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The Prevalence and Risk Factors for Diabetic Retinopathy in Shiraz, Southern Iran
Haleh Ghaem, Nima Daneshi, Shirin Riahi, Mostafa Dianatinasab
Diabetes Metab J. 2018;42(6):538-543.   Published online August 9, 2018
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  • 75 Download
  • 14 Web of Science
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Globally, diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of blindness, that diminishes quality of life. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of DR, and its associated risk factors. This cross-sectional study was carried out among 478 diabetic patients in a referral center in Fars province, Iran. The mean±standard deviation age of the participants was 56.64±12.45 years old and DR prevalence was 32.8%. In multivariable analysis, lower education levels (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24 to 0.76), being overweight (aOR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.83) or obese (aOR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.09 to 3.26), diabetes duration of 10 to 20 years (aOR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.73) and over 20 years (aOR, 5.63; 95% CI, 2.97 to 10.68), receiving insulin (aOR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.27 to 3.10), and having chronic diseases (aOR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.85) were significantly associated with DR. In conclusion, longer diabetes duration and obesity or having chronic diseases are strongly associated with DR suggesting that control of these risk factors may reduce both the prevalence and impact of retinopathy in Iran.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    Tigabu Munye Aytenew, Demewoz Kefale, Binyam Minuye Birhane, Solomon Demis Kebede, Worku Necho Asferie, Habtamu Shimels Hailemeskel, Amare Kassaw, Sintayehu Asnakew, Yohannes Tesfahun Kassie, Gebrehiwot Berie Mekonnen, Melese Kebede, Yeshiambaw Eshetie, N
    PLOS ONE.2024; 19(5): e0303388.     CrossRef
  • Glycemic control among Iranian people with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Mohammad Mohseni, Motahar Heidari-Beni, Roya Kelishadi
    International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries.2023; 43(4): 502.     CrossRef
  • Single-Field Fundus Photography for Screening of Diabetic Retinopathy: The Prevalence and Associated Factors in a Population-Based Study
    Mohammadreza Soleimani, Fateme Alipour, Yousef Taghavi, Marjan Fatemipour, Hamid Hakimi, Zahra Jamali, Parvin Khalili, Fatemeh Ayoobi, Maryam Sheikh, Roya Tavakoli, Amin Zand
    Diabetes Therapy.2023; 14(1): 205.     CrossRef
  • Diabetic peripheral neuropathy screening and the related risk factors to its prevalence in people with type 2 diabetes
    Mohamad Sabaghan, Shima Ataee, Maryam Ataee, Mahsa Tebyanian, Sima Afrashteh, Nima Daneshi
    International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries.2023; 43(5): 641.     CrossRef
  • Direct medical cost and medications for patient of diabetes retinopathy in Beijing, China, 2016–2018
    Hui Li, Lina Zhang, Xiaoxia Wang, Weihao Wang, Jie Zhang, Qi Pan, Lixin Guo
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice.2023; 202: 110796.     CrossRef
  • Preserving sight: Managing and preventing diabetic retinopathy
    Mohd Altaf Dar, Mudasir Maqbool, Irfat Ara, Zulfkar Qadrie
    Open Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Global and Regional Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy; A Comprehensive Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
    Hassan Hashemi, Farhad Rezvan, Reza Pakzad, Asal Ansaripour, Samira Heydarian, Abbasali Yekta, Hadi Ostadimoghaddam, Mojgan Pakbin, Mehdi Khabazkhoob
    Seminars in Ophthalmology.2022; 37(3): 291.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and Factors Associated with Diabetic Retinopathy among Adult Diabetes Patients in Southeast Ethiopia: A Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study
    Biniyam Sahiledengle, Tesfaye Assefa, Wogene Negash, Anwar Tahir, Tadele Regasa, Yohannes Tekalegn, Ayele Mamo, Zinash Teferu, Damtew Solomon, Habtamu Gezahegn, Kebebe Bekele, Demisu Zenbaba, Alelign Tasew, Fikreab Desta, Zegeye Regassa, Zegeye Feleke, Ch
    Clinical Ophthalmology.2022; Volume 16: 3527.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Alireza Heiran, Seyede Pegah Azarchehry, Saeid Dehghankhalili, Mehrdad Afarid, Sonia Shaabani, Alireza Mirahmadizadeh
    Journal of International Medical Research.2022; 50(10): 030006052211171.     CrossRef
  • Performance of diabetes screening tests: an evaluation study of Iranian diabetes screening program
    Fateme Kianpour, Mohammad Fararouei, Jafar Hassanzadeh, Mohammadnabi Mohammadi, Mostafa Dianatinasab
    Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Screening for diabetes and prediabetes: the newest communication opportunities
    V.I. Velychko, V.L. Mykhailenko, D.O. Lahoda, G.O. Volokhova, S.L. Liashenko
    REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY.2021; (62): 92.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy and Its Associated Factors among Diabetic Patients at Debre Markos Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, 2019: Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Melkamu Tilahun, Teshome Gobena, Diriba Dereje, Mengistu Welde, Getachew Yideg
    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy.2020; Volume 13: 2179.     CrossRef
  • Gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with diabetes mellitus and non-diabetic: A cross-sectional study in north of Iran
    Mehrnaz Asgharnezhad, Farahnaz Joukar, Mohammad Fathalipour, Mohammadjavad Khosousi, Soheil Hassanipour, Akram Pourshams, Roya Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei
    Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews.2019; 13(3): 2236.     CrossRef
  • Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors versus Other Antidiabetic Drugs Added to Metformin Monotherapy in Diabetic Retinopathy Progression: A Real World-Based Cohort Study
    Yoo-Ri Chung, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Hyeon Chang Kim, Sang Jun Park, Kihwang Lee, Dae Jung Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2019; 43(5): 640.     CrossRef
Original Article
Risk Factors Associated with Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients without Hypertension
Jung Hyun Noh, Joon Hyung Doh, Sung Yun Lee, Tae Nyun Kim, Hyuk Lee, Hwa Young Song, Jeong Hyun Park, Kyung Soo Ko, Byoung Doo Rhee, Dong Jun Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(1):40-46.   Published online February 28, 2010
  • 4,857 View
  • 39 Download
  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Hypertension and age are recognized as important risk factors for left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction. Some studies have shown that diabetes itself may also be an independent risk factor for LV diastolic dysfunction, although this is controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with LV diastolic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes in the absence of hypertension or ischemic heart disease (IHD).


