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Original Articles
A Comparative Study of Eating Habits and Food Intake in Women with Gestational Diabetes according to Early Postpartum Glucose Tolerance Status
You Jeong Hwang, Bo Kyung Park, Sunmin Park, Sung-Hoon Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(4):354-363.   Published online August 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.4.354
  • 65,535 View
  • 45 Download
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at high risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD); continuous life-style intervention, especially diet, is central to managing T2DM and CVD. However, little is known about the dietary patterns of women with GDM after delivery. The goal of this study was to compare the eating habits and food intakes of women diagnosed with GDM during the early postpartum period.

Methods

We performed a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 184 women with GDM between 6 and 12 weeks after delivery. Based on the results of the OGTT, the subjects were divided into three groups according to the American Diabetes Association criteria; normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (n=100), pre-diabetes (n=73), and diabetes mellitus (DM) (n=11). Eating habits and usual food intake after delivery were investigated using a questionnaire, based on 24 hour-recall, which was administered by a trained dietitian. The daily intake data were analyzed using CAN Pro 3.0. Blood tests were performed pre- and post-delivery.

Results

Eating habits were not significantly different among the three groups. However, animal fat consumption was significantly different among the three groups. The intake ratio of fat calories to total calories was also significantly higher in the pre-diabetes and DM groups.

Conclusion

Although diet in the period 6 to 12 weeks postpartum did not influence glucose level, it may be important to educate women with GDM about the risks of excessive animal fat intake during pregnancy and the postpartum period in order to prevent later onset of T2DM.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Intuitive eating is associated with weight and glucose control during pregnancy and in the early postpartum period in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM): A clinical cohort study
    Dan Yedu Quansah, Justine Gross, Leah Gilbert, Celine Helbling, Antje Horsch, Jardena J. Puder
    Eating Behaviors.2019; 34: 101304.     CrossRef
  • Prevention of Diabetes after Gestational Diabetes: Better Translation of Nutrition and Lifestyle Messages Needed
    Sharleen O'Reilly
    Healthcare.2014; 2(4): 468.     CrossRef
  • Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Women: Similarities and Differences from Other Racial/Ethnic Groups
    Catherine Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2014; 38(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • A Study of Snack Consumption, Night-Eating Habits, and Nutrient Intake in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
    Hee-jin Park, JinJu Lee, Ji-Myung Kim, Hyun Ah Lee, Sung-Hoon Kim, Yuri Kim
    Clinical Nutrition Research.2013; 2(1): 42.     CrossRef
  • Risk Factors for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in a Large Population of Women Living in Spain: Implications for Preventative Strategies
    Ana M. Ramos-Leví, Natalia Pérez-Ferre, M. Dolores Fernández, Laura del Valle, Elena Bordiu, Ana Rosa Bedia, Miguel A. Herraiz, M. José Torrejón, Alfonso L. Calle-Pascual
    International Journal of Endocrinology.2012; 2012: 1.     CrossRef
  • The Influence of Ethnicity on the Development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Women with Gestational Diabetes: A Prospective Study and Review of the Literature
    Christian M. Girgis, Jenny E. Gunton, N. Wah Cheung
    ISRN Endocrinology.2012; 2012: 1.     CrossRef
  • Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Target Goal Attainment Rate in Korean Patients with Diabetes
    Eun Hae Lee, Chul Woo Ahn
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2011; 35(6): 578.     CrossRef
Insulin Secretion and Incretin Hormone Concentration in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Sung Hoon Yu, Bongjun Cho, Yejin Lee, Eunhye Kim, Sung Hee Choi, Soo Lim, Ka Hee Yi, Young Joo Park, Kyong Soo Park, Hak Chul Jang
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(1):58-64.   Published online February 28, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.1.58
  • 3,778 View
  • 35 Download
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

We examined the change in the levels of incretin hormone and effects of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) on insulin secretion in women with previous gestational diabetes (pGDM).

Methods

A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was conducted on 34 women with pGDM. In addition, 11 women with normal glucose tolerance, matched for age, height and weight, were also tested. The insulin, GIP, GLP-1, and glucagon concentrations were measured, and their anthropometric and biochemical markers were also measured.

Results

Among 34 women with pGDM, 18 had normal glucose tolerance, 13 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 1 had diabetes. No significant differences were found in GLP-1 concentration between the pGDM and control group. However, a significantly high level of glucagon was present in the pGDM group at 30 minutes into the OGTT. The GIP concentration was elevated at 30 minutes and 60 minutes in the pGDM group. With the exception of the 30-minute timepoint, women with IGT had significantly high blood glucose from 0 to 120 minutes. However, there was no significant difference in insulin or GLP-1 concentration. The GIP level was significantly high from 0 to 90 minutes in patients diagnosed with IGT.

