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Comparison of the Antiproteinuric Effect to ACE Inhibitors in NIDDM Patients with Nephropathy According to Genotypes of ACE Gene.
Yong Mo Yang, Jeong Chul Seo, Kyoung Soo Lee, Won Joong Jeon, Hyun Hee Lee, Ji Bong Jeong, Seong Su Koong, Tae Geun Oh
Korean Diabetes J. 2000;24(4):476-484.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Albuminuria is a risk factor for progression of diabetic nephropathy. Antihypertensive treatment, especially angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition, has been shown to reduce albuminuria and to ameliorate progression of diabetic nephropathy in IDDM patients. Recently, an insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism of the ACE gene (ACE/ID) has been shown to influence the antiproteinuric efficacy of ACE inhibition in non-diabetic renal disease and the deterioration in kidney function in both non-diabetic and diabetic kidney disease. We evaluated the potential role of the ACE/ID polymorphism on the antiproteinuric responsiveness to ACE inhibition in NIDDM patients with nephropathy. METHODS: 35 NIDDM patients with overt proteinuria were included in this study. DNA amplified by PCR techniques was used to detect the two alleles of the ID polymorphism. Subjects were classified as II+ID group and DD group according to the presence (I) or absence (D) of a 270 base pair insertion. Ramipril was used for ACE inhibition. At a baseline and an end of the study(6 months later from baseline), arterial blood pressure, HbA1c, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, and 24 hour urine protein amount were measured. The significant response to ACE inhibition was defined as a decline in proteinuria > or =30% of baseline. RESULTS: The MABP was decreased significantly in each groups, but the degree of BP reduction was not different between the groups. Twenty-four hour urine protein amount and creatinine clearance was not different in each groups and between CONCLUSION: Antiproteinuric effect of ACE inhibition was not associated with ACE/ID polymorphism in diabetic patients with nephropathy.
Alterations of Plasma Atrial Natriuretic Peptide and its mRNA in Non-insulin Dependent Diabetic Model of Rats.
Byeong Dae Yoo, Won Kyun Park, Young Su Hong, Dae Kyu Song, Jae Hoon Bae
Korean Diabetes J. 2000;24(4):421-430.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Diabetes mellitus has led to change in fluid and electrolyte balance and consequently affected blood volume and blood pressure. These changes can trigger the secretion and synthesis of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) from both atrial and extra-atrial tissues. ANP plays an important role in the regulations of body fluid balance and blood pressure. Therefore, this study was carried out to elucidate whether or not atrial and extra-atrial synthesis of ANP is influenced in experimental non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) rats. METHODS: Neonatal rats were induced into NIDDM rats by single injection of streptozotocin (80 mg/kg). Plasma ANP level was measured by the use of radioimmunoassay method and the ANP mRNA expressions from the right atrium, left ventricle, hypothalamus and kidney were analyzed by reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction with [32P]-dCTP at 8 weeks after injection of streptozotocin or citrate buffer. RESULTS: Blood glucose was more significantly increased at 2 hours after glucose loading in NIDDM rats than control rats. Plasma concentration of ANP tended to significantly increase in NIDDM rats compared with control rats. The expressions of ANP mRNA from each tissue were observed in different patterns. Right atrial ANP mRNA expression revealed non-significant increasing trend in NIDDM rats, whereas left ventricular ANP mRNA did not have difference. However, both hypothalamic and renal ANP mRNA expressions in NIDDM rats were significantly increased. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the enhanced expressions of hypothalamic and renal ANP mRNA act as an important regulator of electrolytes and body fluid volume in neonatally streptozotocin-induced NIDDM rats.
Devrease of Mitochondrial DNA Content in Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetic Rats.
