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Fetal Abdominal Obesity Detected at 24 to 28 Weeks of Gestation Persists until Delivery Despite Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J 2021;45:547-57)
Wonjin Kim, Soo Kyung Park, Yoo Lee Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(6):970-971.   Published online November 22, 2021
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Original Article
Metabolic Risk/Epidemiology
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Fetal Abdominal Obesity Detected At 24 to 28 Weeks of Gestation Persists Until Delivery Despite Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Wonjin Kim, Soo Kyung Park, Yoo Lee Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2021;45(4):547-557.   Published online March 5, 2021
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  • 7 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
Graphical AbstractGraphical Abstract AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Fetal abdominal obesity (FAO) has been reported to be affected at gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnosis at 24 to 28 weeks of gestation in older and/or obese women. This study investigated whether the management of GDM improves FAO in GDM subjects near term.
Medical records of 7,099 singleton pregnant women delivering at CHA Gangnam Medical Center were reviewed retrospectively. GDM was diagnosed by 100-g oral glucose tolerance test after 50-g glucose challenge test based on Carpenter–Coustan criteria. GDM subjects were divided into four study groups according to maternal age and obesity. FAO was defined as ≥90th percentile of fetal abdominal overgrowth ratios (FAORs) of the ultrasonographically estimated gestational age (GA) of abdominal circumference per actual GA by the last menstruation period, biparietal diameter, or femur length, respectively.
As compared with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects near term, FAORs and odds ratio for FAO were significantly higher in old and/or obese women with GDM but not in young and nonobese women with GDM. For fetuses of GDM subjects with FAO at the time of GDM diagnosis, the odds ratio for exhibiting FAO near term and being large for GA at birth were 7.87 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.38 to 14.15) and 10.96 (95% CI, 5.58 to 20.53) compared with fetuses of NGT subjects without FAO at GDM diagnosis.
Despite treatment, FAO detected at the time of GDM diagnosis persisted until delivery. Early diagnosis and treatment might be necessary to prevent near term FAO in high-risk older and/or obese women.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The effects of gestational diabetes mellitus on fetal growth: is it different for low-risk and medium–high-risk pregnant women?
    Jie Wang, Xin Cheng, Zhen-Hua Li, Yi-Cheng Mao, Xin-Qiang Wang, Kang-Di Zhang, Wen-Jie Yu, Ying-Qing Li, Jia-wen Zhao, Mao-Lin Chen, Guo-peng Gao, Cheng-Yang Hu, Xiu-Jun Zhang
    Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Fetal abdominal obesity and the ensuing adverse perinatal outcomes in older obese pregnant women with or without obesity and with normal glucose tolerance
    Wonjin Kim, Soo Kyung Park, Yoo Lee Kim
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Early-life exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus predisposes offspring to pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
    Qian-Ren Zhang, Yan Dong, Jian-Gao Fan
    Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Gestational diabetes mellitus and adverse pregnancy outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis
    Wenrui Ye, Cong Luo, Jing Huang, Chenglong Li, Zhixiong Liu, Fangkun Liu
    BMJ.2022; : e067946.     CrossRef
  • Fetal abdominal overgrowth is already present at 20–24 gestational weeks prior to diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus
    Wonjin Kim, Soo Kyung Park, Yoo Lee Kim
    Scientific Reports.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Validation Studies
Transcription Factor Profile by Degenerate RT-PCR/SSCP: Application in 3T3-L1 Adipocyte Treated with TNF-alpha.