Participants in this study consisted of 65 type 2 diabetes patients (M : F = 45 : 20; mean age 51 [26 to 76] years; mean body mass index [BMI] 25.0 ± 2.5 kg/m2) without hypertension, heart disease, or renal disease. Individuals with ischemic electrocardiographic changes were excluded. LV diastolic function was evaluated by Doppler echocardiographic studies.


Fifteen patients (23.1%) showed LV diastolic dysfunction on Doppler echocardiographic studies. Patients with LV diastolic dysfunction were older than those without diastolic dysfunction (60.0 ± 2.5 vs. 50.5 ± 1.9 years; P < 0.01). After adjusting for age and sex, BMI was higher (26.6 ± 0.7 vs. 24.6 ± 0.3 kg/m2; P < 0.01) and diabetes duration was longer (9.65 ± 1.48 vs. 4.71 ± 0.78 years; P < 0.01) in patients with LV diastolic dysfunction than in those without diastolic dysfunction. There were no differences in sex, smoking, blood pressure, lipid profiles, hemoglobin A1C, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, or diabetic microvascular complications between the LV diastolic dysfunction group and the normal diastolic function group. After adjusting for age, sex, and BMI, diabetes duration was found to be independently associated with LV diastolic dysfunction (odds ratio 1.38; confidence interval 1.12 to 1.72; P = 0.003).


These results suggest that diabetes duration may be a risk factor for LV diastolic dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients without hypertension or IHD.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Reducing Cardiac Steatosis: Interventions to Improve Diastolic Function: A Narrative Review
    Kiyan Heshmat-Ghahdarijani, Roya Modaresi, Sobhan Pourmasjedi, Setayesh Sotoudehnia Korani, Ali Rezazadeh Roudkoli, Razieh Ziaei, Armita Farid, Mehrnaz Salehi, Afshin Heidari, Sina Neshat
    Current Problems in Cardiology.2023; 48(8): 101739.     CrossRef
  • Glycemic variability is associated with diastolic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes
    Yana Dzhun, Georgy Mankovsky, Nadiya Rudenko, Yevgen Marushko, Yanina Saienko, Borys Mankovsky
    Journal of Diabetes and its Complications.2023; 37(11): 108519.     CrossRef
  • Lipids and diastolic dysfunction: Recent evidence and findings
    Padideh Daneii, Sina Neshat, Monir Sadat Mirnasiry, Zahra Moghimi, Fatemeh Dehghan Niri, Armita Farid, Setayesh Sotoudehnia Korani, Masood Shekarchizadeh, Kiyan Heshmat-Ghahdarijani
    Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases.2022; 32(6): 1343.     CrossRef
  • Does diabetes increase the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with negative treadmill stress echocardiography?
    So Young Yang, Hui-Jeong Hwang
    Endocrine Journal.2022; 69(7): 785.     CrossRef
  • Factors associated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with septic shock
    Wei-Dong Ge, Feng-Zhi Li, Bang-Chuan Hu, Li-Hong Wang, Ding-Yuan Ren
    European Journal of Medical Research.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • An in-depth analysis of glycosylated haemoglobin level, body mass index and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes
    Xin Zuo, Xueting Liu, Runtian Chen, Huiting Ou, Jiabao Lai, Youming Zhang, Dewen Yan
    BMC Endocrine Disorders.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Early detection of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction using conventional and speckle tracking echocardiography in a large animal model of metabolic dysfunction
    Mark M. P. van den Dorpel, Ilkka Heinonen, Sanne M. Snelder, Hendrik J. Vos, Oana Sorop, Ron T. van Domburg, Daphne Merkus, Dirk J. Duncker, Bas M. van Dalen
    The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Risk Factors Associated with Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients without Hypertension (Korean Diabetes J 2010;34:40-6)
    Dong-Lim Kim
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2010; 34(2): 135.     CrossRef

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