Conclusion

GLP-1 secretion does not differ between pGDM patients and normal women. GIP was elevated, but that does not seem to induce in increase in insulin secretion. Therefore, we conclude that other factors such as heredity and environment play important roles in the development of type 2 diabetes.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association of GLP-1 secretion with parameters of glycemic control in women after gestational diabetes mellitus
    Eleni Pappa, Kristina Busygina, Saori Harada, Hana Hermann, Cornelia Then, Andreas Lechner, Uta Ferrari, Jochen Seissler
    BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care.2024; 12(1): e003706.     CrossRef
  • Inadequate Glucagon Suppression During OGTT in Prediabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
    Lina Chang, Ying Liu, Yian Gu, Siyu Yan, Li Ding, Ming Liu, Qing He
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Increased Pro-Inflammatory T Cells, Senescent T Cells, and Immune-Check Point Molecules in the Placentas of Patients With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
    Yea Eun Kang, Hyon-Seung Yi, Min-Kyung Yeo, Jung Tae Kim, Danbit Park, Yewon Jung, Ok Soon Kim, Seong Eun Lee, Ji Min Kim, Kyong Hye Joung, Ju Hee Lee, Bon Jeong Ku, Mina Lee, Hyun Jin Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Simulation of Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests and the Corresponding Isoglycemic Intravenous Glucose Infusion Studies for Calculation of the Incretin Effect
    Myeungseon Kim, Tae Jung Oh, Jung Chan Lee, Karam Choi, Min Young Kim, Hee Chan Kim, Young Min Cho, Sungwan Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2014; 29(3): 378.     CrossRef
  • Metabolic, hormonal characteristics and genetic variants of TCF7L2 associated with development of gestational diabetes mellitus in Mexican women
    Ruth Reyes‐López, Elva Pérez‐Luque, Juan Manuel Malacara
    Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews.2014; 30(8): 701.     CrossRef
  • Reduced postprandial GLP‐1 responses in women with gestational diabetes mellitus
    L. Bonde, T. Vilsbøll, T. Nielsen, J. I. Bagger, J. A. Svare, J. J. Holst, S. Larsen, F. K. Knop
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2013; 15(8): 713.     CrossRef
  • Women with normal glucose tolerance and a history of gestational diabetes show significant impairment of β-cell function at normal insulin sensitivity
    P. Molęda, K. Homa, K. Safranow, Z. Celewicz, A. Fronczyk, L. Majkowska
    Diabetes & Metabolism.2013; 39(2): 155.     CrossRef
Mutation Screening of HNF-1alpha Gene in Korean Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.
Hun Sung Kim, Sun Hee Hwang, Eun Sun Choi, So Young Park, Chang Hoon Yim, Ki Ok Han, Hyun Koo Yoon, Ho Yeon Chung, Kyung Seon Kim, Jeong Bok, Jong Young Lee, Sung Hoon Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(1):38-43.   Published online February 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.1.38
  • 2,578 View
  • 21 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
S: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance with onset or first detection during pregnancy and mostly caused by insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction like type 2 diabetes. However, autoimmune or monogenic diabetes can contribute to GDM. Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a monogenic form of diabetes characterized by an early age of onset and an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. Most MODY cases are attributable to mutations in HNF-1alpha gene, also known as MODY3. We investigated whether mutations in HNF-1alpha gene are present in Korean women with GDM. METHODS: A total of 96 Korean women with GDM who have a family history of DM were screened for mutations in the HNF-1alpha gene. We evaluated the clinical characteristics of GDM women with HNF-1alpha gene mutations. RESULTS: Five of 96 patients (5.2%) were found to have a mutation in HNF-1alpha gene. Four of those (-23C > G, 833G > A (Arg278Gln), 923C > T, IVS5 + 106A > G) were novel and one (-124G > C) in promoter region was reported in previous study. The mean age of GDM women with mutations of HNF-1alpha gene was 34 years. Four women with MODY3 gene mutations required insulin therapy during pregnancy. GDM women with MODY3 gene mutations appeared to be decreased insulin secretion (HOMA-%B) than those without mutations. CONCLUSIONS: We have found the existence of MODY3 as well as novel HNF-1alpha gene mutations in Korean women with GDM.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Update on Monogenic Diabetes in Korea
    Ye Seul Yang, Soo Heon Kwak, Kyong Soo Park
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2020; 44(5): 627.     CrossRef
  • Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young: What Do Clinicians Need to Know?
    Sung-Hoon Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2015; 39(6): 468.     CrossRef
Case Reports
A Case of Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.
