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GDF15 Is a Novel Biomarker for Impaired Fasting Glucose
Jun Hwa Hong, Hyo Kyun Chung, Hye Yoon Park, Kyong-Hye Joung, Ju Hee Lee, Jin Gyu Jung, Koon Soon Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Bon Jeong Ku, Minho Shong
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(6):472-479.   Published online December 15, 2014
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF15) is a protein that belongs to the transforming growth factor β superfamily. An elevated serum level of GDF15 was found to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T2DM is an inflammatory disease that progresses from normal glucose tolerance (NGT) to impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Hence, we aimed to validate the relationship between GDF15 and IFG.


The participants were divided into the following three groups: NGT (n=137), IFG (n=29), and T2DM (n=75). The controls and T2DM outpatients visited the hospital for routine health check-ups. We used fasting blood glucose to detect IFG in nondiabetic patients. We checked the body mass index (BMI), C-reactive protein level, metabolic parameters, and fasting serum GDF15 level.


Age, BMI, triglyceride, insulin, glucose, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and GDF15 levels were elevated in the IFG and T2DM groups compared to the NGT group. In the correlation analysis between metabolic parameters and GDF15, age and HOMA-IR had a significant positive correlation with GDF15 levels. GDF15 significantly discriminated between IFG and NGT, independent of age, BMI, and HOMA-IR. The serum levels of GDF15 were more elevated in men than in women. As a biomarker for IFG based on the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the cutoff value of GDF15 was 510 pg/mL in males and 400 pg/mL in females.


GDF15 had a positive correlation with IR independent of age and BMI, and the serum level of GDF15 was increased in the IFG and T2DM groups. GDF15 may be a novel biomarker for detecting IFG in nondiabetic patients.


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Clinical Relevance of Adipokines
Matthias Blüher
Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(5):317-327.   Published online October 18, 2012
  • 4,890 View
  • 65 Download
  • 130 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

The incidence of obesity has increased dramatically during recent decades. Obesity increases the risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and may therefore contribute to premature death. With increasing fat mass, secretion of adipose tissue derived bioactive molecules (adipokines) changes towards a pro-inflammatory, diabetogenic and atherogenic pattern. Adipokines are involved in the regulation of appetite and satiety, energy expenditure, activity, endothelial function, hemostasis, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism in insulin sensitive tissues, adipogenesis, fat distribution and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, adipokines are clinically relevant as biomarkers for fat distribution, adipose tissue function, liver fat content, insulin sensitivity, chronic inflammation and have the potential for future pharmacological treatment strategies for obesity and its related diseases. This review focuses on the clinical relevance of selected adipokines as markers or predictors of obesity related diseases and as potential therapeutic tools or targets in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.


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Clinical Implications of Serum Biomarkers in Diabetic Cardiovascular Complications.
Jang Won Son, Hyuk Sang Kwon
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(5):363-372.   Published online October 1, 2009
  • 2,115 View
  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Diabetes is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, with atherosclerosis responsible for most associated morbidity and mortality. Atherosclerosis often causes acute thrombotic events through plaque rupture and formation of platelet-rich thrombi. The principal clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis are coronary artery disease, ischemic stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and low-grade inflammation are key features in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis.
Non-invasive Methods for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Asymptomatic Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Jee In Lee, Hyun Shik Son
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(4):267-275.   Published online August 1, 2009
  • 2,398 View
  • 20 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major cause of mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus. CVD is a clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis, a chronic and progressive inflammatory disease characterized by a long asymptomatic phase. Progression of atherosclerosis can lead to the occurrence of acute cardiovascular events. Atherosclerosis can be identified during the subclinical phase by several methods, including using biomarkers, pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, flow-mediated dilation, carotid ultrasound, and calcium score. The appropriate criteria for identifying asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes who should undergo CVD screening and therapeutic intervention remain controversial. Non-invasive methods, such as markers of subclinical atherosclerosis, may aid in risk stratification and the design of tailored therapies for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Outpatient Testing for Diabetic Complications
    Dong-Hyeok Cho
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2016; 17(4): 246.     CrossRef
Double Diabetes.
Sang Youl Rhee, Young Seol Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(1):1-8.   Published online February 1, 2009
  • 2,078 View
  • 26 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Generally, most cases of diabetes mellitus (DM) are classified as either type 1 DM or type 2 DM based on their pathophysiolgic features. However, it is not always possible to classify this disease clearly according to current diagnostic criteria. Recently, the existence of non-typical diabetes has been found in patients with simultaneous features of both type 1 and type 2 DM. In these patients, obvious evidence of insulin resistance, positivity of islet autoantibody, and progressive beta cell loss are observed concurrently. Moreover, this non-typical diabetes that usually occurs among children and adolescents has been defined as 'double diabetes', and its worldwide incidence has been on the increase as of late. Thus, there has been heightened interest among researchers about this ambiguous condition.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
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