Yoo Lee Kim, Sang Hwa Lee, Young Kil Choi, Seo Yoon Chang, Yun Soo Kim, Soo Kyung Kim, Seok Won Park, Won Kun Park, Yong Wook Cho, Sang Jong Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(5):410-420.   Published online September 1, 2007
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Several high-throughput gene analysis techniques - differential display PCR, suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH), serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE), and DNA microarray - have permitted transcriptome profiling to understand the molecular pathogenesis of multifactorial diseases. But these techniques are of no great utility regarding feasibility, reproducibility, cost, and the amount of material required for analysis. To establish more practical method for transcription factor transcriptome profiling, we combined degenerate reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) technique. METHODS: We categorized 417 human/mouse transcription factor mRNA into 92 small groups according to homology with ClustalW method and established 92 degenerate RT-PCR including common motives of the 92 small groups with the software program of CODEHOP, Primer Premier, Amplify 1.2. Further analysis on the amplified PCR products was performed by SSCP. This system was applied for the evaluation of changes on transcription factor transcriptome of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocyte treated with TNF-alpha. RESULTS: 82 groups and 52 groups showed amplification of PCR before and after TNF-alpha treatment respectively and 24 groups showed significant amplification difference after TNF-alpha treatment. After TNF-alpha treatment for 48 hours, mRNA expressions of group 7, 30, and 33 which include adipocyte related transcription factors such as CEBP-alpha, RXR-alpha, PPAR-gamma were downregulated and mRNA expression of group 8 including preadipocyte abundant CEBP-beta was upregulated. These results are largely concordant with the results analyzed by oligonucleotide microarray. Randomly selected single PCR bands of group 28 and 75 on agarose electrophoresis displayed additional multiple bands by SSCP and necessitated addition of this technique to degenerate RT-PCR for further analysis. CONCLUSION: It could be suggested that degenerate RT-PCR/SSCP is practical method and could be used as a screening test for transcriptome profiling of various disease states with further validation study.
Original Articles
Can the Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) done at Postpartum (PPT) 1 Wddk Substitute OGTT at PPT 6 Week OGTT at PPT 6 Week in Diagnosing Rersistent PPT Glucose Intolerance in the Patients with Gastrational Diagetes Melltus (GDM)?.
Yoo Lee Kim, Yong Wook Cho, Seok Won Park, Yun Kyung Cho, Hwa Young Lee, In Hyun Kim, Jong Gun Won, Hye Sun Jun, Ho Taek Lee, Seog Ki Lee, Sang Jong Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2000;24(2):267-280.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Although 75 g-OGTT at PPT 6 week is necessary to diagnose persistent PPT glucose intolerance (PPGI) in GDM patients, it 1s difficult to perform this test because many patients drop-out during the follow-up period. Thus we tested whether OGTT done at PPT 1 week can substitute OGTT at PPT 6 week in diagnosing PPGI in GDM patients. METHOD: In 370 GDM patients, 75 g-OGTT was performed at PPT 1 week and repeat OGTT was done in 196 patients at PPT 6 week. Results of OGTT were classified as normal glucose tolerance(NGT), impaired glucose tolerance(IGT), and diabetes mellitus (DM) according to National Diabetes Data Group(NDDG) criteria. Changes in glucose tolerance state between PPT 1 and 6 week were assessed, and the predictability of clinical characteristics for these changes were investigated by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Among 370 GDM patients who performed OGTT at PPT 1 week, 79.4% had NGT, 12.2% had IGT, and 8.4% had DM. 53% (196/370) of subjects repeated OGTT at PPT 6 week. In OGTT at PPT 6 week, 77.6% (152/196, 140/149 in NGT, 4/26 in IGT and 8/21 in DM) were in the same glucose tolerance state as at PPT 1 week. The glucose tolerance improved in 14.8% (29/196, 16/26 in IGT and 13/21 in DM) and deteriorated in 7,6% (15/196, 9/149 in NGT and 6/26 in IGT). 