Ji Hyun Song, Sun Hee Yim, Bok Ghee Han, Hong Kyu Lee, Young Mi Kim, Kyong Soo Park, S Suzuki
Korean Diabetes J. 2000;24(2):202-215.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Although genetic disorder in diabetes mellitus (DM) is not well understood, it has been suggested that the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA which does not follow the Mendel's laws is a genetic factor for DM. It was reported that the mitochondrial DNA contents in DM patients were decreased compared to the normal control. Similar decrease in mitochondrial DNA content before DM development was tested in animal models. METHOD: The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in various tissues obtained from two types of non-insulin dependent diabetic rats, Goto-Kakizaki (GK) and Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats at different ages were quantified. We also determined the quantity of hepatic COX subunit lll(COX III) mRNA, and the enzyme activities of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) in mitochondria isolated from liver and skeletal muscle were measured. RESULTS: At 6 weeks, mtDNA content of GK rat liver was 20% decreased compared to the Wistar control, The mtDNA content of Wistar rat liver was decreased to aging from 6 weeks to 24 weeks while mtDNA in GK rat liver remains relatively constant. In case of skeletal muscle, however, mtDNA contents in GK rats were 50% decreased compared to the control at 12 and 24 week old, Similarly, OLETF and LETO control rats showed the age-dependent decrease of mtDNA content in liver and pancreas. Especially the mtDNA contents in OLETF rat tissues were reduced at the younger age than the LETO control content. That is, at 6 weeks old mtDNA contents in OLETF rat pancreas and liver were only 50% of the control. The level of mitochondrial coded hepatic CDX subunit III mRNA tends to decrease with age. Despite the decrease of mtDNA content, hepatic COX lll mRNA level and COX activities and SDH activities were not altered significantly, implying that the change of mtDNA contents did not damage the mitochondrial gene transcription and mitochondrial function dramatically. CONCLUSIONS: This results suggest that mtDNA contents in pancreas and liver decrease age-dependently but it occurs at younger age in NIDDM. The decrease of mtDNA content at young age may be a cause of NIODM.
The Prevalence of Chronic Complications in Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetic Patients.
Jick Hwa Nam, Soon Hee Lee, Hyun Jeong Lee, Jeung Hun Han, Jung Guk Kim, Sung Woo Ha, Bo Wan Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 1999;23(5):702-714.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
The chronic complications of diabetes mellitus are important prognostic factors of diabetics. The pathogenic mechanisms have not been known exactly and the prevalence is different according to the race and the reporter. In general, the development of diabetic microangiopathy depends on the duration and the severity of disease, while that of macroangiopathy does not. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of diabetic chronic complications according to age and duration of diabetes and to elucidate associated factors and correlation of chronic complications. METHODS: We studied 1,270 patients with non- insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) who visited the Endocrine-metabolism clinic at Kyungpook National University during the period from February 1992 to September 1996. We investigated prevalence, severity, associated factors and correlation of chronic vascular complications, including micro- and macroangiopathy. RESULT: 1) The ratio of male to female was similar and the average duration was 7.8 years. Diabetes mellitus was most prevalent in the 6th decade and the 1-5 years of diabetes duration. 2) The prevalences of retinopathy, nephropathy and peripheral polyneuropathy were 47.8%, 31.9% and 41.0%, respectively. Macrovascular complications were found in 6.2% of patients and the prevalences of coronary artery disease, cerebrovas-cular disease and peripheral artery disease were 2.4%, 3.4%, 0.4%, respectively. Prevalence of diabetic foot was 4.4%. 3) The prevalence and severity of microvascular complications increased as the age and diabetic duration of patients increased. In the group of same age, the prevalence of microvascular complications increased as the duration of diabetes increased. However, prevalence of macrovascular complica-tions especially coronary artery disease depended on the age, but not the duration of diabetes (p<0.05). 4) In the group over 10 years of diabetes, the fasting blood glucose, age and serum creatinine levels were increased, while hemoglobin and total protein levels were decreased than other groups (p<0.05). 5) The development of diabetic retinopathy was related to the duration, fasting blood glucose, albumine excretion rate and serum creatinine. The nephropathy was related to the duration and systolic blood pressure. The peripheral polyneuropathy was related to the duration, fasting blood glucose and body mass index. Macrovascular complications-particularly, coronary artery disease-were related to the age of diabeties (p<0.05). 6) There was significant relation between development of retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy but no relation between development of micro and macrovascular complications (p<0.05). CONCLUSION : The prevalence of microvascular complications in non-insulin dependent diabetics increased as the duration and the age of diabetics increased. The development of microvascular complications was related to the duration of disease and the glycemic control. There was relation between development of retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. The development of macrovascular complications, however, was related to the age of diabetics but not to the microvascular complications. Our results suggest that different pathogenic mechanisms may be involved in the development of micro- and macrovaseular complications of diabetes mellitus.
