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Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
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2023 Diabetic Kidney Disease Fact Sheet in Korea
Nam Hoon Kim, Mi-Hae Seo, Jin Hyung Jung, Kyung Do Han, Mi Kyung Kim, Nan Hee Kim, on Behalf of Diabetic Kidney Disease Research Group of the Korean Diabetes Association
Diabetes Metab J. 2024;48(3):463-472.   Published online March 19, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0310
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  • 263 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
To investigate the prevalence, incidence, comorbidities, and management status of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and diabetes-related end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in South Korea.
Methods
We used the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (2019 to 2021, n=2,665) for the evaluation of prevalence, comorbidities, control rate of glycemia and comorbidities in DKD, and the Korean Health Insurance Service-customized database (2008 to 2019, n=3,950,857) for the evaluation of trends in the incidence and prevalence rate of diabetes-related ESKD, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers and sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors use for DKD, and the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and mortality according to DKD stages. DKD was defined as albuminuria or low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 in patients with diabetes mellitus.
Results
The prevalence of DKD was 25.4% (albuminuria, 22.0%; low eGFR, 6.73%) in patients with diabetes mellitus aged ≥30 years. Patients with DKD had a higher rate of comorbidities, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, and central obesity; however, their control rates were lower than those without DKD. Prescription rate of SGLT2 inhibitors with reduced eGFR increased steadily, reaching 5.94% in 2019. Approximately 70% of DKD patients were treated with RAS blockers. The prevalence rate of diabetesrelated ESKD has been steadily increasing, with a higher rate in older adults. ASCVD and mortality were significantly associated with an in increase in DKD stage.
Conclusion
DKD is prevalent among Korean patients with diabetes and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, which requiring intensive management of diabetes and comorbidities. The prevalence of diabetes-related ESKD has been increasing, especially in the older adults, during past decade.

Citations

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  • Endothelial NOX5 Obliterates the Reno-Protective Effect of Nox4 Deletion by Promoting Renal Fibrosis via Activation of EMT and ROS-Sensitive Pathways in Diabetes
    Karin A. M. Jandeleit-Dahm, Haritha R. Kankanamalage, Aozhi Dai, Jaroslawna Meister, Sara Lopez-Trevino, Mark E. Cooper, Rhian M. Touyz, Christopher R. J. Kennedy, Jay C. Jha
    Antioxidants.2024; 13(4): 396.     CrossRef
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
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Healthy Lifestyle and the Risk of Metabolic Dysfunction-Associated Fatty Liver Disease: A Large Prospective Cohort Study
Qing Chang, Yixiao Zhang, Tingjing Zhang, Zuyun Liu, Limin Cao, Qing Zhang, Li Liu, Shaomei Sun, Xing Wang, Ming Zhou, Qiyu Jia, Kun Song, Yang Ding, Yuhong Zhao, Kaijun Niu, Yang Xia
Received April 27, 2023  Accepted November 30, 2023  Published online March 19, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0133    [Epub ahead of print]
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
The incidence density of metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) and the effect of a healthy lifestyle on the risk of MAFLD remain unknown. We evaluated the prevalence and incidence density of MAFLD and investigated the association between healthy lifestyle and the risk of MAFLD.
Methods
A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on 37,422 participants to explore the prevalence of MAFLD. A cohort analysis of 18,964 individuals was conducted to identify the incidence of MAFLD, as well as the association between healthy lifestyle and MAFLD. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) with adjustments for confounding factors.
Results
The prevalence of MAFLD, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and their comorbidities were 30.38%, 28.09%, and 26.13%, respectively. After approximately 70 thousand person-years of follow-up, the incidence densities of the three conditions were 61.03, 55.49, and 51.64 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. Adherence to an overall healthy lifestyle was associated with a 19% decreased risk of MAFLD (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.72 to 0.92), and the effects were modified by baseline age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Subgroup analyses revealed that younger participants, men, and those with a lower BMI experienced more significant beneficial effects from healthy lifestyle.
Conclusion
Our results highlight the beneficial effect of adherence to a healthy lifestyle on the prevention of MAFLD. Health management for improving dietary intake, physical activity, and smoking and drinking habits are critical to improving MAFLD.

