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Transdifferentiation of Enteroendocrine K-cells into Insulin-expressing Cells.
Esder Lee, Jun Mo Yu, Min Kyung Lee, Gyeong Ryul Ryu, Seung Hyun Ko, Yu Bae Ahn, Sung Dae Moon, Ki Ho Song
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(6):475-484.   Published online December 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.6.475
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Despite a recent breakthough in human islet transplantation for treating type 1 diabetes mellitus, the limited availability of donor pancreases remains a major obstacle. Endocrine cells within the gut epithelium (enteroendocrine cells) and pancreatic beta cells share similar pathways of differentiation during embryonic development. In particular, K-cells that secrete glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) have been shown to express many of the key proteins found in beta cells. Therefore, we hypothesize that K-cells can be transdifferentiated into beta cells because both cells have remarkable similarities in their embryonic development and cellular phenotypes. METHODS: K-cells were purified from heterogeneous STC-1 cells originating from an endocrine tumor of a mouse intestine. In addition, a K-cell subclone expressing stable Nkx6.1, called "Kn4-cells," was successfully obtained. In vitro differentiation of K-cells or Kn4-cells into beta cells was completed after exendin-4 treatment and serum deprivation. The expressions of insulin mRNA and protein were examined by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. The interacellular insulin content was also measured. RESULTS: K-cells were found to express glucokinase and GIP as assessed by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. RT-PCR showed that K-cells also expressed Pdx-1, NeuroD1/Beta2, and MafA, but not Nkx6.1. After exendin-4 treatment and serum deprivation, insulin mRNA and insulin or C-peptide were clearly detected in Kn4-cells. The intracellular insulin content was also increased significantly in these cells. CONCLUSION: K-cells are an attractive potential source of insulin-producing cells for treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, more experiments are necessary to optimize a strategy for converting K-cells into beta cells.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Reprogramming of enteroendocrine K cells to pancreatic β-cells through the combined expression of Nkx6.1 and Neurogenin3, and reaggregation in suspension culture
    Esder Lee, Gyeong Ryul Ryu, Sung-Dae Moon, Seung-Hyun Ko, Yu-Bae Ahn, Ki-Ho Song
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications.2014; 443(3): 1021.     CrossRef
Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes through Genetically Engineered K-cell Transplantation in a Mouse Model.
Ju Yeon Sim, Ju Hee Kim, Yu Bae Ahn, Ki Ho Song, Je Ho Han, Bong Yun Cha, Sook Kyung Lee, Sung Dae Moon
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(6):466-474.   Published online December 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.6.466
  • 2,086 View
  • 21 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
K-cells function as targets for insulin gene therapy. In a previous study, we constructed EBV-based plasmids expressing rat preproinsulin controlled by glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide promoters. In the present study, we attempted to correct hyperglycemia in vivo using genetically engineered K-cells in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. METHODS: K-cells expressing insulin were transplanted under the kidney capsules of STZ-induced diabetic mice. The blood glucose levels and body weights of the experimental animals were measured daily. After four weeks, the mice were injected intra-peritoneally with 2 g/kg glucose following a 6 hr fast. Blood glucose levels were measured immediately following glucose injections. All animals were sacrificed at the end of the glucose tolerance study, and pancreas and graft-bearing kidney tissue samples were stained with antibodies against insulin, glucagon, and C-peptide. RESULTS: The body weights of K-cell-transplanted diabetic mice increased after transplantation, whereas those of untreated diabetic control mice continued to decline. The blood glucose levels of K-cell-transplanted diabetic mice decreased gradually during the two weeks following transplantation. After intra-peritoneal injection of glucose into K-cell-transplanted diabetic mice, blood glucose levels increased at 30 minutes, and were restored to the normal range between 60 and 90 minutes, while untreated control diabetic mice continued to experience hyperglycemia. Kidney capsules containing transplanted K-cells were removed, and sections were stained with anti-insulin antibodies. We detected insulin-positive cells in the kidney capsules of K-cell-transplanted diabetic mice, but not in untreated control mice. CONCLUSION: We detected glucose-dependent insulin secretion in genetically engineered K-cells in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. Our results suggest that genetically modified insulin producing K-cells may act as surrogate beta-cells to effectively treat type 1 diabetes.
Glucose-dependent Insulin Secretion from Genetically Engineered K-cells Using EBV-based Episomal Vector.
Ju Hee Kim, Sung Dae Moon, Seung Hyun Ko, Yu Bai Ahn, Ki Ho Song, Hyang Sook Lim, Sook Kyung Lee, Soon Jip Yoo, Hyun Shik Son, Kun Ho Yoon, Bong Yun Cha, Ho Young Son, Sung Joo Kim, Je Ho Han
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(1):9-21.   Published online January 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2007.31.1.9
  • 2,491 View
  • 17 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease resulting in destruction of the pancreatic beta cells. Insulin gene therapy for these patients has been vigorously researched. The strategy for achieving glucose-dependent insulin secretion in gene therapy relies on glucose-responsive transcription of insulin mRNA and the constitutive secretory pathway of target non-beta cells. We observed that genetically engineered K-cells using Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-based episomal vector can produce glucose-regulated insulin production. METHODS: Green fluorescent protein (GFP) or rat-preproinsulin (PPI) expression cassette transcriptionally controlled by the promoter of glucose dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIPP) is fused to pCEP4 containing the origin of replication (oriP) and Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1). CMV promoter was replaced by subcloning the GIPP into pCEP4 to generate pGIPP/CEP4. Two recombinant EBV-based episomal vectors, pGIPP/GFP/CEP4 and pGIPP/PPI/CEP4, were constructed. pGIPP/GFP/CEP4 and pGIPP/PPI/CEP4 containing K-cell specific GIPP were co-transfected into STC-1. K-cell was isolated from the clonal expansion of the fluorescent cells selected by hygromycin treatment in STC-1, and were analyzed for the expression of glucokinase (GK) or transcription factors involved in pancreas development. K-cells concurrently transfected with pGIPP/PPI/CEP4 and pGIPP/GFP/CEP4 were analyzed for the transcripts of PPI by RT-PCR, and for the glucose dependent insulin expression by immunocytochemistry or insulin assay using ultra-sensitive rat-specific insulin ELISA kit. RESULT: STC-1 was stably-transfected with pGIPP/GFP/CEP4 along with pGIPP/PPI/CEP4. Genetically selected fluorescent K-cells expressed GK and transcription factors involved in pancreas development. And K-cells transfected with pGIPP/PPI/CEP4 contained detectable levels of PPI transcripts and showed glucose-dependent immunoreactive insulin secretion. CONCLUSION: We identified genetically engineered K-cells which exert a glucose-dependent insulin expression using EBV-based episomal vector. The similarities between K-cells and pancreatic beta cells support that K-cells may make effective and ideal targeting cells for insulin gene therapy or alternative cell therapy.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Relationship of traditional and nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors to coronary artery calcium in type 2 diabetes
    Ju-Yeon Sim, Ju-Hee Kim, Yu-Bae Ahn, Ki-Ho Song, Je-Ho Han, Bong-Yun Cha, Sook-Kyung Lee, Sung-Dae Moon
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2009; 33(6): 466.     CrossRef
  • Transdifferentiation of Enteroendocrine K-cells into Insulin-expressing Cells
    Esder Lee, Jun Mo Yu, Min Kyung Lee, Gyeong Ryul Ryu, Seung-Hyun Ko, Yu-Bae Ahn, Sung-Dae Moon, Ki-Ho Song
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2009; 33(6): 475.     CrossRef

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