Clinical Study on Cerebral Infarction Complicated with CIDDM pateints.
Sang Jong Lee, Yoon Sang Choi, Seong Chun Shim, Hi Moo Lee, Kwon Choi, Hwa Young Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 1999;23(4):585-591.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of cardiovascular disease by two-fold and ischemic cerebrovascular disease by two to four-fold compared with the risk for non-diabetic patients. In patients with NIDDM, the risk of athero- thromboembolic cerebral infarction is known to be increased. We evaluated the significance of clinical variables with respect to the risk of cerebral infarction in NIDDM patients. METHODS: We assessed clinical variables retrospectively in 170 patients (90 men, 80 women) from April 1, 1991 through March 31, 1996, divided into 3 groups;100 NIDDM patients with cerebral infarction (58 men, 42 women), 40 NIDDM patients (17 men, 23 women) and 30 non-diabetic patients with cerebral infarction(15 men, 15 women). We evaluated 130 patients with cerebral infarction employing brain CT or MRI. RESULTS: 1) The mean values of age, serum total cholesterol, LDL, TG, HbA1C, systolic and diastolic BP were significantly higher in patients with NIDDM complicated by cerebral infarction than in those without cerebral infarction. 2) There were no statistically significant differences in body mass index (BMI), duration of DM and HDL between the two groups, respectively. 3) Diabetic retinopathy (especially, proliferative retinopathy) andmacroproteinuria(550 mg/day) were found significantly higher in diabetic patients with cerebral infarction than in those without cerebral infarction. 4) Multiple lacunar infarctions were more frequently observed in patients with NIDDM than non-diabetic patients with cerebral infarction. However, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Conclusion: We suggest that increased age and HbAlC, hypertension, dyslipidemia, macroproteinuria and proliferative diabetic retinopathy could be associated with the risk of cerebral infarction in patients with NIDDM. The results showed that multiple lacunar infarctions were more frequent in patients with NIDDM than in non-diabetic patients. However, there were no statistical significances between the two groups.
Solyble ICAM-1 and BCAM-1 in Patients with NIDDM.
Young Min Kim, Yong Gi Kim, Seok Man Son, In Ju Kim, Seok Dong Yoo, Young Keun Choi, Chang Won Lee, Jun Hyup Ahn
Korean Diabetes J. 1999;23(3):315-325.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
The development of vascular complications in diabetic patients changess their quality of life, as well as shortens their life expectancy. It has been recently discovered that the expressions of the cell adhesion molecules initiate vascular complications and have major effects on the progress of atherosclerosis. We measured soluble forms of intercelluar adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), the immunoglobulin superfamily members of the cell adhesion molecules concerning firm adhesion and transendothelial migration during leukocyte- endothelial cell interactions to clarify their concentrations and their relation with glycemic control and plasma lipoproteins as well as differences in concentration according to the presence of diabetic microvascular complcations in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients. METHODS: Serum sICAM-1and sVCAM-1 levels were measured by commercial ELISA kits in 35 NIDDM patients without overt macrovascular complications of diabetes or acute inflammation and 10 normal controls matched with body mass index and plasma lipoprotein levels. The mean age of the patient group and control group was 55.82+3.43 years and 46.30+15.15 years, respectively. Clinical characteristics and laboratory parameters such as fasting plasma glucose, HbAplasma lipoproteins and status of diabetic microvascular complications were evaluated and their relations with the levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were analyzed. RESULTS: 1) The level of sICAM-1 in NIDDM patients was significantly higher than that of normal controls (15.79+6.21 ng/mL vs. 11.98+2.35, p<0.05). sVCAM-1 showed the trend in elevation in NIDDM patients, but had no statistical significance (p=0.053). 2) The level of soluble ICAM-1 was positively correlated with HbAlc>, and plasma triglyceride levels (r=0.38, p<0.05, r=0.36, p<0.05, respectively) and negatively correlated with HDL (r=-0.44, p<0.01) in the patient group. There were no differences in their age, sex, and the presence of hypertension with the levels of sICAM-1 and no relation between sICAM-1 level and body mass index, plasma total cholesterol, Lp (a), fasting plasma glucose, fasting plasma C-peptide levels. Plasma LDL was partially correlated with the level of sICAM-1, but failed to reveal statistical significance. sVCAM-1 level was not correlated with any parameters discussed above, but had a tendency of correlation with HbAlc level (r=0.31, p=0.06). 3) No significant correlation was noted between the levels of sICAM-1 or sVCAM-1 and the duration of diabetes. 4) Both sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with diabetic nephropathy when compared to patients without nephropathy (21.58+7.11 ng/mL vs. 14.06+4.84 ng/mL, p<0.05, 37.51+16.91 ng/mL vs. 22.26+8.89 ng/mL, p<0.05, respectively, but such differences were not noted when patients were classifed according to the presence of retinopathy or neuropathy. 5) Both sICAM-1and sVCAM-1 levels did not correlate in the patient group or in the normal control group. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that enhanced expression of the the endothelial cell adhesion molecules in diabetic patients can be explained by endothelial dysfunction caused by persistent hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia. Furthermore, it can be suggested that endothelial dysfunction may be initiated by diabetes itself and can be deteriorated by combined dyslipidemia. From the result of the elevated concentrations of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 in patients with diabetic nephropathy, we can suggest that the elevation of these cell adhesion molecules may be useful as markers in diabetic nephropathy. More selective and prospective studies are necessary in order to reveal thesignificance of these cell adhesion molecules in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications.