Myung Hwan Kim, Eui Dal Jung, Seung Pyo Hong, Gyu Hwan Bae, Sun Young Ahn, Eon Ju Jeon, Seong Yeon Hong, Ji Hyun Lee, Ho Sang Son
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(4):368-371.   Published online July 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2007.31.4.368
  • 2,143 View
  • 29 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance of variant severity with onset or first recognition during present pregnancy. Recently the prevalence of GDM in Korean has reported as 1.7~4.0%. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious metabolic complication of diabetes with high mortality if undetected. Its occurrence is very rare in gestational diabetes patients, but is harmful to fetal and maternal health. A 26 years-old pregnant woman was admitted at 37 weeks gestation because of progressive generalized weakness, anorexia and weight loss. Initial physical examination reveals that she had been dehydrated, and blood pressure 130/80 mmHg, pulse rate 100/min, respiratory rate 20/min, and body temperature was 36.9 degrees C. Serum glucose was 545 mg/dL, pH 7.282, HCO3- 10.5 mmol/L, urine ketone 3+, urine glucose 2+ when initial laboratory work was done. She was treated with intravenous fluid and insulin under the impression of diabetic ketoacidosis. Her delivery was performed after 24 hours from admission because of suggestive fetal distress. After recovery, she is being treated with insulin at outpatient department. We experienced a appropriately treated case of diabetic ketoacidosis in pregnant woman with GDM, and report it with a literature review.
Clinical Courses of Two Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Who are GAD Antibody Positive.
Sung Hoon Yu, Min Jun Song, Sung Hoon Kim, Chang Hoon Yim, Ki Ok Han, Won Kun Park, Hyun Koo Yoon, Ho Yeon Chung
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(5):398-402.   Published online September 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.5.398
  • 2,250 View
  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance of various degrees with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Women with GDM are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life, but the risk of developing type 1 diabetes is also increased. Positivity for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies during pregnancy confers a high risk for subsequent progression to type 1 diabetes. Here, we reported the two cases with GDM who were GAD antibody positive and progressed to type 1 diabetes with different time-courses. One woman with GDM progressed rapidly to classical type 1 diabetes while the other became slowly progressive IDDM (SPIDDM) [or latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA)].
Original Articles
Can the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) done at Postpartum (PPT) 1 Wddk Substitute OGTT at PPT 6 Week OGTT at PPT 6 Week in Diagnosing Rersistent PPT Glucose Intolerance in the Patients with Gastrational Diagetes Melltus (GDM)?.
Yoo Lee Kim, Yong Wook Cho, Seok Won Park, Yun Kyung Cho, Hwa Young Lee, In Hyun Kim, Jong Gun Won, Hye Sun Jun, Ho Taek Lee, Seog Ki Lee, Sang Jong Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2000;24(2):267-280.   Published online January 1, 2001
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  • 22 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Although 75 g-OGTT at PPT 6 week is necessary to diagnose persistent PPT glucose intolerance (PPGI) in GDM patients, it 1s difficult to perform this test because many patients drop-out during the follow-up period. Thus we tested whether OGTT done at PPT 1 week can substitute OGTT at PPT 6 week in diagnosing PPGI in GDM patients. METHOD: In 370 GDM patients, 75 g-OGTT was performed at PPT 1 week and repeat OGTT was done in 196 patients at PPT 6 week. Results of OGTT were classified as normal glucose tolerance(NGT), impaired glucose tolerance(IGT), and diabetes mellitus (DM) according to National Diabetes Data Group(NDDG) criteria. Changes in glucose tolerance state between PPT 1 and 6 week were assessed, and the predictability of clinical characteristics for these changes were investigated by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Among 370 GDM patients who performed OGTT at PPT 1 week, 79.4% had NGT, 12.2% had IGT, and 8.4% had DM. 53% (196/370) of subjects repeated OGTT at PPT 6 week. In OGTT at PPT 6 week, 77.6% (152/196, 140/149 in NGT, 4/26 in IGT and 8/21 in DM) were in the same glucose tolerance state as at PPT 1 week. The glucose tolerance improved in 14.8% (29/196, 16/26 in IGT and 13/21 in DM) and deteriorated in 7,6% (15/196, 9/149 in NGT and 6/26 in IGT). 94%(140/149) of patients who had NGT at PPT 1 week had NGT at PPT b week and 48.9/o (23/47) of patients who had abnormal glucose tolerance at PPT 1 week had abnormal glucose tolerance at PPT 6 week. Mean fasting plasma glucose level on OGTT became lower at PPT 1 week than during pregnancy (4.6+/-0,8 vs 5.1+/-1.2mmol/L, p<0.05) and became higher at PPT 6 week than at PPT 1 week (5.4+/-1.1 vs 4.6+/-0.8 mmol/L, p<0.05). Mean plasma glucose level at 2 hour after glucose load was significantly lower at PPT 6 week than at PPT 1 week (7.2+/-2.7 vs 8.3+/-2.5 mmol/L). When the subjects were grouped into NGT, IGT, and DM according to glucose tolerance state at PPT 6 week, the NGT group already showed normal glucose tolerance at PPT 1 week. The IGT and DM group showed slightly lower glucose levels at PPT 1 week than during pregnancy but became high to the level during pregnancy at PPT 6 week. In the patients group showing deterioration in glucose tolerance state between PPT 1 and 6 week, prevalence of insulin treatment was higher (63.4% vs 9.4, 20.7%), the gestational age at diagnosis of GDM were lower (25.0+/-6.2 week vs 29.8+/-3.3, 29.9+/-4,8 waek), and prepregnant weight was higher (113.4+/-21.2% vs 102.5+/-12.4, 102.4+/-14.6%) than those in the patients groups showing no change and improvement in glucose tolerance state, Weight gain until diagnosis of GDM during pregnancy(5.7+/-4.4kg vs 9.4+/-3.4kg) and weight change between prepregnancy and PPT 5 week(-1,3+/-3.5kg vs 1.5+/-29kg) was smaller in the deterioration group than those in the no change group. Logistic regression analysis performed using improvement and deterioration of glucose tolerance state between PPT 1 and 6 week as an outcome of interest revealed that an earlier diagnosis of GDM and a smaller weight at PPT 6 week than prepregnant weight were independent predictors for deterioration of glucose tolerance between PPT 1 and 6 week. In conclusion, OGTT done at PPT 1 week can substitute OGTT at PPT 6 week in a large subgroup of GDM patients who has NGT at PPT 1 week without any risk factors for deterioration in glucose tolerance.
Antepartum Characteristics Predicting Persistent Postpartum Glucose lntolerance in the Patients with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM).
Yoo Lee Kim, Yong Wook Cho, Seok Won Park, Seog Ki Lee, In Sup Ahn, Byung Wook Na, Jun Lee, Yun Kyung Cho, Hwa Young Lee, Sang Jong Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2000;24(1):46-59.   Published online January 1, 2001
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  • 24 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of persistent postpartum glucose intolerance and to examine antepartum clinical characteri-stics for their predictability of persistent postpartum glucose intolerance in the patients with GDM. METHODS: In 211 GDM patients who showed more than two abnormal glucose values of O'Sullivan and Mahan's criteria on 100g-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), 75g-OGTT were performed at 6 weeks postpartum. The incidence of postpartum normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and diabetes mellitus (DM) were investigated and antepartum ciinical parameters were compared among the three groups, Predictability of antepartum clinical characteristics for postpartum IGT and DM were also investigated by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: When we grouped the patients into postpartum NGT, IGT, DM according to the results of 75g-OGTT performed 6 weeks postpartum, The incidence were 81,5% of subjects had NGT, 9.0% had IGT, and 9.5% had DM. Plasma glucose levels and GAUC on antepartum 100 g-OGTT(NGT: 1660+/-159, IGT: 1948+/-730, DM: 2538+/-629mmol/L ' min), and proportion of patients receiving insulin therapy increased progressively and significantly in association with worsening postpartum glucose tolerance. Frequency of positive family history of DM in qroups with IGT and DM (63,2% & 80.0%) were significantly higher than that in group with NGT(37,2%). Weight gain before diagnosis of GDM in groups with IGT and DM(6.7+/-3.9kg & 6.8+/-4.1 kg) were significantly smaller than that of group with NGT(9.5+/-3,5kg), Gestational age at diagnosis of GDM in group with DM(25.8+/-5.4 weeks) was significantly shorter than that in group with NGT(30.0+/-3,3 weeks), Proportion of subjects diagnosed earlier than 24 weeks of gestation were significantly higher in groups with IGT (15.8%) and DM (25.0%) than in group with NGT (1.2%). Proportions of subjects delivered heavier infants, > or =4 kg,were significantly higher in the DM group (40.0%) than in the NGT group (9.3%). In the patients having fasting plasma glucose levels hlgher than 5.8 mmol/L on antepartum 100g-OGTT, the prevalence of persistent glucose intolerance was significantly higher than in the patients FPG level lower than 5.8 mmol/L (61.9% vs 7.7%), Logistic regression analysis were performed using IGT and DM as the outcome of interest. The GAUC on antepartum 100g-OGTT, family history of DM, and the gestational age at diagnosis of GDM were independent predictors for both postpartum DM and postpartum IGT. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of persistent postpartum glucose intolerance in GDM patients were 18.5% and the most important independent predictor for persistent postpartum glucose intolerance was the degree of severity in glucose intolerance during pregnancy.

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