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Original Article
Clinical Diabetes & Therapeutics
Association between Serum Selenium Level and the Presence of Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Juno Kim, Hye Soo Chung, Min-Kyu Choi, Yong Kyun Roh, Hyung Joon Yoo, Jung Hwan Park, Dong Sun Kim, Jae Myung Yu, Shinje Moon
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(4):447-460.   Published online January 2, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0123
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  • 35 Web of Science
  • 35 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

Epidemiological studies have suggested an association between selenium (Se) and diabetes mellitus (DM). However, different studies have reported conflicting results. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive meta-analysis to clarify the impact of Se on DM.

Methods

We searched the PubMed database for studies on the association between Se and DM from inception to June 2018.

Results

Twenty articles evaluating 47,930 participants were included in the analysis. The meta-analysis found that high levels of Se were significantly associated with the presence of DM (pooled odds ratios [ORs], 1.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.44 to 2.45). However, significant heterogeneity was found (I2=82%). Subgroup analyses were performed based on the Se measurement methods used in each study. A significant association was found between high Se levels and the presence of DM in the studies that used blood (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.60 to 2.93; I2=77%), diet (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.36; I2=0%), and urine (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.02 to 2.17; I2=0%) as samples to estimate Se levels, but not in studies on nails (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.52 to 2.98; I2=91%). Because of significant heterogeneity in the studies with blood, we conducted a sensitivity analysis and tested the publication bias. The results were consistent after adjustment based on the sensitivity analysis as well as the trim and fill analysis for publication bias.

Conclusion

This meta-analysis demonstrates that high levels of Se are associated with the presence of DM. Further prospective and randomized controlled trials are warranted to elucidate the link better.

Citations

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Review
Diabetic Cardiomyopathy and Its Prevention by Nrf2: Current Status
Jing Chen, Zhiguo Zhang, Lu Cai
Diabetes Metab J. 2014;38(5):337-345.   Published online October 17, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2014.38.5.337
  • 5,477 View
  • 56 Download
  • 77 Web of Science
  • 76 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), as one of the major cardiac complications in diabetic patients, is known to related with oxidative stress that is due to a severe imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generation and their clearance by antioxidant defense systems. Transcription factor nuclear factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays an important role in maintaining the oxidative homeostasis by regulating multiple downstream antioxidants. Diabetes may up-regulate several antioxidants in the heart as a compensative mechanism at early stage, but at late stage, diabetes not only generates extra ROS and/or RNS but also impairs antioxidant capacity in the heart, including Nrf2. In an early study, we have established that Nrf2 protect the cardiac cells and heart from high level of glucose in vitro and hyperglycemia in vivo, and in the following study demonstrated the significant down-regulation of cardiac Nrf2 expression in diabetic animals and patients. Using Nrf2-KO mice or Nrf2 inducers, blooming evidence has indicated the important protection by Nrf2 from cardiac pathogenesis in the diabetes. Therefore, this brief review summarizes the status of studies on Nrf2's role in preventing DCM and even other complications, the need for new and safe Nrf2 inducer screening and the precaution for the undesirable side of Nrf2 under certain conditions.

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Original Articles
Effects of High Performance Inulin Supplementation on Glycemic Control and Antioxidant Status in Women with Type 2 Diabetes
Bahram Pourghassem Gargari, Parvin Dehghan, Akbar Aliasgharzadeh, Mohammad Asghari Jafar-abadi
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(2):140-148.   Published online April 16, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.2.140
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of high performance inulin supplementation on blood glycemic control and antioxidant status in women with type 2 diabetes.

Methods

In a randomized, triple-blind controlled trial, 49 females (fiber intake <30 g/day, 25<body mass index <35 kg/m2) with type 2 diabetes were recruited from the Iran Diabetes Society and from endocrinology and metabolism clinics associated with the Tabriz University of Medical Science. The participants were divided into one of two groups in which the participants either received 10 g/day of inulin (intervention, n=24) or maltodextrin (control, n=25) for 2 months. Fasting blood samples were obtained and both glycemic control and antioxidant status were determined at baseline and at the end of the study.

Results

At the end of the study period, there were significant decreases in fasting plasma glucose (8.47%), glycosylated hemoglobin (10.43%), and malondialdehyde (37.21%) levels and significant increases in total antioxidant capacity (18.82%) and superoxide dismutase activity (4.36%) in the inulin group when compared to the maltodextrin group (P<0.05). Changes in fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and catalase activity were not significant in the inulin group when compared with the maltodextrin group. Glutathione peroxidase activity remained unchanged in both groups.