Risk Factors for Peripheral Arterial Disease as Screened by Plethysmography in Patients with NIDDM.
Hyuk Jae Chang, Dae Jung Kim, Byoung Joo Choi, Young Guk Ko, Churl Woo Ahn, Dong Ryeol Ryu, Yong Seok Yun, Seol Hye Han, Jae Hyun Nam, Seok Won Park, Young Duk Song, Sung Kil Lim, Kyung Rae Kim, Won Heum Shim, Hyun Chul Lee, Kap Bum Huh
Korean Diabetes J. 1999;23(2):172-181.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is one of the clinical manifestations of the atherosclerotic disease process. Early onset and rapid progression of PAD in diabetic patients has been well documented. PAD in diabetic patients has also been associated with an increased risk for total and cardiovascular mortality. Plethysmography is a noninvasive test to screen for the presence of PAD. Thus the aim of this study is to assess the risk factors for PAD screened by plethysmography in NII)DM patients. METHODS: A total of 289 NIDDM patients who undlerwent plethysmography were entered into our annlysis. Clinical characteristics of 38 patients with an ankle-brachial index of <0.9 (group B) were conapared with those of 231 patients with an ankle-brachial index of >1.0 (group A). RESULTS: Abnormalities in plethysmographic findings were found in 45.7% of diabetic patients. Age, duration of diabetes, hypertension, smoking, previous history of vascular diseases, HDL cholesterol, TC/HDL, and LDL/HDL appeared to be factors significantly related to PAD. Fasting sugar, HbAlc, total cholesterol, LDL cholestero1, trigly ceride, fibrinogen, lipoprotein(a), and waist-hip ratio were not significantly different between the two groups. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed the signficant contribution of the previous history of vascular disease (p=0.0028) and age (p-0.0115) to PAD in diabetic patients. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of PAD defined by plethysmography in our subjects was 45.7% higher than expected, suggests that efforts for early detection and prevention of PAD should be emphasized in diabetic patients.
The Risk Factors of Diabetic Retinopathy in NIDDM Patients.
Won Tae Seo, Seung O Song, Sy Young Kim, Yoon Sang Choi, Hye Ran Jang, Sang Jong Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 1999;23(2):162-171.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Diabetic retinopathy, which is one of the microvascular complications, has been shown to be related to visual disturbance and blindness. In this report we examined the risk factors for diabetic retinopathy in NIDDM patients and investigate the relationship between the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and other risk factors. METHODS: Clinical characteristics and laboratory findings such as HbAlc, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin, BUN, creatinine and lipid profile and treatment modality were evaluated and their relation with diabetic retinopathv were analyzed. Fundoscopic examinations of the retina were performed using direct/indirect opthalmoscopy and fundus photograph. The grade of retinopathy was judged from the results of opthalmological examinations and were elassified into non-proliferative retinopathy and proliferative retinopathy. RESULTS: A total of 163 patients with NIDDM (M/F=59:104) were evaluated. Of these patients, 80 of them developed diabetic retinopathy. 71 patients were detected to have non-proliferatie and 9 patients to have proliferative retinopathy. The presence of proteinuria, the long diabetic duration, hypertension, anemia, the high plasma glucose levels, the high level of HbA1c, old age were all associated with the development of diabetic retinopathy. I-lowever, sex, body mass index, type of therapy, lipid profile, C-peptide levels, insulin levels had little impact on the development of retinopathy. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of proteinuria, the long diabetic duration, hypertension, anemia, high plasma glucose levels, high HbA., and old age are important risk factors for the development of rc;tinopathy in patients with NIDDM.
