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The Prevalence and Risk Factors for Diabetic Retinopathy in Shiraz, Southern Iran
Haleh Ghaem, Nima Daneshi, Shirin Riahi, Mostafa Dianatinasab
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(6):538-543.   Published online August 9, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0047
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  • 14 Web of Science
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Globally, diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of blindness, that diminishes quality of life. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of DR, and its associated risk factors. This cross-sectional study was carried out among 478 diabetic patients in a referral center in Fars province, Iran. The mean±standard deviation age of the participants was 56.64±12.45 years old and DR prevalence was 32.8%. In multivariable analysis, lower education levels (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24 to 0.76), being overweight (aOR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.83) or obese (aOR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.09 to 3.26), diabetes duration of 10 to 20 years (aOR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.73) and over 20 years (aOR, 5.63; 95% CI, 2.97 to 10.68), receiving insulin (aOR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.27 to 3.10), and having chronic diseases (aOR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.85) were significantly associated with DR. In conclusion, longer diabetes duration and obesity or having chronic diseases are strongly associated with DR suggesting that control of these risk factors may reduce both the prevalence and impact of retinopathy in Iran.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Visual impairment among diabetes patients in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Tigabu Munye Aytenew, Demewoz Kefale, Binyam Minuye Birhane, Solomon Demis Kebede, Worku Necho Asferie, Habtamu Shimels Hailemeskel, Amare Kassaw, Sintayehu Asnakew, Yohannes Tesfahun Kassie, Gebrehiwot Berie Mekonnen, Melese Kebede, Yeshiambaw Eshetie, N
    PLOS ONE.2024; 19(5): e0303388.     CrossRef
  • Glycemic control among Iranian people with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Mohammad Mohseni, Motahar Heidari-Beni, Roya Kelishadi
    International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries.2023; 43(4): 502.     CrossRef
  • Single-Field Fundus Photography for Screening of Diabetic Retinopathy: The Prevalence and Associated Factors in a Population-Based Study
    Mohammadreza Soleimani, Fateme Alipour, Yousef Taghavi, Marjan Fatemipour, Hamid Hakimi, Zahra Jamali, Parvin Khalili, Fatemeh Ayoobi, Maryam Sheikh, Roya Tavakoli, Amin Zand
    Diabetes Therapy.2023; 14(1): 205.     CrossRef
  • Diabetic peripheral neuropathy screening and the related risk factors to its prevalence in people with type 2 diabetes
    Mohamad Sabaghan, Shima Ataee, Maryam Ataee, Mahsa Tebyanian, Sima Afrashteh, Nima Daneshi
    International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries.2023; 43(5): 641.     CrossRef
  • Direct medical cost and medications for patient of diabetes retinopathy in Beijing, China, 2016–2018
    Hui Li, Lina Zhang, Xiaoxia Wang, Weihao Wang, Jie Zhang, Qi Pan, Lixin Guo
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2023; 202: 110796.     CrossRef
  • Preserving sight: Managing and preventing diabetic retinopathy
    Mohd Altaf Dar, Mudasir Maqbool, Irfat Ara, Zulfkar Qadrie
    Open Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Global and Regional Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy; A Comprehensive Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
    Hassan Hashemi, Farhad Rezvan, Reza Pakzad, Asal Ansaripour, Samira Heydarian, Abbasali Yekta, Hadi Ostadimoghaddam, Mojgan Pakbin, Mehdi Khabazkhoob
    Seminars in Ophthalmology.2022; 37(3): 291.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and Factors Associated with Diabetic Retinopathy among Adult Diabetes Patients in Southeast Ethiopia: A Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study
    Biniyam Sahiledengle, Tesfaye Assefa, Wogene Negash, Anwar Tahir, Tadele Regasa, Yohannes Tekalegn, Ayele Mamo, Zinash Teferu, Damtew Solomon, Habtamu Gezahegn, Kebebe Bekele, Demisu Zenbaba, Alelign Tasew, Fikreab Desta, Zegeye Regassa, Zegeye Feleke, Ch
    Clinical Ophthalmology.2022; Volume 16: 3527.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Alireza Heiran, Seyede Pegah Azarchehry, Saeid Dehghankhalili, Mehrdad Afarid, Sonia Shaabani, Alireza Mirahmadizadeh
    Journal of International Medical Research.2022; 50(10): 030006052211171.     CrossRef
  • Performance of diabetes screening tests: an evaluation study of Iranian diabetes screening program
    Fateme Kianpour, Mohammad Fararouei, Jafar Hassanzadeh, Mohammadnabi Mohammadi, Mostafa Dianatinasab
    Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Screening for diabetes and prediabetes: the newest communication opportunities
    V.I. Velychko, V.L. Mykhailenko, D.O. Lahoda, G.O. Volokhova, S.L. Liashenko
    REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY.2021; (62): 92.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy and Its Associated Factors among Diabetic Patients at Debre Markos Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, 2019: Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study


