qing Zhang, Li Liu, Shaomei Sun, Xing Wang, Ming Zhou, Qiyu Jia, Kun Song, Yang Ding, Yuhong Zhao, Kaijun Niu, Yang Xia
Received April 27, 2023  Accepted November 30, 2023  Published online March 19, 2024  
DOI:    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
The incidence density of metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) and the effect of a healthy lifestyle on the risk of MAFLD remain unknown. We evaluated the prevalence and incidence density of MAFLD and investigated the association between healthy lifestyle and the risk of MAFLD.
A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on 37,422 participants to explore the prevalence of MAFLD. A cohort analysis of 18,964 individuals was conducted to identify the incidence of MAFLD, as well as the association between healthy lifestyle and MAFLD. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) with adjustments for confounding factors.
The prevalence of MAFLD, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and their comorbidities were 30.38%, 28.09%, and 26.13%, respectively. After approximately 70 thousand person-years of follow-up, the incidence densities of the three conditions were 61.03, 55.49, and 51.64 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. Adherence to an overall healthy lifestyle was associated with a 19% decreased risk of MAFLD (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.72 to 0.92), and the effects were modified by baseline age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Subgroup analyses revealed that younger participants, men, and those with a lower BMI experienced more significant beneficial effects from healthy lifestyle.
Our results highlight the beneficial effect of adherence to a healthy lifestyle on the prevention of MAFLD. Health management for improving dietary intake, physical activity, and smoking and drinking habits are critical to improving MAFLD.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Diagnostic indicators and lifestyle interventions of metabolic-associated fatty liver disease
    Tianzhu Chen, Xiang Qin, Jianping Jiang, Beihui He
    Frontiers in Nutrition.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Mitochondrial Toxins and Healthy Lifestyle Meet at the Crossroad of Hormesis
Yu-Mi Lee, Duk-Hee Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(5):568-577.   Published online October 24, 2019
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  • 12 Web of Science
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Mitochondrial function is crucial for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis under physiological and stress conditions. Thus, chronic exposure to environmental chemicals that affect mitochondrial function can have harmful effects on humans. We argue that the concept of hormesis should be revisited to explain the non-linear responses to mitochondrial toxins at a low-dose range and develop practical methods to protect humans from the negative effects of mitochondrial toxins. Of the most concern to humans are lipophilic chemical mixtures and heavy metals, owing to their physical properties. Even though these chemicals tend to demonstrate no safe level in humans, a non-linear dose-response has been also observed. Stress response activation, i.e., hormesis, can explain this non-linearity. Recently, hormesis has reemerged as a unifying concept because diverse stressors can induce similar stress responses. Besides potentially harmful environmental chemicals, healthy lifestyle interventions such as exercise, calorie restriction (especially glucose), cognitive stimulation, and phytochemical intake also activate stress responses. This conceptual link can lead to the development of practical methods that counterbalance the harm of mitochondrial toxins. Unlike chemical hormesis with its safety issues, the activation of stress responses via lifestyle modification can be safely used to combat the negative effects of mitochondrial toxins.


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    Duk-Hee Lee
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Original Article
Influence of the Duration of Diabetes on the Outcome of a Diabetes Self-Management Education Program
Seung-Hyun Ko, Sin-Ae Park, Jae-Hyoung Cho, Sun-Hye Ko, Kyung-Mi Shin, Seung-Hwan Lee, Ki-Ho Song, Yong-Moon Park, Yu-Bae Ahn
Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(3):222-229.   Published online June 14, 2012
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  • 34 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Diabetes education and lifestyle modification are critical components in controlling blood glucose levels of people with type 2 diabetes. Until now, available data on the effectiveness of education with respect to the duration of diabetes are limited. We investigated whether adherence to lifestyle behavior modification prompted by diabetes education was influenced by the duration of diabetes.