Citations

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  • Diagnostic indicators and lifestyle interventions of metabolic-associated fatty liver disease
    Tianzhu Chen, Xiang Qin, Jianping Jiang, Beihui He
    Frontiers in Nutrition.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Complications
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The Risk of Shoulder Adhesive Capsulitis in Individuals with Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Longitudinal Nationwide Population-Based Study
Jong-Ho Kim, Bong-Seoung Kim, Kyung-do Han, Hyuk-Sang Kwon
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(6):869-878.   Published online August 23, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0275
  • 2,256 View
  • 166 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
This study aimed to investigate the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and shoulder adhesive capsulitis (AC) using a large-scale, nationwide, population-based cohort in the Republic of Korea.
Methods
A total of 3,471,745 subjects aged over 20 years who underwent a National Health Insurance Service medical checkup between 2009 and 2010 were included in this study, and followed from the date of their medical checkup to the end of 2018. Subjects were classified into the following four groups based on the presence of dysglycemia and history of diabetes medication: normal, prediabetes, newly diagnosed T2DM (new-T2DM), and T2DM (claim history for antidiabetic medication). The endpoint was new-onset AC during follow-up. The incidence rates (IRs) in 1,000 person-years and hazard ratios (HRs) of AC for each group were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regression models.
Results
The IRs of AC were 9.453 (normal), 11.912 (prediabetes), 14.933 (new-T2DM), and 24.3761 (T2DM). The adjusted HRs of AC in the prediabetes, new-T2DM, and T2DM groups were 1.084 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.075 to 1.094), 1.312 (95% CI, 1.287 to 1.337), and 1.473 (95% CI, 1.452 to 1.494) compared to the normal group, respectively. This secular trend of the HRs of AC according to T2DM status was statistically significant (P<0.0001).
Conclusion
This large-scale, longitudinal, nationwide, population-based cohort study of 3,471,745 subjects confirmed that the risk of AC increases in prediabetic subjects and is associated with T2DM status.

Citations

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  • Impacts of preoperative anxiety and depression on pain and range of motion after arthroscopic frozen shoulder release: a cohort study
    Yahia Haroun, Ahmed Saeed Younis, Wessam Fakhery Ebied, Mohamed Amr Hemida, Ahmed H. Khater
    International Orthopaedics.2024; 48(8): 2113.     CrossRef
  • Subdiaphragmatic phrenic nerve supply: A systematic review
    María Pérez-Montalbán, Encarna García-Domínguez, Ángel Oliva-Pascual-Vaca
    Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger.2024; 254: 152269.     CrossRef
Complications
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Association of Body Mass Index and Fracture Risk Varied by Affected Bones in Patients with Diabetes: A Nationwide Cohort Study
Se-Won Lee, Kyungdo Han, Hyuk-Sang Kwon
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(2):242-254.   Published online January 19, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0001
  • 3,469 View
  • 167 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
Body mass index (BMI) is a risk factor for the type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and T2DM accompanies various complications, such as fractures. We investigated the effects of BMI and T2DM on fracture risk and analyzed whether the association varied with fracture locations.
Methods
This study is a nationwide population-based cohort study that included all people with T2DM (n=2,746,078) who received the National Screening Program during 2009–2012. According to the anatomical location of the fracture, the incidence rate and hazard ratio (HR) were analyzed by dividing it into four categories: vertebra, hip, limbs, and total fracture.
Results
The total fracture had higher HR in the underweight group (HR, 1.268; 95% CI, 1.228 to 1.309) and lower HR in the obese group (HR, 0.891; 95% CI, 0.882 to 0.901) and the morbidly obese group (HR, 0.873; 95% CI, 0.857 to 0.89), compared to reference (normal BMI group). Similar trends were observed for HR of vertebra fracture. The risk of hip fracture was most prominent, the risk of hip fracture increased in the underweight group (HR, 1.896; 95% CI, 1.178 to 2.021) and decreased in the obesity (HR, 0.643; 95% CI, 0.624 to 0.663) and morbidly obesity group (HR, 0.627; 95% CI, 0.591 to 0.665). Lastly, fracture risk was least affected by BMI for limbs.
Conclusion
In T2DM patients, underweight tends to increase fracture risk, and overweight tends to lower fracture risk, but association between BMI and fracture risk varied depending on the affected bone lesions.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Dysuricemia—A New Concept Encompassing Hyperuricemia and Hypouricemia
    Naoyuki Otani, Motoshi Ouchi, Einosuke Mizuta, Asuka Morita, Tomoe Fujita, Naohiko Anzai, Ichiro Hisatome
    Biomedicines.2023; 11(5): 1255.     CrossRef
  • Association of Body Mass Index and Fracture Risk Varied by Affected Bones in Patients with Diabetes: A Nationwide Cohort Study (Diabetes Metab J 2023;47:242-54)
    Se-Won Lee, Kyungdo Han, Hyuk-Sang Kwon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(3): 439.     CrossRef
  • Association of Body Mass Index and Fracture Risk Varied by Affected Bones in Patients with Diabetes: A Nationwide Cohort Study (Diabetes Metab J 2023;47:242-54)
    So Young Park
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(3): 437.     CrossRef
  • Effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on fractures, BMD, and bone metabolism markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Xin Wang, Fengyi Zhang, Yufeng Zhang, Jiayi Zhang, Yingli Sheng, Wenbo Wang, Yujie Li
    Osteoporosis International.2023; 34(12): 2013.     CrossRef
Review
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
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Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Diagnostic Approaches and Maternal-Offspring Complications
Joon Ho Moon, Hak Chul Jang
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(1):3-14.   Published online January 27, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0335
  • 17,641 View
  • 999 Download
  • 75 Web of Science
  • 78 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common complication during pregnancy and is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. GDM is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and long-term offspring and maternal complications. For GDM screening and diagnosis, a two-step approach (1-hour 50 g glucose challenge test followed by 3-hour 100 g oral glucose tolerance test) has been widely used. After the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome study implemented a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test in all pregnant women, a one-step approach was recommended as an option for the diagnosis of GDM after 2010. The one-step approach has more than doubled the incidence of GDM, but its clinical benefit in reducing adverse pregnancy outcomes remains controversial. Long-term complications of mothers with GDM include type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, and complications of their offspring include childhood obesity and glucose intolerance. The diagnostic criteria of GDM should properly classify women at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes and long-term complications. The present review summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of the one-step and two-step approaches for the diagnosis of GDM based on recent randomized controlled trials and observational studies. We also describe the long-term maternal and offspring complications of GDM.