    Melkamu Tilahun, Teshome Gobena, Diriba Dereje, Mengistu Welde, Getachew Yideg
    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy.2020; Volume 13: 2179.     CrossRef
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with diabetes mellitus and non-diabetic: A cross-sectional study in north of Iran
    Mehrnaz Asgharnezhad, Farahnaz Joukar, Mohammad Fathalipour, Mohammadjavad Khosousi, Soheil Hassanipour, Akram Pourshams, Roya Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei
    Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews.2019; 13(3): 2236.     CrossRef
  • Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors versus Other Antidiabetic Drugs Added to Metformin Monotherapy in Diabetic Retinopathy Progression: A Real World-Based Cohort Study
    Yoo-Ri Chung, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Hyeon Chang Kim, Sang Jun Park, Kihwang Lee, Dae Jung Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2019; 43(5): 640.     CrossRef
Original Articles
The Association of Self-Reported Coronary Heart Disease with Diabetes Duration in Korea
Hye Mi Kang, Yun Jeong Lee, Dong-Jun Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(5):350-356.   Published online October 18, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2012.36.5.350
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  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

This study aimed to investigate the association of diabetes duration with self-reported coronary heart disease (CHD) in Korea.

Methods

Among data from 34,145 persons compiled in the third Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2005, laboratory test and nutritional survey data from 5,531 persons were examined. The participants were asked to recall a physician's diagnosis of CHD (angina or myocardial infarction).

Results

Age- and sex-adjusted relative risk for CHD was 1.51 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64 to 3.59; not significant) for diabetes with duration of <1 year, 2.27 (95% CI, 1.14 to 4.54; P=0.020) for diabetes with a duration of 1 to 5 years, and 3.29 (95% CI, 1.78 to 6.08; P<0.001) for diabetes with a duration >5 years, compared with non-diabetes as a control. Even after adjusting for age, sex, current smoking status, waist circumference, hypertension, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose, relative risk for CHD was 2.87 (95% CI, 1.01 to 8.11; P=0.047) in diabetes with a duration of 6 to 10 years and 4.07 (95% CI, 1.73 to 9.63; P=0.001) in diabetes with duration of >10 years with non-diabetes as a control.

Conclusion

CHD prevalence increased with an increase in diabetes duration in Korean men and women. Recently detected diabetes (duration <1 year) was not significantly associated with CHD prevalence compared to non-diabetes. However, diabetes of a duration of >5 years was associated with an increase in CHD compared to non-diabetics after adjusting for several CHD risk factors.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Predictive nomogram for coronary heart disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Shucai Xiao, Youzheng Dong, Bin Huang, Xinghua Jiang
    Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Elevated lipoprotein(a) levels predict cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 10-year prospective cohort study
    Tae-Seok Lim, Jae-Seung Yun, Seon-Ah Cha, Ki-Ho Song, Ki-Dong Yoo, Yu-Bae Ahn, Yong-Moon Park, Seung-Hyun Ko
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2016; 31(6): 1110.     CrossRef
  • Clinical Marker of Platelet Hyperreactivity in Diabetes Mellitus
    Jin Hwa Kim, Hak Yeon Bae, Sang Yong Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2013; 37(6): 423.     CrossRef
Exercise Treadmill Test in Detecting Asymptomatic Coronary Artery Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Mee Kyoung Kim, Ki Hyun Baek, Ki Ho Song, Hyuk Sang Kwon, Jung Min Lee, Moo Il Kang, Kun Ho Yoon, Bong Yun Cha, Ho Young Son, Kwang Woo Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(1):34-40.   Published online February 28, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.1.34
  • 25,511 View
  • 42 Download
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The present study was designed to develop criteria for screening patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for asymptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD).

Methods

A total of 213 patients with T2DM without typical angina or chest pain were studied between 2002 and 2007. We also evaluated 53 patients with T2DM who had reported chest discomfort using an exercise treadmill test (ETT).