Plasma Concentrations of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1(PAI-1) and Lipoprotein(a) in Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus with Peripheral Vascular Disease.
Sung Jin Nam, Sung Rae Cho, Choo Sung Kim, Sang Gyun Woo, Hee Jin Choi, Sang Ki Kim, Jae Hong Park, In Kyu Lee, Seong Bum Han, Seung Yup Han, Chung Chul Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 1999;23(1):55-61.   Published online January 1, 2001
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OBJECTIVES
The plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-I) and lipoprotein(a) are considered as important fibrinolysis inhibitors. We evaluated PAI-1 and Lp(a) concentrations in Korean non-insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients with or without peripheral vascular disorder. METHODS: By using National Diabetes Data Group (NDDG) criteria as a diabetes mellitus diagnostic criteria, a total of 127 Korean NIDDM patients were seleeted. The ankle brachial index was measured by segrnental volume plethysmography to diagnose peripheral vascular disease. We also examined clinical and biochemical parameters in NIDDM patients. RESULTS: The duration of diabetes, systolic and diastolic pressures was significantly higher in diabetic patients with peripheral vascular disease (Group 2) than in diabetic patients without peripheal vascular disease (Group 1). The 24 hour urine microalbumin and PAI-1 levels in Group 2 were also significantly higher and the HDL-cholesterol level was lower than in Group 1. There were significant correlations between the plasma level of PAI-1 and BMI (r=0.466, p=0,007) or C-peptide level(r=0.517, p=0.012). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that Lp(a) and PAI-1 are independent risk factors for peripheral vascular disease. CONCLUSION: In the light of these results, it seems reasonable to suggest that high levels of PAI-1 and Lp(a) in NlDDM patients may play a role in the pathogenesis of peripheral vascular disease.
Relationship between Circadian Mean Blood Pressure ( MBP ) Rhythm and Microvascular Complications in Normotensive NIDDM Patients.
Hyang Kim, Seong Chun Shim, Dae Jung Shim, Hi Moo Lee, Yoon Sang Choi, Jin Ho Kang, Byung Ik Kim, Sang Jong Lee, Yoo Lee Kim, Yoon Kyung Cho
Korean Diabetes J. 1998;22(4):552-560.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Thanks to ambulatory 24-h blood pressure monitoring device, it became possible to investigate circadian pressure rhythm under variable physiologic and pathologic conditions. Moreover, ambulatory 24-h blood pressure has allowed us to detect in diabetic patients unsuspected abnormalities of the blood pressure circadian rhythm and to relate them to autonomic or renal dysfunction. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between circadian rhythm of mean blood pressure (MBP) and microvascular complications in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). METHODS: 24hr blood pressure monitoring was applied to 63 normotensive NIDDM patients(mean age 55.3+7.2 year, male: 35, female: 28) who have been hospitalized at our hospital from March 1993 to December 1994 to measure systolic, diastolic and hourly mean pressure of daytime, night time and 24hr. In addition, NIDDM patients were divided into 2 groups according to 24 hour circadian blood pressure rhythm by measuring hourly mean pressure. These 2 groups, group 1 who had a circadian MBP rhythm, with a peak value in the afternoon and group 2 who had an absent or reversed circadian rhythm with a peak value during the night time, were observed to evaluate the frequency of diabetic microvascular complication. RESULTS: The mean systolic and diastolic ambulatory BP values were significantly higher in the group 2 NIDDM during night-time compared with control group and group 1(systolic pressure: F=12.53 p<0.05 diastolic pressure: F:=15.159 p<0.05). Although there was no significant differences in day-time heart rate between three groups, 1 and 2 group showed significant higher level of night-time heart rate comparing with that of control group (F=3.444 p<0.05). Group 2 diabetes patients showed, both systolic and diastolic, higher night-time and day-time blood pressure ratio(systolic pressure: F=35.958 p<0.05> diastolic pressure F=40.126 p<0.05). Observing the night-time and day-time heart rate ratio, group 1 and 2 patients showed significantly higher level compared with that of cantrol group(F=12.144 p<0.05). Regarding the retmopathy, group 1 patient.; showed mild degree retinopathy or normal finding(X =3.65 p<0.05). However, many group 2 patients showed moderate 2 degree nonproliferative retinopathy(X =3.23 p<0.05). The prevalence of overt nepkuopathy (24-hour urine protein>500mg) and autonomic neuropathy (postural and abnormal E:I ratio during deep breathing test) was significantly higher in group 2 (overt nephropathy: X'=3.23 p
Combined Measurements of Anti-ICA512 and Anti-GAD Antibodies in Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus and Slowly Progressive Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus in Korea.