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    Luca Giannella, Camilla Grelloni, Dayana Quintili, Alessia Fiorelli, Ramona Montironi, Sonila Alia, Giovanni Delli Carpini, Jacopo Di Giuseppe, Arianna Vignini, Andrea Ciavattini
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    Bingbing Guo, Jingjing Pei, Yin Xu, Yajie Wang, Xinye Jiang
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    Xiaoqi Hu, Xiaolin Hu, Ya Yu, Jia Wang
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and outcomes of gestational diabetes mellitus in Indian women: Insights from a large real-world study over ten years at tertiary care research institute
    Sanjay Gupte, Gayatri Venkataraman, Aarti S. Shah, Shalaka Jamenis, Chandrakant Rao, Shweta M. Jangam, Kaveri M. Adki, Onkar C. Swami
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  • Gestational diabetes mellitus: state of art
    S. A. Pletneva, E. V. Enkova, O. V. Khoperskaya, S. V. Shamarin, V. V. Enkova
    Meditsinskiy sovet = Medical Council.2023; (5): 136.     CrossRef
  • Effect of folic acid supplementation in the association between short sleep duration and gestational diabetes mellitus
    Zhen Yang, Sisi Hu, Wei Tong, Zhihao Xu, Xiaoliu Huang, Weiye Wang
    Sleep and Breathing.2023; 27(6): 2509.     CrossRef
  • Birth weight and large for gestational age trends in offspring of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus in southern China, 2012-2021
    Li-Rong He, Li Yu, Yong Guo
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Mingjin Tao, Gaochen Lu, Sheng Zhang, Pan Li
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Brief Report
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
Rising Incidence of Diabetes in Young Adults in South Korea: A National Cohort Study
Hyun Ho Choi, Giwoong Choi, Hojun Yoon, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Dae Jung Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2022;46(5):803-807.   Published online January 11, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0236
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
We investigated the incidence of diagnosed diabetes in South Korean adults (aged ≥20 years) by analyzing data for the National Health Insurance Service–National Sample Cohort. From 2006 to 2015, the overall incidence rate of diagnosed diabetes decreased by approximately 0.1% per year until 2015. Although, this trend was observed in individuals aged 40 years or over, the rate increased slightly in the 20–29 and 30–39 years age groups, from 0.5 to 0.7 and 2.0 to 2.6 per 1,000 individuals, respectively. The proportion of obese young adults with diabetes increased remarkably, from 51.4% in 2006 to 72.4% in 2015. Thus, young adults need early identification and weight-control strategies to prevent diabetes.

