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5 "Adipose tissue, brown"
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Single-Cell Landscape and a Macrophage Subset Enhancing Brown Adipocyte Function in Diabetes
Junfei Gu, Jiajia Jin, Xiaoyu Ren, Xinjie Zhang, Jiaxuan Li, Xiaowei Wang, Shucui Zhang, Xianlun Yin, Qunye Zhang, Zhe Wang
Received August 16, 2023  Accepted February 7, 2024  Published online May 29, 2024  
DOI:    [Epub ahead of print]
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Metabolic dysregulation is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), in which the abnormalities in brown adipose tissue (BAT) play important roles. However, the cellular composition and function of BAT as well as its pathological significance in diabetes remain incompletely understood. Our objective is to delineate the single-cell landscape of BAT-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and their characteristic alterations in T2DM rats.
T2DM was induced in rats by intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin and high-fat diet feeding. Single-cell mRNA sequencing was then performed on BAT samples and compared to normal rats to characterize changes in T2DM rats. Subsequently, the importance of key cell subsets in T2DM was elucidated using various functional studies.
Almost all cell types in the BAT-derived SVF of T2DM rats exhibited enhanced inflammatory responses, increased angiogenesis, and disordered glucose and lipid metabolism. The multidirectional differentiation potential of adipose tissue-derived stem cells was also reduced. Moreover, macrophages played a pivotal role in intercellular crosstalk of BAT-derived SVF. A novel Rarres2+macrophage subset promoted the differentiation and metabolic function of brown adipocytes via adipose-immune crosstalk.
BAT SVF exhibited strong heterogeneity in cellular composition and function and contributed to T2DM as a significant inflammation source, in which a novel macrophage subset was identified that can promote brown adipocyte function.
Basic Research
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Brown Fat as a Regulator of Systemic Metabolism beyond Thermogenesis
Okamatsu-Ogura Yuko, Masayuki Saito
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(6):840-852.   Published online June 25, 2021
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  • 20 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   ePub   
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized tissue for nonshivering thermogenesis to dissipate energy as heat. Although BAT research has long been limited mostly in small rodents, the rediscovery of metabolically active BAT in adult humans has dramatically promoted the translational studies on BAT in health and diseases. Moreover, several remarkable advancements have been made in brown fat biology over the past decade: The molecular and functional analyses of inducible thermogenic adipocytes (socalled beige adipocytes) arising from a developmentally different lineage from classical brown adipocytes have been accelerated. In addition to a well-established thermogenic activity of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), several alternative thermogenic mechanisms have been discovered, particularly in beige adipocytes. It has become clear that BAT influences other peripheral tissues and controls their functions and systemic homeostasis of energy and metabolic substrates, suggesting BAT as a metabolic regulator, other than for thermogenesis. This notion is supported by discovering that various paracrine and endocrine factors are secreted from BAT. We review the current understanding of BAT pathophysiology, particularly focusing on its role as a metabolic regulator in small rodents and also in humans.


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Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome
Brown Fat and Browning for the Treatment of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders
So Hun Kim, Jorge Plutzky
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(1):12-21.   Published online January 21, 2016
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  • 159 Web of Science
  • 162 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Brown fat is a specialized fat depot that can increase energy expenditure and produce heat. After the recent discovery of the presence of active brown fat in human adults and novel transcription factors controlling brown adipocyte differentiation, the field of the study of brown fat has gained great interest and is rapidly growing. Brown fat expansion and/or activation results in increased energy expenditure and a negative energy balance in mice and limits weight gain. Brown fat is also able to utilize blood glucose and lipid and results in improved glucose metabolism and blood lipid independent of weight loss. Prolonged cold exposure and beta adrenergic agonists can induce browning of white adipose tissue. The inducible brown adipocyte, beige adipocyte evolving by thermogenic activation of white adipose tissue have different origin and molecular signature from classical brown adipocytes but share the characteristics of high mitochondria content, UCP1 expression and thermogenic capacity when activated. Increasing browning may also be an efficient way to increase whole brown fat activity. Recent human studies have shown possibilities that findings in mice can be reproduced in human, making brown fat a good candidate organ to treat obesity and its related disorders.


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The Mechanism of White and Brown Adipocyte Differentiation
Hironori Nakagami
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(2):85-90.   Published online April 16, 2013
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  • 29 Web of Science
  • 29 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Obesity gives vent to many diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, being considered as the main causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The pathogenesis and pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome can well be understood by studying the molecular mechanisms that control the development and function of adipose tissue. In human body, exist two types of adipose tissue, the white and the brown one, which are reported to play various roles in energy homeostasis. The major and most efficient storage of energy occurs in the form of triglycerides in white adipose tissue while brown adipose tissue actively participates in both basal and inducible energy consumption in the form of thermogenesis. Recent years have observed a rapid and greater interest towards developmental plasticity and therapeutic potential of stromal cells those isolated from adipose tissue. The adipocyte differentiation involves a couple of regulators in the white or brown adipogenesis. Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ actively participates in regulating carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and also acts as main regulator of both white and brown adipogenesis. This review based on our recent research, seeks to highlight the adipocyte differentiation.


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Brown Adipose Tissue as a Regulator of Energy Expenditure and Body Fat in Humans
Masayuki Saito
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(1):22-29.   Published online February 15, 2013
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  • 86 Download
  • 91 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is recognized as the major site of sympathetically activated nonshivering thermogenesis during cold exposure and after spontaneous hyperphagia, thereby controling whole-body energy expenditure and body fat. In adult humans, BAT has long been believed to be absent or negligible, but recent studies using fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography, in combination with computed tomography, demonstrated the existence of metabolically active BAT in healthy adult humans. Human BAT is activated by acute cold exposure, being positively correlated to cold-induced increases in energy expenditure. The metabolic activity of BAT differs among individuals, being lower in older and obese individuals. Thus, BAT is recognized as a regulator of whole-body energy expenditure and body fat in humans as in small rodents, and a hopeful target combating obesity and related disorders. In fact, there are some food ingredients such as capsaicin and capsinoids, which have potential to activate and recruit BAT via activity on the specific receptor, transient receptor potential channels, thereby increasing energy expenditure and decreasing body fat modestly and consistently.


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