Conclusion

Inulin supplementation may improve some glycemic and antioxidant indices and decrease malondialdehyde levels in women with type 2 diabetes. Further investigations are needed in order to confirm the positive effects that inulin may have on the glycemic and antioxidant indices of patients with type 2 diabetes.

Citations

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The Protective Effect of EGCG on INS-1 Cell in the Oxidative Stress and Mechanism.
Mi Kyung Kim, Hye Sook Jung, Chang Shin Yoon, Min Jeong Kwon, Kyung Soo Koh, Byung Doo Rhee, Jeong Hyun Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(2):121-130.   Published online April 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.2.121
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Oxidative stress is important in both diabetic complications and the development and the progression of type 2 diabetes via the effects on the pancreatic beta-cells. EGCG (epigallocatechin galleate), a major constituent of green tea, has been known to have beneficial effects on various diseases through the mechanisms of antioxidant and cell signaling modulation. But, very small numbers of studies were published about the direct effects of EGCG on the pancreatic beta cell lines. We performed this study to see the protective effect of EGCG on pancreatic beta cell line under H2O2 and the mechanisms of this phenomenon. METHODS: We used INS-1 cells and hydrogen peroxide as an oxidative stressor. Their viabilities were verified by MTT assay and FACS. The activity of glutathione peroxidase was assessed by total glutathione quantification kit. Western blot and semi-quantitative RT-PCR for the catalase, SOD (superoxide dismutase), PI3K and Akt were performed. Functional status of INS-1 cells was tested by GSIS (glucose stimulated insulin secretion). RESULTS: The biological effects of EGCG were different according to its concentrations. 10 micrometer EGCG effectively protected hydrogen peroxide induced damage in INS-1 cells. The expression and the activity of SOD, catalase and the glutathione peroxidase were significantly increased by EGCG. EGCG significantly increased PI3K and Akt activity and its effect was inhibited partially by wortmannin. GSIS was well preserved by EGCG. CONCLUSION: EGCG in low concentration effectively protected INS-1 cells from the oxidative stress through the activation of both antioxidant systems and anti-apoptosis signaling. Further studies will be necessary for the more detailed mechanisms and the clinical implications.

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  • Suppressive Effects of Epigallocatechin Gallate Pretreatment on the Expression of Inflammatory Cytokines in RAW264.7 Cells Activated by Lipopolysaccharide
    Eun Ji Seo, Jun Go, Ji Eun Kim, Eun Kyoung Koh, Sung Hwa Song, Ji Eun Sung, Chan Kyu Park, Hyun Ah Lee, Dong Seob Kim, Hong Joo Son, Cung Yeoul Lee, Hee Seob Lee, Dae Youn Hwang
    Journal of Life Science.2015; 25(9): 961.     CrossRef
  • The Protective Effects of Chrysanthemum cornarium L. var. spatiosum Extract on HIT-T15 Pancreatic β-Cells against Alloxan-induced Oxidative Stress
    In-Hye Kim, Kang-Jin Cho, Jeong-Sook Ko, Jae-Hyun Kim, Ae-Son Om
    The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition.2012; 25(1): 123.     CrossRef
  • Protective Effects of Sasa Borealis Leaves Extract on High Glucose-Induced Oxidative Stress in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
    Ji-Young Hwang, Ji-Sook Han
    Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.2010; 39(12): 1753.     CrossRef
Cytoprotective Effect by Antioxidant Activity of Quercetin in INS-1 Cell Line.
Min Jeong Kwon, Hye Sook Jung, Mi Kyung Kim, Seong Hoon Kang, Gwang Wook Seo, Jae Kwang Song, Tae Yeon Yoon, Min Kyeong Jeon, Tae Hwan Ha, Chang Shin Yoon, Mi Kyung Kim, Woo Je Lee, Jeong Hyun Noh, Soo Kyung Kwon, Dong Joon Kim, Kyung Soo Koh, Byung Doo Rhee, Kyung Ho Lim, Soon Hee Lee, Jeong Hyun Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(5):383-390.   Published online September 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2007.31.5.383
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Oxidative stress is induced under diabetic conditions and causes various forms of tissue damages in the patients with diabetes. Recently, pancreatic beta cells are regarded as a putative target of oxidative stress-induced tissue damage, and this seems to explain in part the progressive deterioration of beta cell function in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the potential of Quercetin (QE) to protect INS-1 cells from the H2O2-induced oxidative stress and the effects of QE on the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in INS-1 cells. METHODS: To study the cell viability, cells were incubated with H2O2 and/or QE at the various concentrations. To confirm the protective effect by QE in response to H2O2, the levels of antioxidant enzymes were assessed by RT-PCR and Western blot, and glutathione peroxidase activities were quantified by spectrophotometrical method. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Cell incubations were performed with 80 microM of H2O2 for 5 hours to induce 40 - 50% of cell death. QE gradually showed protective effect (IC50 = 50 microM) in dose-dependent manner. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) mRNA level in H2O2 + QE group was increased as compared to H2O2 group, but catalase did not changed. And the QE recruited glutathione peroxidase activity against H2O2-induced oxidative injuries in INS-1 cells. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, these findings suggest that QE might have protective effect on beta cells by ameliorating oxidative stress and preserving insulin secretory function.