94%(140/149) of patients who had NGT at PPT 1 week had NGT at PPT b week and 48.9/o (23/47) of patients who had abnormal glucose tolerance at PPT 1 week had abnormal glucose tolerance at PPT 6 week. Mean fasting plasma glucose level on OGTT became lower at PPT 1 week than during pregnancy (4.6+/-0,8 vs 5.1+/-1.2mmol/L, p<0.05) and became higher at PPT 6 week than at PPT 1 week (5.4+/-1.1 vs 4.6+/-0.8 mmol/L, p<0.05). Mean plasma glucose level at 2 hour after glucose load was significantly lower at PPT 6 week than at PPT 1 week (7.2+/-2.7 vs 8.3+/-2.5 mmol/L). When the subjects were grouped into NGT, IGT, and DM according to glucose tolerance state at PPT 6 week, the NGT group already showed normal glucose tolerance at PPT 1 week. The IGT and DM group showed slightly lower glucose levels at PPT 1 week than during pregnancy but became high to the level during pregnancy at PPT 6 week. In the patients group showing deterioration in glucose tolerance state between PPT 1 and 6 week, prevalence of insulin treatment was higher (63.4% vs 9.4, 20.7%), the gestational age at diagnosis of GDM were lower (25.0+/-6.2 week vs 29.8+/-3.3, 29.9+/-4,8 waek), and prepregnant weight was higher (113.4+/-21.2% vs 102.5+/-12.4, 102.4+/-14.6%) than those in the patients groups showing no change and improvement in glucose tolerance state, Weight gain until diagnosis of GDM during pregnancy(5.7+/-4.4kg vs 9.4+/-3.4kg) and weight change between prepregnancy and PPT 5 week(-1,3+/-3.5kg vs 1.5+/-29kg) was smaller in the deterioration group than those in the no change group. Logistic regression analysis performed using improvement and deterioration of glucose tolerance state between PPT 1 and 6 week as an outcome of interest revealed that an earlier diagnosis of GDM and a smaller weight at PPT 6 week than prepregnant weight were independent predictors for deterioration of glucose tolerance between PPT 1 and 6 week. In conclusion, OGTT done at PPT 1 week can substitute OGTT at PPT 6 week in a large subgroup of GDM patients who has NGT at PPT 1 week without any risk factors for deterioration in glucose tolerance.
Relationship Among Urinary Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) Excretion Rates, Urinary Albumin Excretion and Macrovascular Disease in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Yoon Sang Choi, Sang Hoon Kim, Hyang Kim, Yun Kyung Cho, Hyun Ju Um, Si Yong Kim, Byong Ik Kim, Yoo Lee Kim, Hwa Young Lee, Sang Jong Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2000;24(2):245-255.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Increased loss of proteoglycan (PG) from glomerular basement membrane (GBM) has been postulated to alter glomerular charge selectivity which contributes to urinary loss of albumin. The glycosaminoglycan (GAG) is the degradation products of PG. Recently, one of the hypothesis suggested that urinary albumin execretion(UAE) reflects not only merely a glomerular manifes-tation but also a macrovascular disease (by Deckert et al), Wasty et al. reported a significant decrease in total GAG concentration and marked changes in their distribution in atherosclarotic plaques in human. Thus, the alterations in the metabolism of GAG might play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic macroangiopathy. Therefore, we investigated the relationship among urinary GAG execretion rates, UAE and macrovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: We measured urinary excretion rates of GAS in type 2 diabetic patients with and without macrovascular disease ( cerebrovascular disease, ischemic heart disease and other peripheral vascular disease ) and investigated the relationships among urinary execretion of GAG, UAE and macrovascular disease in 103 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: 1) Among total 103 patients, 66 patients (64.0%) showed normoal-buminuria, 18 patients (17.5%) showed microabluminuria and 19 paitents (18.4%) showed macro albuminuria respectively. The duration of diabetes mellitus and the prevalence of hypertension, diabetic retinopathy and macrovascular disease were increased according to the degree of UAE. 2) The urinary excretion rates of GAG in type 2 diabetes mellitus with normo-, microand macro-albuminuria were 6.72+/-4.05, 9.17+/-3.26 and 14.20+/-6.13 microgram glucuronic acid/min respectively (p<0.05). The urinary GAG levels were significantly correlated with UAE (r=0.43, p<0.05). 3) The urinary excretion rates of GAG in type 2 diabetes mellitus with (n=26) and without (n=77) macrovascular disease were 6.21+/-2.75 and 9,31+/-5.59 ug glucuronic acid/min, respectively (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: 1) The urinary excretion rates of GAG were decreased in patients with macro vascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. 2) The urinary excretion rates of GAG may be a possible marker of macrovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Yet, further large prospective studies are necessary to confirm our findings.
Antepartum Characteristics Predicting Persistent Postpartum Glucose lntolerance in the Patients with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM).