Two hundred and twenty-five people with type 2 diabetes were recruited for an intensive, collaborative, group-based diabetes education program with annual reinforcement. We divided the patients into two groups based on the duration of their diabetes prior to the education program (≤1 year [≤1Y] vs. ≥3 years [≥3Y]). Dietary habits, physical activity, and the frequency of blood glucose self-monitoring were evaluated with a questionnaire prior to education and at the follow-up endpoint.


The mean follow-up period was 32.2 months. The mean hemoglobin A1c (A1C) value was significantly lower in the ≤1Y group. Self-care behaviors, measured by scores for dietary habits (P=0.004) and physical activity (P<0.001), were higher at the endpoint in the ≤1Y group than in the ≥3Y group. Logistic regression analysis revealed that a longer diabetes duration before education was significantly associated with mean A1C levels greater than or equal to 7.0% (53 mmol/mol).


Diabetes duration influenced the effectiveness of diabetes education on lifestyle behavior modification and glycemic control. More-intense, regular, and sustained reinforcement with encouragement may be required for individuals with longstanding type 2 diabetes.


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Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in Korea
Sang Woo Oh
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(6):561-566.   Published online December 26, 2011
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  • 58 Download
  • 233 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

In Korea, a person with a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a person with a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 is classified as severely obese. Central obesity is defined as a waist circumference ≥90 cm for Korean men and ≥85 cm for Korean women. Recent epidemiologic data show that the prevalence of severe obesity and metabolic syndrome is steadily increasing. These epidemics increased morbidity and mortality of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity-related cancers such as breast, colorectal, and other cancers in Korea. Decreased physical activity, increased fat and alcohol consumption, heavy smoking, and stress/depressed mood are the primary modifiable life-style risk factors for Koreans. Recently, public health interventions to encourage life-style changes have shown promising results in reducing the prevalence of severe obesity and metabolic syndrome.


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The Causes and Consequences of Low Levels of High Density Lipoproteins in Patients with Diabetes
Philip J. Barter
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(2):101-106.   Published online April 30, 2011
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Type 2 diabetes is commonly accompanied by a low level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) that contributes to the increased cardiovascular risk associated with this condition. Given that HDLs have the ability to improve increase the uptake of glucose by skeletal muscle and to stimulate the secretion of insulin from pancreatic beta cells the possibility arises that a low HDL concentration in type 2 diabetes may also contribute to a worsening of diabetic control. Thus, there is a double case for raising the level of HDL-C in patients with type 2 diabetes: to reduce cardiovascular risk and to improve glycemic control. Approaches to raising HDL-C include lifestyle factors such as weight reduction, increased physical activity and stopping smoking. Of currently available drugs, the most effective is niacin. Newer formulations of niacin are reasonably well tolerated and have the ability to increase HDL-C by up to 30%. The effect of niacin on cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes is currently being tested in a large-scale clinical outcome trial.


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Original Article
Effects of Comprehensive Support on Glycemic Control Using Community Networks in Low- Income Elderly Patients with Diabetes.
Nam Hoon Kim, Yun Jeong Lee, Hye Ok Kim, Cho Rong Oh, Ju Ri Park, Soo Yoen Park, Hee Young Kim, Ji A Seo, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi, Sin Gon Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(5):453-461.   Published online October 1, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Diabetes is common among elderly, and low-income is associated with poor adherence to treatment and increased mortality. We evaluated whether comprehensive support using community networks improves glycemic control among low-income elderly patients with diabetes. METHODS: A total of 49 low-income elderly patients with type 2 diabetes, mean age 73 years, were enrolled. For 1 year, study subjects underwent various lifestyle modification programs provided by community networks. The biochemical data including glycemic markers and anthropometric data were obtained at the baseline and at the end of the study. Also, the patients were asked to complete a questionnaire about their quality of life, self-confidence and self-care behavior. RESULTS: After lifestyle modification program, overall changes of fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, blood pressure, body weight, and other biochemical markers were not significantly different. In a subgroup analysis of 21 patients with poorly controlled diabetes (fasting glucose > 140 mg/dL or HbA1c > 7.5%), fasting plasma glucose was significantly reduced (P = 0.030). Among patients with baseline HbA1c level > or = 8%, HbA1c levels after intervention decreased from 9.33 +/- 1.07% to 8.27 +/- 1.15% (P = 0.092). The results of the questionnaires revealed significant increases in the scores of quality of life, self-confidence and self-care behavior (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Among low-income, elderly patients with type 2 diabetes, lifestyle modification through community networks showed no significant changes in glycemic control markers. More intensive and precise interventions using community networks are needed for the glycemic control of low-income, elderly patients with type 2 diabetes.