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  • Anti-diabetic effects of Allium tuberosum rottler extracts and lactic acid bacteria fermented extracts in type 2 diabetic mice model
    Bae Jin Kim, Seung Kyeung Jo, Yoo Seok Jeong, Hee Kyoung Jung
    Korean Journal of Food Preservation.2015; 22(1): 134.     CrossRef
  • Protective Effects of Sasa Borealis Leaves Extract on High Glucose-Induced Oxidative Stress in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells
    Ji-Young Hwang, Ji-Sook Han
    Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.2010; 39(12): 1753.     CrossRef
Effect of Sea Tangle Powder on the Regulation of Blood Glucose Level and Body Weight in Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Diabetic Rats.
Hyung Woo Kim, Jae Seung Kang, Su In Kim, Wang Jae Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(6):459-465.   Published online November 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.6.459
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Sea tangle is one of the low calorie diet and the fibers in sea tangle suppress the increase of blood glucose level. Therefore, it has a better impact than any other diets for diabetic patients. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of sea tangle powder, hereafter referred as Substance , as an antihyperglycemic agent and antioxidant in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: group 1) vehicle-treated normal rats; group 2) vehicle-treated STZ-diabetic rats; group 3) sea tangle powder-treated STZ-diabetic rats. Fasting blood glucose levels and body weights were measured. Intracellular ROS levels were measured using Cytofluor 2350 plate reader. RESULTS: Oral administration of sea tangle powder for 10 days resulted in lowered levels of blood glucose in early stage (within a week) and preventing effect of weight loss in late stage. Treatment with sea tangle powder resulted in the decrease of intracellular ROS levels in Dendritic Cell line. CONCLUSION: Sea tangle powder exhibits antihyperglycemic activity and restorative activity on weight loss in STZ-induced diabetic rats. It's abilities depend not on protecting disruption of beta-cell, but on antioxidant effect in other organs.

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  • The Effect of Saccharina japonica on the Physicochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Properties with Consumer Acceptance Test of Grain Nurungji
    YeRim Jeong, IlSook Choi
    Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life.2023; 33(1): 40.     CrossRef
  • Effects of Coated Liposome from Discorea rhizoma Extract (DRE) -on Hypoglycemic, Serum Insulin, and Lipid Levels in Streptozotocin-Induced
    Kyung-Soon Choi
    The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition.2013; 26(2): 310.     CrossRef
  • Effects of Hambag Mushroom (Grifola frondosa)-Powder on Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipemia in STZ and High Fat Diet-induced Diabetic Rats
    Soon-Lee Lee, Yeong-Chul Park, Jong-Bong Kim
    Journal of Life Science.2007; 17(10): 1387.     CrossRef
Randomized Controlled Trial
The Effect of Green Tea Polyphenol on Plasma Glucose, Lipid Levels and Antioxidant Systems in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Ji Hye Suk, Mi Kyung Kim, Jae Won Ju, Ji Sook Han, Jeong Hyun Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(3):217-225.   Published online May 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.3.217
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Green-tea polyphenol (GTP) is a well known antioxidant with favorable effect on blood glucose and lipid level in animal models. We were to investigate the effects of GTP on plasma glucose, lipid and antioxidant systems in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We recruited non-complicated type 2 diabetic patients with stable glycemic control by oral hypoglycemic agents. Subjects were randomly assigned to GTP group or placebo group for 12 weeks. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c, C-peptide, lipid levels, liver function test, renal function test, urine microalbumin, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activities were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: At baseline, there were no significant differences in age, body mass index, duration of diabetes, dietary status, HbA1c, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol levels between GTP and placebo group. However, FPG levels and triglyceride levels were significantly different between GTP and placebo group at baseline. In both of GTP and placebo group, there were no significant change after 12 weeks of treatment in FPG, HbA1c, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglyceride, levels of MDA, and GSHPx activities. SOD activities significantly increased after 12 weeks of treatment in both of GTP and placebo group. The increase of SOD activities were significantly higher in GTP group than in placebo group (P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation of green tea polyphenol increased antioxidant activity in type 2 diabetic patients. The effect on plasma glucose and lipid level was not significant but should be confirmed in further large scaled studies.