Results

Thirty-one of the 213 asymptomatic patients had positive ETT results. We performed coronary angiography on 23 of the 31 patients with a positive ETT and found that 11 of them had significant coronary stenosis. The main differences between the patients with significant stenosis and those with a negative ETT were age (63.1±9.4 vs. 53.7±10.1 years, P=0.008) and duration of diabetes (16.0±7.5 vs. 5.5±5.7 years, P<0.001). The positive predictive value (PPV) of the ETT was calculated to be 47.8%. The PPV of the ETT increased to 87.5% in elderly patients (≥60 years) with a long duration of diabetes (≥10 years). The latter value is similar to that of patients with T2DM who presented with chest discomfort or exertional dyspnea. The PPV of the ETT in symptomatic patients was 76.9%.

Conclusion

In the interest of cost-effectiveness, screening for asymptomatic CAD could be limited to elderly patients with a duration of diabetes ≥10 years.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Duke Treadmill Score Predicts Coronary Artery Disease Severity in Diabetics and Non-Diabetics
    Muhammad Khalil, Muhammad Shafique Arshad, Asma Zafar Khawaja, Iffat Aqeel, . Hidayatullah, Mahboob Ur Rehman, Sumeet Kumar, Shoaib Ahmed
    Pakistan Journal of Health Sciences.2023; : 126.     CrossRef
  • Anatomical and Neuromuscular Factors Associated to Non-Contact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury
    Marc Dauty, Vincent Crenn, Bastien Louguet, Jérôme Grondin, Pierre Menu, Alban Fouasson-Chailloux
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2022; 11(5): 1402.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of asymptomatic silent myocardial ischemia among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Bangalore - A hospital-based cross-sectional study
    NagappaH Handargal, ShristiJ Shetty
    Journal of the Practice of Cardiovascular Sciences.2021; 7(3): 207.     CrossRef
  • Influence of sex on the incidence of potential coronary artery disease and long-term outcomes in asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus
    Chisato Sato, Kohei Wakabayashi, Naoko Ikeda, Yuki Honda, Ken Sato, Toshiaki Suzuki, Keita Shibata, Kaoru Tanno
    IJC Heart & Vasculature.2020; 27: 100504.     CrossRef
  • Gauging the Positive Predictive Value of Exercise Tolerance Test Using Angiographic Evaluation: A Cross-Sectional Analysis From a Developing Country
    Ismail Khan, Maria Hasan, Javeria Hasan, Ali Imran Dhillon, Moosa Khan, Mehwish Kaneez
    Cureus.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • EVALUATION OF SILENT MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA IN ASYMPTOMATIC TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS BY TREAD MILL TEST IN TERTIARY CARE CENTER IN SOUTH INDIA
    Malepati Sai Sarath Reddy, Uma Mylandlahalli Anandkumar, Srinivasa Rao
    Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences.2019; 8(10): 740.     CrossRef
  • Breathlessness and Restrictive Lung Disease: An Important Diabetes-Related Feature in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
    Stefan Kopf, Jan B. Groener, Zoltan Kender, Thomas Fleming, Maik Brune, Christin Riedinger, Nadine Volk, Esther Herpel, Dominik Pesta, Julia Szendrödi, Mark O. Wielpütz, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Hugo A. Katus, Michael Kreuter, Peter P. Nawroth
    Respiration.2018; 96(1): 29.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of the presence of fragmented QRS complexes in the inferior versus the anterior leads for predicting coronary artery disease severity
    Mehmet Eyuboglu, Ugur Kucuk, Omer Senarslan, Bahri Akdeniz
    Revista Portuguesa de Cardiologia.2017; 36(2): 89.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of the presence of fragmented QRS complexes in the inferior versus the anterior leads for predicting coronary artery disease severity
    Mehmet Eyuboglu, Ugur Kucuk, Omer Senarslan, Bahri Akdeniz
    Revista Portuguesa de Cardiologia (English Edition).2017; 36(2): 89.     CrossRef
  • High Serum Ykl-40 Level Positively Correlates With Coronary Artery Disease
    Yan Jin, Jia-Ning Cao, Chun-Xia Wang, Qiu-Ting Feng, Xin-He Ye, Xin Xu, Cheng-Jian Yang
    Biomarkers in Medicine.2017; 11(2): 133.     CrossRef
  • Fragmented QRS Is Associated with Improved Predictive Value of Exercise Treadmill Testing in Patients with Intermediate Pretest Likelihood of Significant Coronary Artery Disease
    Eyyup Tusun, Abdulselam Ilter, Feyzullah Besli, Emre Erkus, Ibrahim Halil Altiparmak, Mehmet Bozbay
    Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology.2016; 21(2): 196.     CrossRef
  • Use of imaging and clinical data to screen for cardiovascular disease in asymptomatic diabetics
    Carlos Henrique Reis Esselin Rassi, Timothy W. Churchill, Carlos A. Fernandes Tavares, Mateus Guimaraes Fahel, Fabricia P. O. Rassi, Augusto H. Uchida, Bernardo L. Wajchenberg, Antonio C. Lerario, Edward Hulten, Khurram Nasir, Márcio S. Bittencourt, Carlo
    Cardiovascular Diabetology.2016;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Obese sedentary patients with dyspnoea on exertion who are at low risk for coronary artery disease by clinical criteria have a very low prevalence of coronary artery disease
    J. T. Bruckel, G. Larsen, M. R. Benson
    Clinical Obesity.2014; 4(3): 143.     CrossRef
  • Potential association between coronary artery disease and the inflammatory biomarker YKL-40 in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Hyun Min Kim, Byung-Wan Lee, Young-Mi Song, Won Jin Kim, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Dong-Hoon Choi, Hee Tae Yu, EunSeok Kang, Bong Soo Cha, Hyun Chul Lee
    Cardiovascular Diabetology.2012;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Exercise Treadmill Test for Evaluation of Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetic Patients
    Ju Youn Kim, Mee Kyoung Kim, Woo-Baek Chung
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2012; 13(4): 182.     CrossRef
Risk Factors Associated with Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients without Hypertension
Jung Hyun Noh, Joon Hyung Doh, Sung Yun Lee, Tae Nyun Kim, Hyuk Lee, Hwa Young Song, Jeong Hyun Park, Kyung Soo Ko, Byoung Doo Rhee, Dong Jun Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(1):40-46.   Published online February 28, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.1.40
  • 4,841 View
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  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Hypertension and age are recognized as important risk factors for left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction. Some studies have shown that diabetes itself may also be an independent risk factor for LV diastolic dysfunction, although this is controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with LV diastolic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes in the absence of hypertension or ischemic heart disease (IHD).

