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Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal



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Low Economic Status Is Identified as an Emerging Risk Factor for Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Men Aged 30 to 59 Years in Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008 to 2010
Bo Kyung Koo, Sang Wan Kim, Ka Hee Yi, Min Kyong Moon
Diabetes Metab J. 2015;39(2):137-146.   Published online March 11, 2015
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  • 9 Web of Science
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

We compared the association between economic status and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) using large nationwide datasets covering the previous 10 years in Korea.


We analyzed the association between economic status and DM using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data from 2001 to 2010 weighted to represent the Korean population between 30 and 59 years of age. The economic status of participants was classified into quartiles according to monthly family income with an equivalence scale.


In men, the prevalence of diabetes in the lowest income quartile (Q1) was significantly higher than that in the other quartiles in 2008 (age and body mass index-adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.846; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.126 to 3.027; P=0.015), 2009 (OR, 1.706; 95% CI, 1.094 to 2.661; P=0.019), and 2010 (OR, 1.560; 95% CI, 1.024 to 2.377; P=0.039) but not in 2001 or 2005. The data indicated that classification in the lowest economic status was an independent risk factor for diabetes even after adjusting for abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and education level in men of KNHANES 2008 to 2010. Although economic status was significantly associated with abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension in women (P<0.001), there was no significant association between economic status and DM in women.


Korean men between 30 and 59 years of age with the lowest economic status had a significantly higher prevalence of DM in 2008 to 2010 even after adjusting for other risk factors.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Muscle strength, an independent determinant of glycemic control in older adults with long-standing type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study
    Bo Kyung Koo, Seoil Moon, Min Kyong Moon
    BMC Geriatrics.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Obesity Fact Sheet in Korea, 2019: Prevalence of Obesity and Abdominal Obesity from 2009 to 2018 and Social Factors
    Ga Eun Nam, Yang-Hyun Kim, Kyungdo Han, Jin-Hyung Jung, Eun-Jung Rhee, Seong-Su Lee, Dae Jung Kim, Kwan-Woo Lee, Won-Young Lee
    Journal of Obesity & Metabolic Syndrome.2020; 29(2): 124.     CrossRef
  • Letter: Projection of Diabetes Prevalence in Korean Adults for the Year 2030 Using Risk Factors Identified from National Data (Diabetes Metab J 2019;43:90–6)
    Bo Kyung Koo
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2019; 43(2): 242.     CrossRef
  • Lower Leg Fat Depots Are Associated with Albuminuria Independently of Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Metabolic Syndrome (Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2008 to 2011)
    Eugene Han, Nan Hee Cho, Mi Kyung Kim, Hye Soon Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2019; 43(4): 461.     CrossRef
  • The Differential Association between Muscle Strength and Diabetes Mellitus According to the Presence or Absence of Obesity
    Bo Kyung Koo
    Journal of Obesity & Metabolic Syndrome.2019; 28(1): 46.     CrossRef
  • Association of hearing impairment with insulin resistance, β–cell dysfunction and impaired fasting glucose before onset of diabetes
    M. Seo, Y.‐S. Lee, S.‐S. Moon
    Diabetic Medicine.2016; 33(9): 1275.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and risk factors for diabetic retinopathy at diagnosis (DRAD) in patients recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D) or latent autoimmune diabetes in the adult (LADA)
    Mats Martinell, Mozhgan Dorkhan, Jan Stålhammar, Petter Storm, Leif Groop, Carin Gustavsson
    Journal of Diabetes and its Complications.2016; 30(8): 1456.     CrossRef
  • Are We in the Same Risk of Diabetes Mellitus? Gender- and Age-Specific Epidemiology of Diabetes in 2001 to 2014 in the Korean Population
    Bo Kyung Koo, Min Kyong Moon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2016; 40(3): 175.     CrossRef
  • Relative and combined effects of socioeconomic status and diabetes on mortality
    Nam Hoon Kim, Tae Joon Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi, Yousung Park, Sin Gon Kim
    Medicine.2016; 95(30): e4403.     CrossRef
  • Assessment of Lifestyle Risk Factors in Female Citizens of Saudi-Arabia with Type 2 Diabetes: Dietary Factors and Physical Activity
    Hans Hauner
    Journal of Diabetes, Metabolic Disorders & Control.2016;[Epub]     CrossRef
Association of Educational Level and Socioeconomic Status with Glucose Metabolism.
Young Sil Eom, Sun Mee Yang, Pyung Chun Oh, Jung Hyun Lee, Ki Young Lee, Yeun Sun Kim, Sihoon Lee, Jung Soo Im, Jun Yim, Dae Kyu Oh, Moon Suk Nam, Ie Byung Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(4):377-385.   Published online August 1, 2008
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  • 27 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
The objective of the present study was to examine the association of educational level and socioeconomic status with glucose metabolism including prediabetes. METHODS: This cross-sectional study subjects were 882 (mean age: 51.0 +/- 13.4 years, M:F = 241:641) without diabetes, aged more than 20 years and residing in Whasu 2 dong in Incheon. We classified them into three levels according to their educational level: primary (illiterate or up to elementary school), secondary (middle school or high school) and tertiary (university), and into three levels according to their socioeconomic status by self reported questionnaire: low, middle and high. Subjects were diagnosed as three groups (normal, prediabetes and diabetes) by American Diabetes Association criteria using 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. The association of educational level and socioeconomic status with glucose metabolism was analyzed. RESULTS: The number of normal group was 300 (34.0%), that of prediabetes was 470 (53.3%) and that of diabetes was 112 (12.7%). In women, the proportion of primary educational group was larger than that of secondary educational group in diabetes (Odds ratio [OR] = 1.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-3.51) and larger than that of tertiary educational group in prediabetes ([OR] = 2.00; [CI]: 1.06-3.78). But socioeconomic status did not have the statistical association with glucose metabolism in women. Also both educational level and socioeconomic status had no statistical association with glucose metabolism in men. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of low educational level is larger in prediabetes and diabetes compared with normal group in women.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • How do life-course trajectories of socioeconomic position affect quality of life in patients with diabetes mellitus?
    Hye Ah Lee, Ko Eun Lee, Yool Won Jeong, Jaeseon Ryu, Minkyung Kim, Jung Won Min, Young Sun Hong, Kyunghee Jung-Choi, Hyesook Park
    Quality of Life Research.2014; 23(4): 1337.     CrossRef

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