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  • Effect of Young Barley Leaf Powder on Glucose Control in the Diabetic Rats
    Hee-Kyoung Son, Yu-Mi Lee, Yong-Hyun Park, Jae-Joon Lee
    The Korean Journal of Community Living Science.2016; 27(1): 19.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Impairment of Insulin Secretion by Fat Overload in Rat Pancreatic Islets and Effects of Antioxidants.
Chul Hee Kim, Chan Hee Kim, Hyeong Kyu Park, Kyo Il Suh, Ki Up Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(5):347-356.   Published online October 1, 2002
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
It has recently been suggested that fat overload on pancreatic beta cells is responsible for the abnormal pattern of insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Antioxidant treatment was reported to preserve beta cell function in animal models of diabetes. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of various free fatty acids and triglyceride on insulin secretion in isolated rat pancreatic islets. In addition, we examined the effects of antioxidants. METHODS: Pancreatic islets of normal Sprague-Dawley rats were isolated by intraductal injection of collagenase and Ficoll-gradient centrifugation. The islets were treated with palmitat0e (C16:0), oleate (C18:1), linoleate (C18:2), and triglyceride emulsions (intralipid) for 72hours. Basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretions were measured. The effects of the antioxidants, vitamin E, alpha-lipoic acid, and N-acetyl cysteine, were examined on the fat-induced change of insulin secretion. RESULTS: All of the free fatty acids and the triglyceride increased the basal insulin secretion. In contrast, insulin secretion stimulated by 27 mM glucose was significantly decreased after the treatment with free fatty acids or triglycerides. The antioxidant could not prevent the fat-induced inhibition of insulin secretion. CONCLUSION: These results show that various free fatty acids and triglyceride commonly cause defects in insulin secretion. However, we could not confirm the the hypothesis that increased oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin secretory defect associated with fat overload.
The Effect of alpha-lipoic Acid on Endothelial Dysfunction Induced by Intralipid Infusion in Healthy Volunteers.
Dong Wook Lee, Mi Jung Kim, Hye Soon Kim, Tae Sung Yun, Ho Chan Cho, Sang Jun Lee, Seung Ho Hur, Kyo Cheol Mun, Yong Won Cho, Jae Hoon Bae, In Kyu Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(5):336-346.   Published online October 1, 2002
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BACKGROUND
Endothelial dysfunciton has been proposed as an early manifestation of atherogenesis. Recently, emerging evidence suggests that hypertriglyceridemia and elevated free fatty acid are important risk factors in the development of atherosclerosis, probably through an increased oxidative stress. To clarify the hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on the endothelial dysfunction induced by intralipid infusion in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Hypertriglyceridemia and elevated free fatty acids was induced by infusion of intralipid. FMD (Flow-mediated dilation) of the brachial artery was investigated noninvasively by a high-resolution ultrasound technique in 13 young, healthy men without risk factors for coronary heart disease. RESULTS: Plasma triglyceride, free fatty acid and the superoxide anion were increased from 61.7+/-28.8 to 332.6+/-202.5 mg/dL, from 330.7+/-131.1 to 1267.0+/-486.2 microEq/L and from 6.6+/-2.2 to 8.7+/-1.5 X 10(-7)nmol/10(6)cells/30min (vs. basal p<0.001), respectively, following infusion of the intralipid. The FMD was decreased from 10.1+/-3.3 to 7.7+/-3.7% (vs. basal p<0.01) following infusion of the intralipid. After treatment with ALA, the increase in the FMD and the decrease in superoxide anion were significant. CONCLUSION: Acute hypertriglyceridemia, induced by intralipid infusion, is implicated in endothelial dysfunction. This endothelial dysfunction was reversed by treatment with ALA. These results suggest that chronic and repeated hypertriglyceridemia may play important roles in the development of atherosclerosis probably by increasing oxidative stress.
Effects of Antioxidants on Ethidium Bromide-induced Inhibition of Insulin Secretion in Rat Pancreatic Islets.
Chul Hee Kim, Chan Hee Kim, Hyeong Kyu Park, Kyo Il Suh, Ki Up Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(3):179-187.   Published online June 1, 2002
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BACKGROUND