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Original Articles
Complications
Article image
High Incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease among Iranian Diabetic Adults: Using CKD-EPI and MDRD Equations for Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate
Seyyed Saeed Moazzeni, Reyhane Hizomi Arani, Mitra Hasheminia, Maryam Tohidi, Fereidoun Azizi, Farzad Hadaegh
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(5):684-697.   Published online March 16, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0109
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  • 14 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
To investigate the population based incidence rate of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its potential risk factors among Iranian diabetic adults during over 14 years of follow-up.
Methods
Two different equations (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration [CKD-EPI] and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease [MDRD]) were applied for the calculating the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Among a total of 1,374 diabetic Tehranian adults, 797 and 680 individuals were eligible for CKD-EPI and MDRD analyses, respectively. CKD was defined as eGFR lower than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for all potential risk factors.
Results
The incidence rates (95% CI) of CKD per 1,000 person-years were 43.84 (39.49 to 48.66) and 55.80 (50.29 to 61.91) based on CKD-EPI and MDRD equations, respectively. Being older, a history of cardiovascular disease, and having lower levels of eGFR were significant risk factors in both equations. Moreover, in CKD-EPI, using glucose-lowering medications and hypertension, and in MDRD, female sex and fasting plasma glucose ≥10 mmol/L were also independent risk factors. Regarding the discrimination index, CKD-EPI equation showed a higher range of C-index for the predicted probability of incident CKD in the full-adjusted model, compared to MDRD equation (0.75 [0.72 to 0.77] vs. 0.69 [0.66 to 0.72]).
Conclusion
We found an incidence rate of more than 4%/year for CKD development among our Iranian diabetic population. Compared to MDRD, it can be suggested that CKD-EPI equation can be a better choice to use for prediction models of incident CKD among the Iranian diabetic populations.

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COVID-19
Article image
Does Diabetes Increase the Risk of Contracting COVID-19? A Population-Based Study in Korea
Sung-Youn Chun, Dong Wook Kim, Sang Ah Lee, Su Jung Lee, Jung Hyun Chang, Yoon Jung Choi, Seong Woo Kim, Sun Ok Song
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(6):897-907.   Published online December 23, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0199
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
This study aimed to determine the infection risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with diabetes (according to treatment method).
Methods
Claimed subjects to the Korean National Health Insurance claims database diagnosed with COVID-19 were included. Ten thousand sixty-nine patients with COVID-19 between January 28 and April 5, 2020, were included. Stratified random sampling of 1:5 was used to select the control group of COVID-19 patients. In total 50,587 subjects were selected as the control group. After deleting the missing values, 60,656 subjects were included.
Results
Adjusted odds ratio (OR) indicated that diabetic insulin users had a higher risk of COVID-19 than subjects without diabetes (OR, 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 1.53; P=0.0278). In the subgroup analysis, infection risk was higher among diabetes male insulin users (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.89), those between 40 and 59 years (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.13 to 2.44). The infection risk was higher in diabetic insulin users with 2 to 4 years of morbidity (OR, 1.744; 95% CI, 1.003 to 3.044).
Conclusion
Some diabetic patients with certain conditions would be associated with a higher risk of acquiring COVID-19, highlighting their need for special attention. Efforts are warranted to ensure that diabetic patients have minimal exposure to the virus. It is important to establish proactive care and screening tests for diabetic patients suspected with COVID-19 for timely disease diagnosis and management.

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Brief Report
Complications
Article image
Trends in the Incidence, Prevalence, and Mortality of End-Stage Kidney Disease in South Korea
Min-Jeong Lee, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Dae Jung Kim, Inwhee Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(6):933-937.   Published online December 23, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0156
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Knowledge of the epidemiologic characteristics of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients is essential. The trends in the prevalence, incidence, and mortality rates of ESKD were analyzed retrospectively using the Korean National Health Insurance ServiceNational Sample Cohort database between 2006 and 2015. From 2006 to 2015, the incidence of ESKD decreased from 28.6 to 24.0 per 100,000 people and showed a decreasing pattern with or without diabetes mellitus. However, the incidence of those aged ≥75 years increased, as did the mean age at the onset of ESKD. From 2007 to 2015, the prevalence of ESKD increased in all age groups, but particularly in those aged ≥75 years. The prevalence of ESKD differed by sex and diabetes mellitus status and this gap widened over time. Mortality rates in ESKD patients remained relatively constant throughout the study period. However, mortality rates in ESKD without diabetes decreased over the same period.