Kyoung Ah Kim, Kyu Jung Ahn, Jae Hoon Chung, Yong Ki Min, Moon Kyu Lee, Phil Soo Oh, Dong Kyu Jin, Byung Tae Kim, Hae Joon Park, Kwang Won Kim, Myung Shik Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 1998;22(4):482-490.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic autoimmune disease in which circulating antibodies to various islet-specific antigens including autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADAb), antibodies reacting with an islet tyrosine phosphatase-related molecule termed as ICA512 (ICA512Ab), and insulin autoantibodies are frequently detected. These autoantibodies could be useful for presymptomatic diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus, and tbeir presence suggest some patients with atypical diabetes mellitus that appears to be more prevalent in Asian than in western countries have autoimmune characteristics. ICA512Ab was discovered in 1992 and, when combined with GADAb, may increase the diagnostic sensitivity in autoimmune diabetes. In an attempt to study the autoimmune feature of atypical diabetes mellitus, we studied the prevalence of ICA512Ab using an in vitro transcription and translation method in the patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), slowly progressive insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (SPIDDM) and non-msulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), and compared it with that of GADAb. METHODS: ICA512Ab were measured by a radioimmunoprecipitation method using in vitro transcribed and translated S-methionine-labeled ICA512. GADAb were measured using a commercial radioimmunoassay kit (RSR, United Kingdom). The subjects in this study consisted of 43 patients with IDDM, 32 with SPIDDM, and 40 witb NIDDM. Their mean age was 21.2+14.5 years, 50.1+17.1 years, 52.5+13.4 years, respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of ICA512Ab and GADAb in IDDM was 29 % and 51 %, respectively. That in SPIDDM was 9 % and 29 %; in NIDDM, 0 % and 2.5 %, respectively. When two antibodies were combined, 60 % of IDDM and 50 % of SPIDDM had the autoantibodies. When we analyzed the prevalence of autoantibodies according to the duration of diabetes, the prevalence of ICA 512Ab in patients tested within 4 years after the rliagnosis and more than 4 years after the diagnosis was 35 % and 19 %, respectively in IDDM. And also that of GADAb was 59 % and 38 %, respectively. In SPlDDM, the prevalence of ICA512Ab was 13 % and 7 %, respectively, while that of GADAb was 67 % and 14 % (p<0.05), respectively. In IDDM, ICA512Ab were more frequently detected in patients younger than 15 years ot age (45 %) than in older ones (14%) (p<0.05) while the prevalence of GADAb was not different according to the age (55 % vs 44 %). CONCLUSION: ICA512Ab are detected in some patients with autoimmune diabetes, while their prevalence is lower than that of GADAb. However, ICA512Ab, in combination with GADAb, increases the sensitivity ot autoantibody tests in autoimmune diabetes. Some of SPIDDM have an autoimmune etiology.
Lowering Effect of Voglibose, Monotherapy on Uncontrolled Postprandial Glucose in Patients with Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) Being Treated with Strict Diet Control: Multicenter Open-Study.
Jeong Taek Woo, Young Seol Kim, Young Kil Choi, Jin Woo Kim, In Myung Yang, Sung Woon Kim, Deog Yoon Kim, Kwang Won Kim, Moon Kyu Lee, Myung Shik Lee, Jae Hoon Jung, Kyu Jeong Ahn, Hyun Chul Lee, Young Deuk Song, Bong Soo Cha, Jee Hyun Lee, Hyung Joon Won
Korean Diabetes J. 1998;22(3):419-428.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
It is sometimes very difficult to control the elevation of postprandial glucose with diet therapy only in patients with NIDDM partly because of their defective insulin response to glucose. Recently the alpha-glucosidase inhibitors which inhibit carbohydrate digestion and suppress or delay absorption of the final breakdown products, glucose and fructose when it is taken orally with meal have been widely used in the treatment of diabetes. The drugs, however, provoke the adverse effects e.g. flatulence, diarrhea etc. in some patients. Therefore we studied the efficacy of the more recently developed alpha glucosidase inhibitor, Voglibose (Basen, Cheiljedang) METHODS: Fifty five patients whose postprandial two hour serum glucose levels were more than 11.1 mmol/L despite the strict diet therapy during the 4 week observation period were assigned to receive Voglibose 0.2 mg before each meal t.i.d. for 8 weeks. Of 55 subjects, 41 were given Voglibose 0.3 mg t..i.d. for the last 4 weeks because of their poor glucose control, RESULTS: The postprandial one and two hour serum glucose levels significantly decreased after therapy; 1 hour: 17.5+4.4 mmol/L(prior to therapy), 15.4+3.8 mmol/L(4 week after), 14.8+5.1 mmol/L(8 week), p <0.00l, 2 hour: 16.7+4.5 mmol/L, 14.8+3.9 mmol/ L, 14.8+4.5 mmol/L, p<0.00 l, t-tests for paired samples. Total serum cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels also significantly decreased(5.24+1.06 - 4.90+1.27 mmol/L, p=0.036, 1.34+0.66 1.16 +0.3l mmol/L, p=0.035 respectively) However, HbAlc, serum fructosamine, insulin and triglyceride levels were not significantly changed. The prevalence of the adverse effects due to Voglibose was 14%(10/71). All of them were less than grade II of WHO criteria and disappeared despite continuing therapy. CONCLUSION: Voglibose monotherapy is considered as having an glucose lowering effect in patients with NIDDM whose adequate postprandial blood glucose cannot be achieved with diet therapy only.
Effects of Glycemic Control on Growth and IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBPs in Insulin dependent Diabetic Children.
D H Kim, K S Rho, S C Chung
Korean Diabetes J. 1998;22(3):392-402.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
It is well known that linear growth velocity in diabetic children is closely related to metabolic control and age of onset. Many studies demonstrated growth impairment in diabetic children regardless of the degree of metabolic control, whereas other studies have found no growth retardation. We therefore compared growth status and growth factors in type I diabetic children with health children. METHODS: 50 patients with IDDM(27 F/23 M; mean age 12.4+4.6years)were studied. The mean duration of diabetes was 3.5+2.5years. The growth status and IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-3 levels in type 1 diabetic children were comyared to those of age, sex-matched normal children(21 F/15 M; mean age 10.3+3.4 years). RESULTS: 1. HTSDS(height standard deviation score) in diabetic children was 0.2+1.1 and HTSDS in control 0.l+1.1. There is no significant difference in HTSDS between two groups. 2. Growth hormone in diabetic children was higher than control(3.1+1.7ng/mL in diabetes, vs 1.8 +2.3ng/mL in control, p<0.05). IGF-I and IGF-II levels in diabetes were lower than controls(IGF-I: 138.5+116.6ng/mL vs 232.7+190.4ng/mL, IGF-II: 552.0+178.5ng/mL vs 633.5+146.2ng/mL, p0.05). No significant difference in free IGF-I, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-3 between two groups. 3. HTSDS at onset of diabetes was 1.1+1.4 but HTSDS at study was much decreased to 0.2+1.3(p <0.05). Mean duration of diabetes was 3.5+ 2.5years. 4. HTSDS in diabetic children with less than 3 years duration was 0.6+1.0 and delta HTSDS was -0.4+0.8. HTSDS with more than 3 years duration was -0.2+1.5 and delta HTSDS was -1.2+1.3. HTSDS and delta HTSDS were much more decreased according to duration(p<0.01). 5. Delta HTSDS in diabetic children with poor control was significantly decreased(p<0.05). Delta HTSDS below 12% of HbAlc was -0.5+0.8 and delta HTSDS above 12% of HbAlc was -1.2+1.3. 6. Delta HTSDS was correlated with diabetic duration (r=0.50, p<0.01), There was no significant correlation between onset of age and HbAlc. Conclusions: The IGF-I dk. IGF-II levels were decreased in diabetic children compared with controls. HTSDS in diabetic children was not decreased compared to control, but delta HTSDS decreased with long duration of diabetes and poor metabolic control. There was no specific difference between diabetic control and serum concentration of free IGF-I, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-3. These data suggest that the height of diabetic children could be impaired in case of long duration and poor metabolic control of diabetes.
