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Technology/Device
Clinical and Lifestyle Determinants of Continuous Glucose Monitoring Metrics in Insulin-Treated Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Da Young Lee, Namho Kim, Inha Jung, So Young Park, Ji Hee Yu, Ji A Seo, Jihee Kim, Kyeong Jin Kim, Nam Hoon Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Sin Gon Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Sung-Min Park, Nan Hee Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(6):826-836.   Published online August 24, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0273
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
There was limited evidence to evaluate the association between lifestyle habits and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) metrics. Thus, we aimed to depict the behavioral and metabolic determinants of CGM metrics in insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods
This is a prospective observational study. We analyzed data from 122 insulin-treated patients with T2DM. Participants wore Dexcom G6 and Fitbit, and diet information was identified for 10 days. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression analysis was performed for the simultaneous achievement of CGM-based targets, defined by the percentage of time in terms of hyper, hypoglycemia and glycemic variability (GV). Intake of macronutrients and fiber, step counts, sleep, postprandial C-peptide-to-glucose ratio (PCGR), information about glucose lowering medications and metabolic factors were added to the analyses. Additionally, we evaluated the impact of the distribution of energy and macronutrient during a day, and snack consumption on CGM metrics.
Results
Logistic regression analysis revealed that female, participants with high PCGR, low glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and daytime step count had a higher probability of achieving all targets based on CGM (odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] which were 0.24 [0.09 to 0.65], 1.34 [1.03 to 1.25], 0.95 [0.9 to 0.99], and 1.15 [1.03 to 1.29], respectively). And participants who ate snacks showed a shorter period of hyperglycemia and less GV compared to those without.
Conclusion
We confirmed that residual insulin secretion, daytime step count, HbA1c, and women were the most relevant determinants of adequate glycemic control in insulin-treated patients with T2DM. In addition, individuals with snack consumption were exposed to lower times of hyperglycemia and GV.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Explanatory variables of objectively measured 24-h movement behaviors in people with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: A systematic review
    Lotte Bogaert, Iris Willems, Patrick Calders, Eveline Dirinck, Manon Kinaupenne, Marga Decraene, Bruno Lapauw, Boyd Strumane, Margot Van Daele, Vera Verbestel, Marieke De Craemer
    Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews.2024; 18(4): 102995.     CrossRef
Review
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Lifestyle Interventions for Non-Obese Patients Both with, and at Risk, of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Xin-Lei Zhang, Ting-Yao Wang, Giovanni Targher, Christopher D. Byrne, Ming-Hua Zheng
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(3):391-401.   Published online May 25, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0048
  • 5,190 View
  • 274 Download
  • 9 Web of Science
  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease occurring in non-obese subjects (the so-called non-obese NAFLD) is a highly prevalent but neglected liver condition, which is closely associated with metabolic disorders and suboptimal lifestyles. Landmark studies have shown that lifestyle interventions are potentially beneficial in decreasing the risk of developing non-obese NAFLD and in ameliorating NAFLD in non-obese individuals with pre-existing NAFLD. Lifestyle interventions usually refer to changes in eating habits and physical activity, both of which have a powerful effect on non-obese NAFLD and on risk factors for non-obese NAFLD. However, to date, patients and health-care professionals have a poor awareness and understanding of non-obese NAFLD and the beneficial effects of lifestyle interventions in this patient population. The aim of this narrative review is to briefly discuss the evidence for the effects of lifestyle changes and what changes are needed amongst medical personnel and other stakeholders in order to raise awareness of non-obese NAFLD.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Triglycerides Mediate the Influence of Body Mass Index on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in a Non-Obese Chinese Population with Normal Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels
    Xixi Han, Jingwen Kong, Hemin Zhang, Yuan Zhao, Yafeng Zheng, Chao Wei
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  • Patients with NAFLD exhibit more advanced fibrosis in liver biopsy than patients with other chronic liver diseases
    Lydia Rohr, Peter Lemmer, Marie Henning, Andrea Tannapfel, Theodor Baars, Paul Manka, Ali Canbay, Jan-Peter Sowa
    Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie.2023; 61(01): 29.     CrossRef
  • Performance of Simple Fibrosis Score in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with and without Type 2 Diabetes
    Seung Min Chung, Min Kyu Kang, Jun Sung Moon, Jung Gil Park
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2023; 38(2): 277.     CrossRef
  • An international multidisciplinary consensus statement on MAFLD and the risk of CVD
    Xiao-Dong Zhou, Giovanni Targher, Christopher D. Byrne, Virend Somers, Seung Up Kim, C. Anwar A. Chahal, Vincent Wai-Sun Wong, Jingjing Cai, Michael D. Shapiro, Mohammed Eslam, Philippe Gabriel Steg, Ki-Chul Sung, Anoop Misra, Jian-Jun Li, Carlos Brotons,
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    Ying Wang, Yiyi Liu, Xun Zhang, Qing Wu
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  • Benefits of Physical Exercise as Approach to Prevention and Reversion of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children and Adolescents with Obesity
    Valeria Calcaterra, Vittoria Magenes, Matteo Vandoni, Clarissa Berardo, Luca Marin, Alice Bianchi, Erika Cordaro, Giustino Silvestro, Dario Silvestri, Vittoria Carnevale Pellino, Cristina Cereda, Gianvincenzo Zuccotti
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    Wenmin Xing, Wenyan Gao, Xiaoling Lv, Zhenlei Zhao, Genxiang Mao, Xiaoyan Dong, Zuyong Zhang
    Frontiers in Nutrition.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Brief Report
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Short-Term Effects of the Internet-Based Korea Diabetes Prevention Study: 6-Month Results of a Community-Based Randomized Controlled Trial
Jin-Hee Lee, Sun-Young Lim, Seon-Ah Cha, Chan-Jung Han, Ah Reum Jung, Kook-Rye Kim, Kun-Ho Yoon, Seung-Hyun Ko
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(6):960-965.   Published online March 17, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0225
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  • 5 Web of Science
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Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
The aims of this study were to determine the short-term effectiveness of an internet-based lifestyle modification (LSM) program in preventing the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in prediabetes patients in community settings. A total of 415 subjects who were diagnosed with prediabetes were randomly assigned to the LSM and standard management (SM) groups. After the 6-month intervention, the LSM group had a statistically significant reduction in body weight, body mass index compared to the SM group participants. In the LSM group, blood glucose levels were significantly decreased after intervention and the clinical improvement effect was evident in the group that achieved the target weight loss of 5% or more of the initial weight for 6 months. Internet-based 6-month-intensive LSM programs conducted by public health center personnel are an effective way to provide lifestyle intervention programs and encourage maintenance of healthy behaviors in subjects with a high risk of T2DM in community settings.