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Original Articles
Type 1 Diabetes
Article image
Incidence and Prevalence of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus among Korean Children and Adolescents between 2007 and 2017: An Epidemiologic Study Based on a National Database
Hyun Wook Chae, Gi Hyeon Seo, Kyungchul Song, Han Saem Choi, Junghwan Suh, Ahreum Kwon, Sangmi Ha, Ho-Seong Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(6):866-874.   Published online November 4, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2020.0212
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Background
The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) among children is high in Europe and the USA and relatively low in Asia, including Korea. The present study aimed to investigate the incidence and prevalence of childhood-onset T1DM in Korea and examine trends in incidence.
Methods
This study was conducted using the national registry data provided by the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service in Korea from 2007 to 2017. We included children aged 0 to 14 years who were newly registered with a T1DM diagnosis each year (code E10).
Results
A total of 29,013 children were registered. The overall incidence of T1DM was 4.45 per 100,000 persons (girls, 4.93; boys, 4.01). The overall incidence of childhood-onset T1DM in Korea increased from 3.70 in 2008 to 4.77 in 2016 (P=0.002). The incidence of T1DM increased from 3.07 in 2008 to 4.89 in 2016 (P<0.001) among boys. Although the incidence of the disease increased significantly among boys aged 5–9 and 10–14 years, it remained constant among girls (4.39 in 2008, 4.64 in 2016). The overall prevalence of childhood-onset T1DM in Korea increased from 32.85 in 2007 to 41.03 per 100,000 persons in 2017 (girls, 35.54 to 43.88; boys, 32.85 to 41.03).
Conclusion
We calculated relatively accurate incidence and prevalence of childhood-onset T1DM from a nation-based registry. The incidence increased by 3% to 4% every year from 2007 to 2017. The increasing trend is noteworthy compared with previous reports.

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Epidemiology
High Proportion of Adult Cases and Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Population in Korea: A Nationwide Study
You-Bin Lee, Kyungdo Han, Bongsung Kim, Sang-Man Jin, Seung-Eun Lee, Ji Eun Jun, Jiyeon Ahn, Gyuri Kim, Jae Hyeon Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(1):76-89.   Published online August 22, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0048
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

The prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in all age groups and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with T1DM in Korea were estimated.

Methods

The incidence and prevalence of T1DM between 2007 and 2013 were calculated using the Korean National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) datasets of claims. Clinical characteristics and prevalence of metabolic syndrome in individuals with T1DM between 2009 and 2013 were determined using the database of NHIS preventive health checkups.

Results

The prevalence of T1DM in Korea between 2007 and 2013 was 0.041% to 0.047%. The annual incidence rate of T1DM in Korea in 2007 to 2013 was 2.73 to 5.02/100,000 people. Although the incidence rate of typical T1DM was highest in teenagers, it remained steady in adults over 30 years of age. In contrast, the incidence rate of atypical T1DM in 2013 was higher in people aged 40 years or older than in younger age groups. Age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with T1DM was 51.65% to 55.06% between 2009 and 2013.

Conclusion

T1DM may be more common in Korean adults than previously believed. Metabolic syndrome may be a frequent finding in individuals with T1DM in Korea.

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Epidemiology of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Korea through an Investigation of the National Registration Project of Type 1 Diabetes for the Reimbursement of Glucometer Strips with Additional Analyses Using Claims Data
Sun Ok Song, Young Duk Song, Joo Young Nam, Kyeong Hye Park, Ji-Hae Yoon, Kyung-Mi Son, Young Ko, Dong-Ha Lim
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(1):35-45.   Published online December 1, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.1.35
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  • 53 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Korea. In addition, we planned to do a performance analysis of the Registration Project of Type 1 diabetes for the reimbursement of consumable materials.

Methods

To obtain nationwide data on the incidence and prevalence of T1DM, we extracted claims data from July 2011 to August 2013 from the Registration Project of Type 1 diabetes on the reimbursement of consumable materials in the National Health Insurance (NHI) Database. For a more detailed analysis of the T1DM population in Korea, stratification by gender, age, and area was performed, and prevalence and incidence were calculated.

Results

Of the 8,256 subjects enrolled over the 26 months, the male to female ratio was 1 to 1.12, the median age was 37.1 years, and an average of 136 new T1DM patients were registered to the T1DM registry each month, resulting in 1,632 newly diagnosed T1DM patients each year. We found that the incidence rate of new T1DM cases was 3.28 per 100,000 people. The average proportion of T1DM patients compared with each region's population was 0.0125%. The total number of insurance subscribers under the universal compulsory NHI in Korea was 49,662,097, and the total number of diabetes patients, excluding duplication, was 3,762,332.