Methods

Participants in this study consisted of 65 type 2 diabetes patients (M : F = 45 : 20; mean age 51 [26 to 76] years; mean body mass index [BMI] 25.0 ± 2.5 kg/m2) without hypertension, heart disease, or renal disease. Individuals with ischemic electrocardiographic changes were excluded. LV diastolic function was evaluated by Doppler echocardiographic studies.

Results

Fifteen patients (23.1%) showed LV diastolic dysfunction on Doppler echocardiographic studies. Patients with LV diastolic dysfunction were older than those without diastolic dysfunction (60.0 ± 2.5 vs. 50.5 ± 1.9 years; P < 0.01). After adjusting for age and sex, BMI was higher (26.6 ± 0.7 vs. 24.6 ± 0.3 kg/m2; P < 0.01) and diabetes duration was longer (9.65 ± 1.48 vs. 4.71 ± 0.78 years; P < 0.01) in patients with LV diastolic dysfunction than in those without diastolic dysfunction. There were no differences in sex, smoking, blood pressure, lipid profiles, hemoglobin A1C, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, or diabetic microvascular complications between the LV diastolic dysfunction group and the normal diastolic function group. After adjusting for age, sex, and BMI, diabetes duration was found to be independently associated with LV diastolic dysfunction (odds ratio 1.38; confidence interval 1.12 to 1.72; P = 0.003).

Conclusion

These results suggest that diabetes duration may be a risk factor for LV diastolic dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients without hypertension or IHD.