Yoo Lee Kim, Yong Wook Cho, Seok Won Park, Seog Ki Lee, In Sup Ahn, Byung Wook Na, Jun Lee, Yun Kyung Cho, Hwa Young Lee, Sang Jong Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 2000;24(1):46-59.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of persistent postpartum glucose intolerance and to examine antepartum clinical characteri-stics for their predictability of persistent postpartum glucose intolerance in the patients with GDM. METHODS: In 211 GDM patients who showed more than two abnormal glucose values of O'Sullivan and Mahan's criteria on 100g-oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), 75g-OGTT were performed at 6 weeks postpartum. The incidence of postpartum normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and diabetes mellitus (DM) were investigated and antepartum ciinical parameters were compared among the three groups, Predictability of antepartum clinical characteristics for postpartum IGT and DM were also investigated by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: When we grouped the patients into postpartum NGT, IGT, DM according to the results of 75g-OGTT performed 6 weeks postpartum, The incidence were 81,5% of subjects had NGT, 9.0% had IGT, and 9.5% had DM. Plasma glucose levels and GAUC on antepartum 100 g-OGTT(NGT: 1660+/-159, IGT: 1948+/-730, DM: 2538+/-629mmol/L ' min), and proportion of patients receiving insulin therapy increased progressively and significantly in association with worsening postpartum glucose tolerance. Frequency of positive family history of DM in qroups with IGT and DM (63,2% & 80.0%) were significantly higher than that in group with NGT(37,2%). Weight gain before diagnosis of GDM in groups with IGT and DM(6.7+/-3.9kg & 6.8+/-4.1 kg) were significantly smaller than that of group with NGT(9.5+/-3,5kg), Gestational age at diagnosis of GDM in group with DM(25.8+/-5.4 weeks) was significantly shorter than that in group with NGT(30.0+/-3,3 weeks), Proportion of subjects diagnosed earlier than 24 weeks of gestation were significantly higher in groups with IGT (15.8%) and DM (25.0%) than in group with NGT (1.2%). Proportions of subjects delivered heavier infants, > or =4 kg,were significantly higher in the DM group (40.0%) than in the NGT group (9.3%). In the patients having fasting plasma glucose levels hlgher than 5.8 mmol/L on antepartum 100g-OGTT, the prevalence of persistent glucose intolerance was significantly higher than in the patients FPG level lower than 5.8 mmol/L (61.9% vs 7.7%), Logistic regression analysis were performed using IGT and DM as the outcome of interest. The GAUC on antepartum 100g-OGTT, family history of DM, and the gestational age at diagnosis of GDM were independent predictors for both postpartum DM and postpartum IGT. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of persistent postpartum glucose intolerance in GDM patients were 18.5% and the most important independent predictor for persistent postpartum glucose intolerance was the degree of severity in glucose intolerance during pregnancy.
The Comparison between Doppler Ultrasonography and Digital Infrared Thermographic Imaging (DITI) in Detecting the Diabetic Peripheral Angiopathy.
Yoon Sang Choi, Hyun Ju Um, Seung Oh Song, Si Yong Kim, Byong Ik Kim, Young Uk Lee, Seok Won Park, Yoo Lee Kim, Hwa Young Lee, Yong Wook Cho, Sang Jong Lee
Korean Diabetes J. 1999;23(5):686-694.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The frequency of nontraumatic lower extremities amputation has significantly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes (DM). Digital Infrared Thermographic (DITI) has been used to demonstrate the skin temperature and its change. mellitus Imaging regional Doppler ultrasonography was developed to show excellent images of superficial arteries. In this study, we observed the relationship between DITI and doppler ultrasonography for detection or evaluation of diabetic peripheral angiopathy. METHODS: 71 patients with type 2 DM were divided to groups with and without peripheral arterial obliteration (PAO) by ankle pressure index (API). For all patients, doppler ultrasonography of lower extremities was performed in measuring inner diameter, wall thickness and calcification of femoral, popliteal and dorsalis pedis artery. DITI was done also. We analized the result of doppler ultrasono-graphy and DITI findings. RESULT: 1) In clinical characteristics of patients between nonperipheral arterial obliteration (NPAO) and PAO : there was no significant differences between two groups with respect to age, sex, smoking, BMI (body mass index), FPG (fasting plasma glucose)/2HPG (2 hour plasma glucose), HbA(1C), serum lipid profile and/or the frequency of NPDR (nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy). However, the number of patients with hypertension and 24hr urine total protein amount were significantly increased in PAO group. 