Citations

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  • U-shaped association between online information exchange and app usage frequency: a large-scale survey of China ‘s online young and middle-aged people with pre diabetes and diabetes
    Hanbin Guo, Yibiao Xiao, Canlin Liao, Jiating Sun, Yanchun Xie, Yitong Zheng, Guanhua Fan
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Xin Chai, Yachen Wang, Jinping Wang, Qiuhong Gong, Juan Zhang, Ruitai Shao
    Chinese Science Bulletin.2023; 68(28-29): 3834.     CrossRef
  • Efficacy of Personalized Diabetes Self-care Using an Electronic Medical Record–Integrated Mobile App in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: 6-Month Randomized Controlled Trial
    Eun Young Lee, Seon-Ah Cha, Jae-Seung Yun, Sun-Young Lim, Jin-Hee Lee, Yu-Bae Ahn, Kun-Ho Yoon, Min Kyung Hyun, Seung-Hyun Ko
    Journal of Medical Internet Research.2022; 24(7): e37430.     CrossRef
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    Valaree Villegas, Alisha Shah, JoAnn E. Manson, Deirdre K. Tobias
    Contemporary Clinical Trials.2022; 119: 106817.     CrossRef
  • 2021 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes Mellitus of the Korean Diabetes Association
    Kyu Yeon Hur, Min Kyong Moon, Jong Suk Park, Soo-Kyung Kim, Seung-Hwan Lee, Jae-Seung Yun, Jong Ha Baek, Junghyun Noh, Byung-Wan Lee, Tae Jung Oh, Suk Chon, Ye Seul Yang, Jang Won Son, Jong Han Choi, Kee Ho Song, Nam Hoon Kim, Sang Yong Kim, Jin Wha Kim,
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2021; 45(4): 461.     CrossRef
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    Seung-Hyun Ko
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2021; 22(4): 244.     CrossRef
Review
Guideline/Fact Sheet
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Position Statement of the Fatty Liver Research Group of the Korean Diabetes Association
Byung-Wan Lee, Yong-ho Lee, Cheol-Young Park, Eun-Jung Rhee, Won-Young Lee, Nan-Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Keun-Gyu Park, Yeon-Kyung Choi, Bong-Soo Cha, Dae Ho Lee, Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) Fatty Liver Research Group
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(3):382-401.   Published online May 11, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0010
  • 12,270 View
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  • 42 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