Citations

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  • Reducing Cardiac Steatosis: Interventions to Improve Diastolic Function: A Narrative Review
    Kiyan Heshmat-Ghahdarijani, Roya Modaresi, Sobhan Pourmasjedi, Setayesh Sotoudehnia Korani, Ali Rezazadeh Roudkoli, Razieh Ziaei, Armita Farid, Mehrnaz Salehi, Afshin Heidari, Sina Neshat
    Current Problems in Cardiology.2023; 48(8): 101739.     CrossRef
  • Glycemic variability is associated with diastolic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes
    Yana Dzhun, Georgy Mankovsky, Nadiya Rudenko, Yevgen Marushko, Yanina Saienko, Borys Mankovsky
    Journal of Diabetes and its Complications.2023; 37(11): 108519.     CrossRef
  • Lipids and diastolic dysfunction: Recent evidence and findings
    Padideh Daneii, Sina Neshat, Monir Sadat Mirnasiry, Zahra Moghimi, Fatemeh Dehghan Niri, Armita Farid, Setayesh Sotoudehnia Korani, Masood Shekarchizadeh, Kiyan Heshmat-Ghahdarijani
    Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases.2022; 32(6): 1343.     CrossRef
  • Does diabetes increase the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with negative treadmill stress echocardiography?
    So Young Yang, Hui-Jeong Hwang
    Endocrine Journal.2022; 69(7): 785.     CrossRef
  • Factors associated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with septic shock
    Wei-Dong Ge, Feng-Zhi Li, Bang-Chuan Hu, Li-Hong Wang, Ding-Yuan Ren
    European Journal of Medical Research.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • An in-depth analysis of glycosylated haemoglobin level, body mass index and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes
    Xin Zuo, Xueting Liu, Runtian Chen, Huiting Ou, Jiabao Lai, Youming Zhang, Dewen Yan
    BMC Endocrine Disorders.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Early detection of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction using conventional and speckle tracking echocardiography in a large animal model of metabolic dysfunction
    Mark M. P. van den Dorpel, Ilkka Heinonen, Sanne M. Snelder, Hendrik J. Vos, Oana Sorop, Ron T. van Domburg, Daphne Merkus, Dirk J. Duncker, Bas M. van Dalen
    The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Risk Factors Associated with Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients without Hypertension (Korean Diabetes J 2010;34:40-6)
    Dong-Lim Kim
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2010; 34(2): 135.     CrossRef
The Appropriate Distance and Duration of Walking for Exercise in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Tae Seo Sohn, Jung Min Lee, Sang Ah Chang, Kyung Ah Han, Hyun Shik Son, Hyo Jeong Kim, Chul Woo Ahn, Yeon Ah Sung, Kyung Wan Min, Sei Hyun Baik, Jae Myeong Yu, Sung Woo Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(2):157-162.   Published online March 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2007.31.2.157
  • 1,952 View
  • 21 Download
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
For decades, exercise has been considered a cornerstone of diabetes managements, along with diet and medication. Many studies have shown that regular physical activity improves quality of life, reduces the risk of mortality from all causes, and is particularly advantageous in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, high-quality evidence and basic data on the importance of exercise and physical fitness in Korean diabetic patients were lacking until recent years. METHOD: This study included 240 diabetic patients (122 men, 118 women) recruited from 6 diabetic centers in Korea. To measure step length and walking velocity at normal walking speed, we made the patient walk 12 meter at normal speed. The patients wore the pedometer for 7 days and we got the equation between the walking steps per day and calorie expenditure for 7 days. From the equation, we calculated appropriate steps, distance and duration of walking in type 2 diabetic patients as exercise program RESULTS: In men, the walking velocity was 4.4 +/- 0.6 km/h and step length was 67.6 +/- 7.3 cm at normal walking speed. In women, the walking velocity was 4.0 +/- 0.6 km/h and step length was 58.4 +/- 5.5 cm at normal walking speed. The equation between kcal per week and steps per day was that kcal/week = (steps/day) x 0.268 + 64.074 (R2 = 0.854, P < 0.01) in men and kcal/week in women = (steps/day) x 0.256 - 39.005 (R2 = 0.890, P < 0.01). The steps/day, walking distance and walking duration which correspond to 700 kcal/week was 2,373 steps/day, 21.9 minutes and 1,604 meter in men, and 2,887 steps/day, 25.3 minutes and 1,690 meter in women at normal walking speed. CONCLUSION: To exert at least 700 kcal/week with exercise, it is recommended that type 2 diabetic patients walk at least 25 minutes/day or 1,700 meter/day or 2,500 steps/day in men and 30 minutes/day or 1,800 meter/day or 3,000 steps/day in women at normal walking speed.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Effects of Tai Chi Exercise on Glucose Control, Neuropathy Scores, Balance, and Quality of Life in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Neuropathy
    Sukhee Ahn, Rhayun Song
    The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine.2012; 18(12): 1172.     CrossRef
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    Hee Jung Ahn, Kyung Ah Han, Jin Young Jang, Jae Hyuk Lee, Kang Seo Park, Kyung Wan Min
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    Sung-Hong Kang, Soon-Ho Choi
    Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society.2011; 12(2): 765.     CrossRef
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    Hee-Jung Ahn, Boo-Kyung Koo, Ji-Yeon Jung, Hwi-Ryun Kwon, Hyun-Jin Kim, Kang-Seo Park, Kyung-Ah Han, Kyung-Wan Min
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