2) The results of doppler ultrasonographic imaging of lower extremities: In PAO group, inner diameters of common femoral artery and dorsalis pedis artery were significantly narrower than in those of NPAO group. However, no difference was detected in respect to vessel wall thickness. The numbers of calcified vessel wall have significantly increased in all vessels in PAO group 3) The results of DITI patterns of big toes after cold stimulus: (1) In 49 patients with NPAO: 11 showed as normal, 14 an increased, 15 a decreased, and 9 flat patterns, respectively. (2) All of 22 patients with PAO showed abnormal patterns. Among them, 2 showed a decreased, but 20 a flat pattern. 4) The comparison between the results of doppler ultrasonography and DITI: In all groups, inner diameter of common femoral artery, which was measured by doppler ultrasonography, were narrow in the flat pattern. Also, the number of calcified vessel walls in common femoral artery and dorsalis pedis artery increased more in the same patterns. No significant difference of vessel wall thickness was found between both groups. CONCLUSION : Vasoreaction of lower extremities after cold stimulus was mainly related to PAO of the common femoral artery and dorsalis pedis artery. DITI is a useful method used in detecting the early state of artherosclerosis. As a result, it can be employed in early prevention and treatment of diabetic angiopathy. If DITI is combined with doppler ultrasonography, we can practice more precise diagnosis and follow-up in diabetic peripheral angiopathy.
Relationship between Circadian Mean Blood Pressure ( MBP ) Rhythm and Microvascular Complications in Normotensive NIDDM Patients.
Hyang Kim, Seong Chun Shim, Dae Jung Shim, Hi Moo Lee, Yoon Sang Choi, Jin Ho Kang, Byung Ik Kim, Sang Jong Lee, Yoo Lee Kim, Yoon Kyung Cho
Korean Diabetes J. 1998;22(4):552-560.   Published online January 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Thanks to ambulatory 24-h blood pressure monitoring device, it became possible to investigate circadian pressure rhythm under variable physiologic and pathologic conditions. Moreover, ambulatory 24-h blood pressure has allowed us to detect in diabetic patients unsuspected abnormalities of the blood pressure circadian rhythm and to relate them to autonomic or renal dysfunction. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between circadian rhythm of mean blood pressure (MBP) and microvascular complications in patients with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). METHODS: 24hr blood pressure monitoring was applied to 63 normotensive NIDDM patients(mean age 55.3+7.2 year, male: 35, female: 28) who have been hospitalized at our hospital from March 1993 to December 1994 to measure systolic, diastolic and hourly mean pressure of daytime, night time and 24hr. In addition, NIDDM patients were divided into 2 groups according to 24 hour circadian blood pressure rhythm by measuring hourly mean pressure. These 2 groups, group 1 who had a circadian MBP rhythm, with a peak value in the afternoon and group 2 who had an absent or reversed circadian rhythm with a peak value during the night time, were observed to evaluate the frequency of diabetic microvascular complication. RESULTS: The mean systolic and diastolic ambulatory BP values were significantly higher in the group 2 NIDDM during night-time compared with control group and group 1(systolic pressure: F=12.53 p<0.05 diastolic pressure: F:=15.159 p<0.05). Although there was no significant differences in day-time heart rate between three groups, 1 and 2 group showed significant higher level of night-time heart rate comparing with that of control group (F=3.444 p<0.05). Group 2 diabetes patients showed, both systolic and diastolic, higher night-time and day-time blood pressure ratio(systolic pressure: F=35.958 p<0.05> diastolic pressure F=40.126 p<0.05). Observing the night-time and day-time heart rate ratio, group 1 and 2 patients showed significantly higher level compared with that of cantrol group(F=12.144 p<0.05). Regarding the retmopathy, group 1 patient.; showed mild degree retinopathy or normal finding(X =3.65 p<0.05). However, many group 2 patients showed moderate 2 degree nonproliferative retinopathy(X =3.23 p<0.05). The prevalence of overt nepkuopathy (24-hour urine protein>500mg) and autonomic neuropathy (postural and abnormal E:I ratio during deep breathing test) was significantly higher in group 2 (overt nephropathy: X'=3.23 p

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