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4 "Diabetic autonomic neuropathy"
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Original Articles
Clinical Significance of the Presence of Autonomic and Vestibular Dysfunction in Diabetic Patients with Peripheral Neuropathy
Soo Kyoung Kim, Kyeong Ju Lee, Jong Ryeal Hahm, Sang Min Lee, Tae Sik Jung, Jung Hwa Jung, Sungsu Kim, Deok Ryong Kim, Seong-Ki Ahn, Won-Hee Choi, Soon Il Chung
Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(1):64-69.   Published online February 17, 2012
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  • 18 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

We investigated the prevalence of diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) and vestibular dysfunction (VD) in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy.


Thirty-five diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy were enrolled from August 2008 to July 2009. All subjects underwent autonomic function tests. Nineteen of the patients (54.3%) underwent videonystagmography.


Diabetic autonomic neuropathy was observed in 28 patients (80%). A mild degree of autonomic failure was observed in 18 patients (64.3%), and a moderate degree of autonomic failure was observed in ten patients (35.7%). Factors related to DAN included diabetic nephropathy (P=0.032), degree of chronic kidney disease (P=0.003), and duration of diabetes (P=0.044). Vestibular dysfunction was observed in 11 of 19 patients (57.9%). There was no significant association between DAN and VD.


Diabetic autonomic neuropathy was observed in 28 diabetic patients (80%) with peripheral neuropathy. Vestibular dysfunction was observed in nearly 60% of diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy who complained of dizziness but showed no significant association with DAN. Diabetic patients who complained of dizziness need to examine both autonomic function and vestibular function.


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Prolonged QT Interval and the BMI, Systolic BP and HDL-Cholesterol in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Chunggu Cho, Hye Jung No, Hyo Jeong Oh, Bong Joon Yang, Ha Young Kim, Byoung Hyun Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(3):215-222.   Published online May 1, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A prolonged QT interval is considered as an indicator of an increased risk of coronary heart disease, malignant ventricular arrhythmias and/or sudden death. QT interval prolongation has been reported to be a common finding in patients with obesity and diabetic autonomic neuropathy and it is well known that both leptin and insulin stimulate sympathetic activity. The waist to hip ratio and the plasma insulin levels were recently reported to be correlated with the QT intervals and the sympathovagal balance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of the features of metabolic syndrome and the QT interval in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: We studied 114 type 2 diabetes(45 males and 69 females). The QT intervals were measured by a software program and then the QTc was calculated. The fasting glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein(HDL)-cholesterol, HbAIC and Cpeptide were measured. All the patients received clinical tests for cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction by the Ewing's method. RESULTS: A significant difference was found in the mean QT interval between the patients with an autonomic score>=1 and the patients who were without cardiac autonomic neuropathy(autonomic score=0). On Pearson's simple regression analysis, the QT interval showed positive correlations with the BMI, fasting C-peptide, systolic blood pressure(sBP), and age. The QT interval also showed negative correlation with the HDL-cholesterol. The associations of the QTc with triglyceride, fasting glucose, and the autonomic score did not reach statistical significance. On the multiple regression analysis, the QT interval was independently correlated with BMI, systolic BP and HDL-cholesterol but not with the other variables that we tested(c-peptide, autonomic score, diastolic blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin, triglyceride and cholesterol). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that a variety of features of metabolic syndrome are associated with QT interval prolongation in the type 2 diabetic patients
Case Report
A Case of Acute Multifocal Bacterial Nephritis Associated with Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy.
Eun Kyung Park, Jae Hak Lee, Ji Sung Yoon, Ji O Mok, Yeo Joo Kim, Hyeong Kyu Park, Chul Hee Kim, Sang Jin Kim, Dong Won Byun, Kyo Il Suh, Myung Hi Yoo
Korean Diabetes J. 2003;27(4):379-384.   Published online August 1, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Acute multifocal bacterial nephritis is a severe form of acute renal infection in which a heavy leukocytic infiltrate occurs throughout the kidney. It is also an early phase of renal corticomedullary abscess. Clinically, patients have evidence of a severe urinary tract infection secondary to a gram-negative organism and there are frequently signs of sepsis. About half of the reported patients have been diabetics. Urinary tract infections are more common in diabetic women than in non-diabetic women. A variety of factors may contribute. The most important predisposing factor may be bladder dysfunction as a result of diabetic neuropathy and cystopathy. Diabetic cystopathy begins as decreased bladder sensation and decreased reflex detrusor activity caused by neuropathy affecting sympathetic and parasympathetic afferent fibers. Impaired bladder sensation results in bladder distention and increased residual urine volume. Long-term effects may eventually be vesicoureteral reflux and recurrent upper urinary tract infection. However, until now no diabetic patient with acute multifocal bacterial nephritis has been reported in Korea. Acute multifocal bacterial nephritis can be diagnosed by clinical manifestations and on radiologic grounds, including abdominal computed tomography showing multiple, wedge shaped, poorly defined areas of decreased contrast enhancement in multiple renal lobes. Therefore, we report the first Korean case of acute multifocal bacterial nephritis associated with diabetic autonomic neuropathy and review the literatures.
Original Article
QTc Interval and QT Dispersion Prolongation in NIDDM Patients with Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy.
Yong Kyun Cho, Seung Won Lee, Won Tae Seo, Yoon Sang Choi, Jin Ho Kang, Man Ho Lee, Sang Jong Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 1998;22(1):93-102.   Published online January 1, 2001
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  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
It has been reported that QTc interval and QT dispersion prolongation on 12 lead EKG reflects predictability and diagnosis of cardiovascular complications induced by autonomic nervous system abnormalities. We have investigated in NIDDM patients whether severity of cadiovascular autonomic neuropathy(CAN) evaluated by conventional standard cardiovascular autonomic function test is correlated with prolongation of QT, QTc interval and QT dispersion. In addition, whether these prolonagtion can reflect CAN and if any other clinical variables related to pralongatian exist. METHODS: Eighty patients(39 male, 41 female) treated with oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin after diagnosis of NIDDM in our hospital were included in the study. These patients were devided into three groups (Group I, 13 subjects: No CAN, Group II, 20 subjects: Borderline CAN, Group III, 47 subjects: Definite CAN) according to the score of standard catdiovascular autonomic function test(Deep breathing test, Lying to standing test, Heart ration on Valsalva manuever, Postural BP drop test). The measured QT, QTc interval and QT disp rsion of eaeh diabetic group and control group were analyzed. RESULTS: l. Statistically significant prolongation of QT,QTc, QT dispersion was observed in NIDDM tients as compared with those of control group(p=0.015, 0,021, 0.001). 2. Severity of autonomic neuropathy has shown positive correlation with only prolongation of QT dispersion(p<0.05) in three diabetic subgroups. 3. Statistically significant difference was not ob::rved in HbAlc and BMI between each patients groups of NIDDM(p>0.05) but both HbAlc and BMI showed weak positive correlation with prologation of QT dispersion(r=0.262, r=0.267 repectively). CONCLUSION: QTc interval and QT dispersion are considered easily accessible factors to predict and evaluate the degree of cardiovascular autonomic function abnormalities in NIDDM patients, yet further long term follow up and study in large group should be carried out to decide if these factor can predict and reflect severity of cardiovascular abnormalities such as ventricular arrhythmia, and sudden cardiac death. In additian, prolonged QT dispersion has shown weak positive correlation with both HbAlc and BMI and some other influential factors are suggested to play a role in autonomic neuropathy in NIDDM patients.

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