It was recently shown that mitochondrial function in pancreatic beta-cells is essential in nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion. The inhibition of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) transcription by ethidium bromide (EtBr) has been reported to suppress glucose-induced insulin secretion in beta-cell lines. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of EtBr on insulin secretion in isolated normal rat pancreatic islets, and to see whether antioxidants could protect the beta-cell function against the EtBr-induced impairment. METHODS: Pancreatic islets of normal Sprague-Dawley rats were isolated by intraductal injection of collagenase followed by Ficoll-gradient centrifugation. Isolated islets were treated with 0.2 +/- 2.0 microgram/mL of EtBr for 2 to 6 days, and the glucose-stimulated insulin secretion measured. The effects of the antioxidant, vitamin E and alpha-lipoic acid, on the EtBr-induced inhibition of insulin secretion were also examined. RESULTS: EtBr inhibited the basal and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in normal rat pancreatic islets in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Vitamin E and alpha-lipoic acid prevented the EtBr-induced inhibition of insulin secretion. CONCLUSION: Our results show that antioxidant can protect normal rat pancreatic islets from the EtBr-induced inhibition of insulin secretion. This suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of the insulin secretory defect associated with mitochondrial dysfunction.
The Oxidative Stress and the Antioxidant System in Type 2 Diabetics with Complications.
Ae Wha Ha, Hye Lim Noh, Yoon Sok Chung, Kawn Woo Lee, Hyeon Man Kim, Jung Soon Cho
Korean Diabetes J. 1998;22(3):253-261.   Published online January 1, 2001
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BACKGROUND
Diabetes mellitus represents a state of increased oxidative stress which is based on the evidence of increased peroxidation and glycosylation, and reduced antioxidant system. It has been suggested that increased oxidative stress may play an important role on the pathogenesis of diabetic complication in type 2 diabetes. However, limited informations regarding the oxidative stress and antioxidant system in diabetic complications are available. Therefore the purpose of this study is to determine the oxidative stress and antioxidant system in type 2 diabetes with diabetic complications. METHODS: The study population consisted of 94 type 2 diabetic patients and 44 normal subjects. The concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance(TBA-RS) and the activities of antioxidants enzymes, catalase, superoxide dismutase(SOD), glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px) in erythrocyte were detennined by using spectrophotometer. The plasma concantrations of b-carotene, lycopene, lutein, a-tocopherol and retinol were determined by using HPLC. RESULTS: The TBA-RS concentrations in type 2 diabetes(1.33+0.30nmol/mL) were significantly higher than those in normal subjects(1.10+0.17nmol/ mL). Also the TBA-RS concentrations between subjects with complications(1.37+0.27nmol/mL) and without complications(1.28+0.17nmol/mL) differed (p<0.05). The activities of SOD and GSH-Px in type 2 diabetes(2.99+0.80U/mgHb, 2.88+0.39U/ mgHb) were significantly lower than those in normal subjects(3.54+0.44U/mgHb, 3.14+0.39U/mgHb). GSH-Px between diabetics with(2.81+0.6U/mgHb) and without complications(3.17+0.4U/mgHb) differed significantly. The plasma concentrations of lycopene and b-carotene were significantly lower in type 2 diabetes(0.07+0.05umol/L, 0.54+0.27umol/L) than in control subjects(0.14+0.06umol/L, 0.67+0.32umol/L). Also, lycopene and b-carotene in subjects with complications(0.05+0.04umol/L, 0.45+0.23umol/L) were lower than in subjects without complications(0.08+0.05umol/L, 0.62+0.30umol/L). No significant differences in plasma a-tocopherol concentrations between subjects with and without complications(19.42+0.93umol/L vs 18.66+ 0.79umoll/L). CONCLUSION: This study showed that in diabetes with diabetic complications, the lipid peroxidation of erythrocytes are highly increased and the antioxidant reserves are significmtly depleted, compared with diabetes without diabetic complications, which suggests that diabetes with complications are under high oxidative stress and the supplementations of carotenoids could decrease the oxidative stress in diabetes with diabetic complications.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
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