Conclusion

The prevalence of T1DM over the course of the study was approximately 0.017% to 0.021% of the entire population of Korea, and the annual incidence of T1DM was 3.28:100,000 overall and 3.25:100,000 for Koreans under 20 years old.

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Reviews
The Epidemiology of Diabetes in Korea
Dae Jung Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(4):303-308.   Published online August 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.4.303
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Diabetes is an increasing global health problem worldwide. Diabetes and its complications have become a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Korea. The prevalence of diabetes in Korea has increased six- to seven-fold from 1.5% to 9.9% in the past 40 years. The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose also increased to about 20% in 2009. The International Diabetes Federation has estimated that the prevalence of diabetes will rise to 11.4% in 2030. Possible risk factors for diabetes in Korea are age, male gender, obesity, prediabetes, gestational diabetes, smoking, decreased physical activity, and short sleep duration. With increasing obesity, especially in childhood, and improved longevity, the prevalence of diabetes is expected to dramatically increase more than previously estimated. Therefore, public efforts to introduce healthy lifestyle changes and diabetic prevention programs are necessary to reduce the global epidemic of diabetes.

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Gestational Diabetes in Korea: Incidence and Risk Factors of Diabetes in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes
Hak Chul Jang
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(1):1-7.   Published online February 28, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.1.1
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Korean women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a 3.5 times greater risk of developing postpartum diabetes than the general population. The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in early postpartum is reported as 10-15% in Korean women. A prospective follow-up study on Korean women with GDM showed that approximately 40% of women with previous GDM were expected to develop diabetes within 5 years postpartum. Independent risk factors for the development of diabetes in Korean women with previous GDM are pre-pregnancy body weight, gestational age at diagnosis, antepartum hyperglycemia on oral glucose tolerance test, low insulin response to oral glucose load, and family history of diabetes. Women with postpartum diabetes have greater body mass indexes, body weight, and waist circumferences than women with normal glucose tolerance. Multiple logistic regression analysis has revealed that waist circumference is the strongest obesity index along with systolic blood pressure and that triglyceride levels are a major independent risk factor for developing diabetes. These results in Korean women with previous GDM underline the importance of postpartum testing in Korean women diagnosed with GDM, and demonstrate that impaired B-cell function, obesity, and especially visceral obesity, are associated with the development of diabetes.

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Original Article
Current Status of Diabetic Foot in Korean Patients Using National Health Insurance Database.
Choon Hee Chung, Dae Jung Kim, Jaiyong Kim, Hyeyoung Kim, Hwayoung Kim, Kyung Wan Min, Seok Won Park, Jeong Hyun Park, Sei Hyun Baik, Hyun Shik Son, Chul Woo Ahn, Jee Young Oh, Sunhee Lee, Juneyoung Lee, Kyung Mook Choi, Injeoung Choi, Ie Byung Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(5):372-376.   Published online September 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.5.372
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Foot ulcer diseases are more prevalent in diabetic patients than that those of non-diabetic patients. Several reports showed the risk of amputation and the medical cost were increased when foot ulcer developed. Therefore, strict glycemic control from the initial period of diabetes is necessary. Since there is no enough epidemiologic data, large scaled studies for medical and economic consequences about diabetic foot ulcer are needed. METHODS: This study was based on health insurance claims submitted to the National Health Insurance Review Agency during the period from December 1994 through December 2002. We investigated the incidence and medical cost of foot disorders in Korean population using the disease-classification codes on the health insurance claim forms. RESULTS: The incidences of foot disorders (per 100,000 of population) were 49.7 for amputations, 99.7 for ulcers, and 1,051 for injuries in diabetic patients, and 4.2 for amputations, 10.3 for ulcers, and 943 for injuries in non-diabetic patients. Relative risk of the incidences of foot amputation, ulcer, and injury in diabetic patients comparing with non-diabetic patients were 11.7, 9.7, and 1.1, respectively. Total medical costs (per capita) of foot amputation, ulcer, and injury in diabetic patients were 2.0, 1.7, and 2.1 times higher, respectively, than those of non-diabetic patients. Mean hospital stay of foot amputation, ulcer, and injury in diabetic patients were 1.6, 1.3, and 1.7 times more, respectively, than those of non-diabetic patients. CONCLUSION: In diabetic patients, the incidences of foot amputation and ulcer are higher than those of non-diabetic patients. To reduce those incidences, we need to early strict glycemic control as well as government based management.

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