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Non-drug Intervention in Lipid Management: Dietary Portfolio.
In Ju Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(5):377-382.   Published online September 1, 2007
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Non-Pharmaceutical interventions are essential in lipid management. The NCEP recommends the following three tiered approach to lipid management: 1. Institution of therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC); 2. Use of non-drug adjuncts, including viscous fibers and plant sterol/stanol products; and 3. Drug therapy when required to reach treatment goals. Even though non-drug approaches often receive minimal attention in clinical practice, the efficacy of non-drug therapies is not so small. Non-drug adjuncts are known to reduce LDL cholesterol as follows: 12.5% for 45 g of soy protein/d; 6% to 7% for 9 to 10 g of psyllium/d, with smaller reductions for other viscous fibers; 10% for 1 to 2 g of plant sterols/d and 1% for 10 g almonds/d. Recently, combining these foods in a single dietary portfolio decreased LDL cholesterol and CRP similarly to the extent which achieved by a usual dose of a statin. This dietary portfolio can be regarded as an effective non-drug approach to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Original Article
The Effects of Lifestyle Modification on the Metabolic Parameters of Type 2 Diabetes.
So Hun Kim, Eun Seok Kang, So Young Park, Suk Jeong Lee, Mi Jin Kim, Ji Soo Yoo, Chul Woo Ahn, Bong Soo Cha, Sung Kil Lim, Hyun Chul Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(5):441-451.   Published online October 1, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Lifestyle modification is known to have positive effects on glycemic control and improving the cardiovascular risk factors. Although lifestyle modification is considered to be important in treating diabetic patients, there are few studies concerning the direct effect of lifestyle modification on the patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of lifestyle modification on glycemic control, lipid profiles, body indices, serum adiponectin and the hsCRP levels for patients with T2DM in Korea. METHODS: Twenty two patients with T2DM who had no medication changes for the recent 3 months and who also had a HbA1c> or =7.0% were enrolled in a lifestyle modification program. These patients visited Severance Hospital Diabetes Center once every week for 12 weeks, and they were educated about exercise and diet control. Their metabolic and anthropometric parameters were compared with 22 control T2DM patients who were not in the program. RESULTS:Lifestyle modification group patients showed significant decrements in HbA1c (-0.62 +/- 1.29 vs. 0.14 +/- 0.91%, p=0.044), total cholesterol (-0.57 +/- 0.54 vs. -0.06 +/- 0.61 mmol/l, p=0.007), LDL cholesterol (-0.57 +/- 0.62 vs. 0.02 +/- 0.59 mmol/l, p=0.003), body weight (-1.5 +/- 19 vs. 0.2 +/- 1.5 kg, p=0.005) and BMI (-0.6 +/- 0.7 vs 0.0 +/- 0.6 kg/m2, p=0.003) compared with the control subjects. HOMAIR, serum triglyceride, adiponectin, and hsCRP levels showed no significant difference compared to the control subjects. CONCLUSION: Lifestyle modification in Korean T2DM patients had positive effects on weight loss, glycemic control, and lipid profiles. These changes imply that lifestyle modification will be helpful for managing DM and its complications.

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