This clinical practice position statement, a product of the Fatty Liver Research Group of the Korean Diabetes Association, proposes recommendations for the diagnosis, progression and/or severity assessment, management, and follow-up of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients with both T2DM and NAFLD have an increased risk of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis and a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetic complications compared to those without NAFLD. With regards to the evaluation of patients with T2DM and NAFLD, ultrasonography-based stepwise approaches using noninvasive biomarker models such as fibrosis-4 or the NAFLD fibrosis score as well as imaging studies such as vibration-controlled transient elastography with controlled attenuation parameter or magnetic resonance imaging-proton density fat fraction are recommended. After the diagnosis of NAFLD, the stage of fibrosis needs to be assessed appropriately. For management, weight reduction achieved by lifestyle modification has proven beneficial and is recommended in combination with antidiabetic agent(s). Evidence that some antidiabetic agents improve NAFLD/NASH with fibrosis in patients with T2DM is emerging. However, there are currently no definite pharmacologic treatments for NAFLD in patients with T2DM. For specific cases, bariatric surgery may be an option if indicated.

Citations

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Original Articles
Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome
Impact of Longitudinal Changes in Metabolic Syndrome Status over 2 Years on 10-Year Incident Diabetes Mellitus
Ji Hye Huh, Sung Gyun Ahn, Young In Kim, Taehwa Go, Ki-Chul Sung, Jae Hyuk Choi, Kwang Kon Koh, Jang Young Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(4):530-538.   Published online February 20, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0111
  • 5,038 View
  • 55 Download
  • 20 Web of Science
  • 23 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a known predictor of diabetes mellitus (DM), but whether longitudinal changes in MetS status modify the risk for DM remains unclear. We investigated whether changes in MetS status over 2 years modify the 10-year risk of incident DM.

Methods

We analyzed data from 7,317 participants aged 40 to 70 years without DM at baseline, who took part in 2001 to 2011 Korean Genome Epidemiology Study. Subjects were categorized into four groups based on repeated longitudinal assessment of MetS status over 2 years: non-MetS, resolved MetS, incident MetS, and persistent MetS. The hazard ratio (HR) of new-onset DM during 10 years was calculated in each group using Cox models.

Results

During the 10-year follow-up, 1,099 participants (15.0%) developed DM. Compared to the non-MetS group, the fully adjusted HRs for new-onset DM were 1.28 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92 to 1.79) in the resolved MetS group, 1.75 (95% CI, 1.30 to 2.37) in the incident MetS group, and 1.98 (95% CI, 1.50 to 2.61) in the persistent MetS group (P for trend <0.001). The risk of DM in subjects with resolved MetS was significantly attenuated compared to those with persistent MetS over 2 years. In addition, the adjusted HR for 10-year developing DM gradually increased as the number of MetS components increased 2 years later.

Conclusion

We found that discrete longitudinal changes pattern in MetS status over 2 years associated with 10-year risk of DM. These findings suggest that monitoring change of MetS status and controlling it in individuals may be important for risk prediction of DM.

