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Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal

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Original Article
Effects of the Glycemic Index of Dietary Carbohydrates on Insulin Requirement in Type 1 Diabetics on Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion.
Hye Jin Lee, Kwon Beom Kim, Kyung Ah Han, Kyung Wan Min, Eung Jin Kim, Ki Nam Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(1):72-77.   Published online January 1, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
For ideal glycemic control, the pump user should have a meal planning approach that is as precise and flexible as the pump. Counting carbohydrate is simple and works, but is not a perfect system. Many researches indicate that not all carbohydrates create an equal response when it comes to their effect on blood glucose levels. For a better match between the glucose and insulin profiles, the glycemic index as along with counting carbohydrate might be considered. Therefore, we investigated whether the same amount of carbohydrates with different glycemic indices might require different insulin doses. METHODS: Five type 1 diabetics, using portable external pumps, whose basal rates were correctly set to maintain their blood glucose levels with in the target range under 12 hours fasting conditions, were enrolled. 50 grams of 4 carbohydrate containing foods, with different glycemic indices, were administered for 4 consecutive days to diabetic patients in an overnight fasting state. The test foods were rice, apple, milk and orange juice, for which the glycemic indices were 83, 54, 39 and 97, respectively. The insulin requirement for each food was determined so that the blood glucose level reached the target range four hours after eating. RESULTS: The glycemic indices for each food/rice ratio were significantly correlated with the insulin requirement (r = 0.586, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The meal-related insulin dose should be changed according to the glycemic index of the meal. Therefore both amount and source of carbohydrate determine the glucose and insulin responses of type 1 diabetic subjects
Case Report
A Case of Failure in Insulin Pump Treatment due to Abdominal Subcutaneous Fat Atrophy and Lipohypertrophied Nodules.
Sang Youl Rhee, Suk Chon, Gwanpyo Koh, Seungjoon Oh, Jeong taek Woo, Sung Woon Kim, Jin Woo Kim, Young Seol Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(6):547-553.   Published online December 1, 2004
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  • 20 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
The insulin pump is an effective glycemic control device those function is analogous to the physiologic regulation of insulin in vivo. When sufficient patient education and proper selection of patients is done, the insulin pump is one of the most effective treatment modalities for diabetic patients. However, various side effects and complications might occur during its application. We report here on an unusual case of diabetic ketoacidosis that was caused by acute inflammatory colitis and insulin pump malfunction. Peculiarly, the cause of pump malfunction was far removed from its mechanical problem. We concluded that the cause of the insulin pump malfunction was due to abdominal subcutaneous fat atrophy and the lipohypertrophied nodules of the patient that developed due to the prolonged usage of the insulin pump.
Original Article
Insulin Requirement for Korean Type 1 Diabetics using Continuous Insulin Infusion with Portable External Pumps.
Hye Jin Lee, Kwon Beom Kim, Kyung Ah Han, Kyung Wan Min, Eung Jin Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(6):538-546.   Published online December 1, 2004
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  • 20 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Insulin pumps can be extremely effective in achieving a normal or near-normal blood glucose level in type 1 diabetic patients. For designing a pump program in western countries, it has been recommended that approximately half of the daily insulin dose should given in the basal infusion, and the other half make up the meal-related bolus dose. However, peoples' diet composition is quite different among the many countries. The carbohydrate composition in the Korean diet is higher (60~65%) than that in the western diet (45~50%). Carbohydrate is much more glycemic than protein or fat. Therefore, we evaluated the basal and meal-related insulin requirements for Korean type 1 diabetics by using continuous insulin infusion with portable external pumps. METHODS: Twenty three type 1 diabetic patients were admitted for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), and they were given a calculated diet (60% carbohydrate, 20% protein, and 20% fat). The Basal rates were set for the blood glucose levels to remain in the target range during 12 hour fasting state. The meal related bolus dose was set to remain in the target range at the premeal state. RESULTS: The daily total insulin requirement was 99.7 +/-0.3% of prepump insulin dose, and 0.57 +/-0.21 unit per kilogram of body weight. The basal and mealrelated insulin dose among the daily total insulin requirements were 33.7 +/-8.6 and 66.3 +/-8.6%, respectively. The daily total, basal and meal-related insulin requirements were not significantly related with body weight, but the glucose disposal rate per 1unit of insulin was significantly related with body weight (r=-0.424, P <0.05). CONCLUSION: Although the daily total insulin requirement per kilogram of body weight in Korean type 1 diabetics was similar to that in western diabetics, the basal insulin requirements were less and the meal-related insulin requirements were more than that in western diabetics.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
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