The Frequency of ICA and anti-GAD Antibody in Korean IDDM and NIDDM Patients.
Kyung Soo Ko, Sung Kwan Hong, Ki Up Lee, Nan Hee Kim, Dong Seop Choi, Sung Hee Ihm, Sung Woo Park, Chul Hee Kim, Dong Won Byun, Kyo Il Suh, Hak Chul Chang, Byoung Doo Rhee
Korean Diabetes J. 1998;22(3):312-319.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
It has been suggested that the clinical and immunological characteristics of diabetes mellitus in Koreans are different from those of Caucasians. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of autoimmune markers in Korean adults with IDDM and recent-onset NIDDM. METHODS: Seventy-seven Korean adults with IDDM and 245 recently(within 2 years) diagnosed NIDDM were included in the study. Islet cell cytoplasmic antibody was measured by immunohistochemical method, and anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (anti-GAD) antibody was measured by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: 1) The prevalence of ICA, anti-GAD antibody positivity was 27% and 40% in IDDM patients, and 5% and 4% in recent-onset NIDDM patients, respectively. 2) The prevalence of ICA positivity in IDDM patients decreased from 42% within one year to 21% over one year after clinical onset of disease. On the other hand, the positivity of anti-GAD antibody did not change according to the duration of diabetes. 3) The prevalence of ICA tends to be lower in IDDW patients with low serum C-peptide concentrations. In contrast, the prevalence of anti-GAD antibody was not different according to sernm C-peptide levels. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that the prevalence of ICA and antii-GAD antibody was lower in Korean adult IDDM and recent-onset NIDDM patients than that in Caucasians.
Effect of Troglitazone on Glucose Transport in Human Skeletal Muscle Cell Cultures from Obese Non-diabetic and Obese Non-insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.
Theodore Ciaraldi, Robert R Henry, Kyong Soo Park, Hong Kyu Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 1998;22(2):164-172.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Skeletal muscle is the principal tissue of insulin resistance in obese non-diabetic and non-insulin dependent diabetic(NIDDM) subjects. Troglitazone(Tgz), a member of thiazolidinedione class of compounds, has been shown to improve glucose tolerance in insulin resistant state. At the celluar level, troglitazone has been shown to improve insulin action in skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue. However, there has been little knowledge about the mechanism of this drug in human skeletal muscle from insulin resistant subjects. METHODS: To determine the effect of troglitzone on glucose transport(GT) in skeletal muscle of obese non-diabetic and obese NIDDM patients, muscle cultures from 7 obese nondiabetic and 8 obese NlDDM subjects were grown for 4 weeks and then fused for 4 days either with or without Tgz (05ug/mL). At the end of fusion, GT activity was measured and cells were harvested for the measurement of glucose transporter protein expression. RESULTS: Tgz treatment(4 days) increased GT activity dose-dependently in skeletal muscle cell culture of both obese non-diabetic and obese NIDDM subjects. 5ug/mL troglitazone increased basal GT by 2.3 +0.3 fold in obese non-diabetic and 5.7+1.3 fold in obese NIDDM subjects (p <0.05, respectively) Absolute rate of insulin-stimulated GT was significantly increased following Tgz treatment with no enhancement of the incremental response above basal value in either group. Total memhrane GLUTl protein increased 1.7+0.3 fold(p<0.05) following troglitazone treatment(5ug/mL) in NIDDM but were unchhanged in obese non-diabetic cells. GLUT4 protein levels were not affected by Tgz treatment in either group. CONCLUSION: Troglitazone increased both basal and insulin-stimulated GT activity without enhancing the incremental insulin response above basal value in muscle cultures from insulin resistant subjects. These results indicate that troglitazone is not an insulin sensitizer in muscle cultures but acts primarily by mimicking insulin's ability to stimulate basal glucose metabolism in the insulin resistant state of obesity and NlDDM

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
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