Citations

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Clinical Diabetes and Therapeutics
Hospital-Based Korean Diabetes Prevention Study: A Prospective, Multi-Center, Randomized, Open-Label Controlled Study
Sang Youl Rhee, Suk Chon, Kyu Jeung Ahn, Jeong-Taek Woo
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(1):49-58.   Published online November 2, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0033
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) continues to increase, and the disease burden is the highest of any medical condition in Korea. However, large-scale clinical studies have not yet conducted to establish the basis for diabetes prevention in Korea.

Methods

The hospital-based Korean Diabetes Prevention Study (H-KDPS) is a prospective, multi-center, randomized, open-label controlled study conducted at university hospitals for the purpose of gathering data to help in efforts to prevent type 2 DM. Ten university hospitals are participating, and 744 subjects will be recruited. The subjects are randomly assigned to the standard care group, lifestyle modification group, or metformin group, and their clinical course will be observed for 36 months.

Results

All intervention methodologies were developed, validated, and approved by Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) multi-disciplinary team members. The standard control group will engage in individual education based on the current KDA guidelines, and the lifestyle modification group will participate in a professionally guided healthcare intervention aiming for ≥5% weight loss. The metformin group will begin dosing at 250 mg/day, increasing to a maximum of 1,000 mg/day. The primary endpoint of this study is the cumulative incidence of DM during the 3 years after randomization.

Conclusion

The H-KDPS study is the first large-scale clinical study to establish evidence-based interventions for the prevention of type 2 DM in Koreans. The evidence gathered by this study will be useful for enhancing the health of Koreans and improving the stability of the Korean healthcare system (Trial registration: CRIS KCT0002260, NCT02981121).

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Review
Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome
Diabetes Prevention in Australia: 10 Years Results and Experience
James A. Dunbar
Diabetes Metab J. 2017;41(3):160-167.   Published online February 2, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.41.3.160
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of lifestyle modification for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus but it was achieved at higher cost than can be sustained in routine health services. The first clinical trial to report was the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. This paper describes how Australia worked with Finnish colleagues to adapt the findings of that study to achieve a statewide diabetes prevention program. Small evaluative, effectiveness trials have been conducted in a number of countries to see if the results of the clinical trials can be replicated in routine health services. The Australian evaluative trial, Greater Green Triangle Diabetes Prevention Program is described in detail to demonstrate the ingredients for success in moving a program from one country to another. Few countries have managed to scale up from evaluative trials to statewide or national programs. The Australian experience is described in detail including lessons learned about what reduced the effectiveness, particularly the need for policy makers in government, people from the implementing organisation and researchers to work together from the start of the evaluative trial and throughout the first 5 years of a national program.

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Brief Report
Epidemiology
Relationship between Biological Markers, Metabolic Components, Lifestyles, and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Male Workers
Tomoyuki Kawada
Diabetes Metab J. 2015;39(5):434-438.   Published online October 22, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2015.39.5.434
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Confirmation regarding the association between impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and biomarkers in addition to metabolic components and lifestyle factors are required in the occupational filed for preventing diabetes mellitus.

Methods

The study was performed in working men aged 30 to 60 years old, who were not taking medication for any metabolic diseases. The author measured the serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), uric acid, and plasma fibrinogen as potential biomarkers of IFG.

Results

The mean serum uric acid, log-transformed serum CRP, and plasma fibrinogen levels were higher in the subjects with IFG than in those without IFG. Multivariate analysis revealed significant associations between the presence of IFG and age, log-transformed value of serum CRP, increased waist circumference, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia, with odds ratios of 1.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 1.1; P<0.001), 1.8 (95% CI, 1.4 to 2.3; P<0.001), 1.3 (95% CI, 1.09 to 1.7; P<0.01), 1.9 (95% CI, 1.6 to 2.3; P<0.001), and 1.3 (95% CI, 1.04 to 1.6; P<0.05), respectively, for the presence of IFG.

Conclusion

Serum CRP, age, and three metabolic components were associated with IFG. In contrast, there were no significant associations between IFG and lifestyle factors, serum uric acid or plasma fibrinogen.


Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal