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Basic Research
Heterogeneity of Islet Cells during Embryogenesis and Differentiation
Shugo Sasaki, Takeshi Miyatsuka
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(2):173-184.   Published online January 12, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0324
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  • 244 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Diabetes is caused by insufficient insulin secretion due to β-cell dysfunction and/or β-cell loss. Therefore, the restoration of functional β-cells by the induction of β-cell differentiation from embryonic stem (ES) and induced-pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, or from somatic non-β-cells, may be a promising curative therapy. To establish an efficient and feasible method for generating functional insulin-producing cells, comprehensive knowledge of pancreas development and β-cell differentiation, including the mechanisms driving cell fate decisions and endocrine cell maturation is crucial. Recent advances in single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) technologies have opened a new era in pancreas development and diabetes research, leading to clarification of the detailed transcriptomes of individual insulin-producing cells. Such extensive high-resolution data enables the inference of developmental trajectories during cell transitions and gene regulatory networks. Additionally, advancements in stem cell research have not only enabled their immediate clinical application, but also has made it possible to observe the genetic dynamics of human cell development and maturation in a dish. In this review, we provide an overview of the heterogeneity of islet cells during embryogenesis and differentiation as demonstrated by scRNA-seq studies on the developing and adult pancreata, with implications for the future application of regenerative medicine for diabetes.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Newly discovered knowledge pertaining to glucagon and its clinical applications
    Dan Kawamori, Shugo Sasaki
    Journal of Diabetes Investigation.2023; 14(7): 829.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome
Regulating Hypothalamus Gene Expression in Food Intake: Dietary Composition or Calorie Density?
Mi Jang, So-Young Park, Yong-Woon Kim, Seung-Pil Jung, Jong-Yeon Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2017;41(2):121-127.   Published online December 16, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2017.41.2.121
  • 3,662 View
  • 35 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The proportion of saturated fatty acids/unsaturated fatty acids in the diet seems to act as a physiological regulation on obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Differently composed fatty acid diets may induce satiety of the hypothalamus in different ways. However, the direct effect of the different fatty acid diets on satiety in the hypothalamus is not clear.

Methods

Three experiments in mice were conducted to determine whether: different compositions of fatty acids affects gene mRNA expression of the hypothalamus over time; different types of fatty acids administered into the stomach directly affect gene mRNA expression of the hypothalamus; and fat composition changes in the diet affects gene mRNA expression of the hypothalamus.

Results

The type of fat in cases of purified fatty acid administration directly into the stomach may cause changes of gene expressions in the hypothalamus. Gene expression by dietary fat may be regulated by calorie amount ingested rather than weight amount or type of fat.

Conclusion

Therefore, the calorie density factor of the diet in regulating hypothalamic gene in food intake may be detrimental, although the possibility of type of fat cannot be ruled out.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prepartum fatty acid supplementation in sheep. III. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid during finishing on performance, hypothalamus gene expression, and muscle fatty acids composition in lambs1
    Ana Cristina Carranza Martin, Danielle Nicole Coleman, Lyda Guadalupe Garcia, Cecilia C Furnus, Alejandro E Relling
    Journal of Animal Science.2018; 96(12): 5300.     CrossRef
  • Acute anti‐obesity effects of intracerebroventricular 11β‐HSD1 inhibitor administration in diet‐induced obese mice
    M. Seo, S. A. Islam, S.‐S. Moon
    Journal of Neuroendocrinology.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Letter: Regulating Hypothalamus Gene Expression in Food Intake: Dietary Composition or Calorie Density? (Diabetes Metab J 2017;41:121-7)
    Bo Kyung Koo
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2017; 41(3): 223.     CrossRef
  • Response: Regulating Hypothalamus Gene Expression in Food Intake: Dietary Composition or Calorie Density? (Diabetes Metab J2017;41:121-7)
    Mi Jang, So-Young Park, Yong-Woon Kim, Seung-Pil Jung, Jong-Yeon Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2017; 41(3): 225.     CrossRef
Pathophysiology
Investigating Susceptibility to Diabetes Using Features of the Adipose Tissue in Response to In Utero Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Exposure
Worlanyo E. Gato, Daniel A. Hunter, Shamaya L. Whitby, Christopher A. Mays, Wilson Yau
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(6):494-508.   Published online August 12, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.6.494
  • 3,558 View
  • 91 Download
  • 7 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

In recent times, there has been an increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) particularly in children. Adipocyte dysfunction provide a critical link between obesity and insulin resistance resulting in diabetes outcome. Further, environmental chemical exposure during early years of life might be a significant contributing factor to the increase in the incidence of T2DM. This study tests the idea that exposure to environmental contaminants (2-aminoanthracene [2AA]) in utero will show effects in the adipose tissue (AT) that signify T2DM vulnerability. 2AA is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in a variety of products.

Methods

To accomplish the study objective, pregnant dams were fed various amounts of 2AA adulterated diets from gestation through postnatal period. The neonates and older offspring were analyzed for diabetic-like genes in the ATs and analysis of serum glucose. Furthermore, weight monitoring, histopathology and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for CD68 in AT, adipocyte size determination and adiponectin amounts in serum were undertaken.

Results

Up-regulation of adiponectin and interleukin-6 genes were noted in the pups and older rats. Combination of intrauterine 2AA toxicity with moderate high fat diet exhibited gene expression patterns similar to those of the neonates. Elevated serum glucose levels were noted in treated groups. IHC of the AT indicated no significant malformations; however, CD68+ cells were greater in the animals treated to 2AA. Similarly, mean sizes of the adipocytes were larger in treated and combined 2AA and moderate high fat animals. Adiponectin was reduced in 2AA groups.

Conclusion

From the preceding, it appears intrauterine 2AA disturbance, when combined with excess fat accumulation will lead to greater risk for the diabetic condition.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Role of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Obesity: A Review of Laboratory and Epidemiological Studies
    Jan Aaseth, Dragana Javorac, Aleksandra Djordjevic, Zorica Bulat, Anatoly Skalny, Irina Zaitseva, Michael Aschner, Alexey Tinkov
    Toxics.2022; 10(2): 65.     CrossRef
  • The Association between Urinary Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Metabolites and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Xue Wang, Ang Li, Qun Xu
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(13): 7605.     CrossRef
  • Dietary ingestion of 2-aminoanthracene (2AA) and the risk for type-1 diabetes (T1D)
    Isaiah Seise, Zachary A. Pilz, Moses Yeboah Kusi, Bethany Bogan, Brittany Jean McHale, Worlanyo E. Gato
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A.2020; 55(14): 1638.     CrossRef
  • Association of the IL6 Gene Polymorphism with Component Features of Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Subjects
    Elham Barati, Hamideh Ghazizadeh, Fatemeh Sadabadi, Elham Kazemi, Gordon A. Ferns, Amir Avan, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan
    Biochemical Genetics.2019; 57(5): 695.     CrossRef
  • The hepatic effects in dams that ingested 2-aminoanthracene during gestation and lactation
    Raven E Ulieme, Surjania Awer, John C Stagg, Wilson Yau, Worlanyo E Gato
    Toxicology and Industrial Health.2019; 35(9): 568.     CrossRef

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal