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Risk of Diabetic Retinopathy between Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists (Diabetes Metab J 2023;47:394-404)
Tzu-Yi Lin, Eugene Yu-Chuan Kang, Shih-Chieh Shao, Edward Chia-Cheng Lai, Yih-Shiou Hwang
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(4):573-574.   Published online July 27, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2023.0188
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  • 59 Download
PDFPubReader   ePub   
Original Articles
Drug/Regimen
Article image
Risk of Diabetic Retinopathy between Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists
Tzu-Yi Lin, Eugene Yu-Chuan Kang, Shih-Chieh Shao, Edward Chia-Cheng Lai, Sunir J. Garg, Kuan-Jen Chen, Je-Ho Kang, Wei-Chi Wu, Chi-Chun Lai, Yih-Shiou Hwang
Diabetes Metab J. 2023;47(3):394-404.   Published online March 6, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2022.0221
  • 7,049 View
  • 281 Download
  • 7 Web of Science
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   ePub   
Background
To compare risk of diabetic retinopathy (DR) between patients taking sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) and those taking glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP1-RAs) in routine care.
Methods
This retrospective cohort study emulating a target trial included patient data from the multi-institutional Chang Gung Research Database in Taiwan. Totally, 33,021 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using SGLT2is and GLP1-RAs between 2016 and 2019 were identified. 3,249 patients were excluded due to missing demographics, age <40 years, prior use of any study drug, a diagnosis of retinal disorders, a history of receiving vitreoretinal procedure, no baseline glycosylated hemoglobin, or no follow-up data. Baseline characteristics were balanced using inverse probability of treatment weighting with propensity scores. DR diagnoses and vitreoretinal interventions served as the primary outcomes. Occurrence of proliferative DR and DR receiving vitreoretinal interventions were regarded as vision-threatening DR.
Results
There were 21,491 SGLT2i and 1,887 GLP1-RA users included for the analysis. Patients receiving SGLT2is and GLP-1 RAs exhibited comparable rate of any DR (subdistribution hazard ratio [SHR], 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 1.03), whereas the rate of proliferative DR (SHR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.68) was significantly lower in the SGLT2i group. Also, SGLT2i users showed significantly reduced risk of composite surgical outcome (SHR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.70).
Conclusion
Compared to those taking GLP1-RAs, patients receiving SGLT2is had a lower risk of proliferative DR and vitreoretinal interventions, although the rate of any DR was comparable between the SGLT2i and GLP1-RA groups. Thus, SGLT2is may be associated with a lower risk of vision-threatening DR but not DR development.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Incretin‐based drugs and the risk of diabetic retinopathy among individuals with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta‐analysis of observational studies
    Samuel Igweokpala, Naheemot Olaoluwa Sule, Antonios Douros, Oriana H. Y. Yu, Kristian B. Filion
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2024; 26(2): 721.     CrossRef
  • Association of sodium–glucose cotransporter‐2 inhibitors and the risk of retinal vascular occlusion: A real‐world retrospective cohort study in Taiwan
    Tzu‐Yi Lin, Eugene Yu‐Chuan Kang, Shih‐Chieh Shao, Edward Chia‐Cheng Lai, Nan‐Kai Wang, Sunir J. Garg, Kuan‐Jen Chen, Je‐Ho Kang, Wei‐Chi Wu, Chi‐Chun Lai, Yih‐Shiou Hwang
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    Yu-Chi Su, Pei-Chun Hsieh, Edward Chia-Cheng Lai, Yu-Ching Lin
    Diabetes & Metabolism.2024; 50(2): 101522.     CrossRef
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    Clinical Medicine.2024; 24(2): 100031.     CrossRef
  • Risk of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular oedema with sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists in type 2 diabetes: a real-world data study from a global federated database
    Aikaterini Eleftheriadou, David Riley, Sizheng S. Zhao, Philip Austin, Gema Hernández, Gregory Y. H. Lip, Timothy L. Jackson, John P. H. Wilding, Uazman Alam
    Diabetologia.2024; 67(7): 1271.     CrossRef
  • Impact of GLP-1 Agonists and SGLT-2 Inhibitors on Diabetic Retinopathy Progression: An Aggregated Electronic Health Record Data Study
    Karen M. Wai, Kapil Mishra, Euna Koo, Cassie Ann Ludwig, Ravi Parikh, Prithvi Mruthyunjaya, Ehsan Rahimy
    American Journal of Ophthalmology.2024; 265: 39.     CrossRef
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    Andrew J. Barkmeier, Jeph Herrin, Kavya Sindhu Swarna, Yihong Deng, Eric C. Polley, Guillermo E. Umpierrez, Rodolfo J. Galindo, Joseph S. Ross, Mindy M. Mickelson, Rozalina G. McCoy
    Ophthalmology Retina.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Risk of Diabetic Retinopathy between Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists (Diabetes Metab J 2023;47:394-404)
    Tzu-Yi Lin, Eugene Yu-Chuan Kang, Shih-Chieh Shao, Edward Chia-Cheng Lai, Yih-Shiou Hwang
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(4): 573.     CrossRef
  • Risk of Diabetic Retinopathy between Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists (Diabetes Metab J 2023;47:394-404)
    Jihee Ko, Sun Joon Moon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(4): 571.     CrossRef
  • Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors and Risk of Retinopathy in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes
    Fu-Shun Yen, James Cheng-Chung Wei, Teng-Shun Yu, Yu-Tung Hung, Chih-Cheng Hsu, Chii-Min Hwu
    JAMA Network Open.2023; 6(12): e2348431.     CrossRef
Basic Research
Combination of Probiotics and Salvia miltiorrhiza Polysaccharide Alleviates Hepatic Steatosis via Gut Microbiota Modulation and Insulin Resistance Improvement in High Fat-Induced NAFLD Mice
Wei Wang, Ai-Lei Xu, Zheng-Chao Li, Yi Li, Shun-Fu Xu, Hua-Chao Sang, Fachao Zhi
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(2):336-348.   Published online December 3, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2019.0042
  • 11,176 View
  • 307 Download
  • 64 Web of Science
  • 65 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, which is currently the leading cause of obesity-related cancer deaths in middle-aged men.

Methods

Probiotics with lipid-lowering function were screened from the fecal microbiota of healthy adults. Polysaccharide from different sources was screened for improving insulin resistance. The combination of probiotics and Salvia miltiorrhiza polysaccharide (LBM) was investigated for alleviating hepatic steatosis.

Results

First, Bifidobacterium bifidum V (BbV) and Lactobacillus plantarum X (LpX) were obtained from the fecal microbiota of healthy adults. Second, to improve insulin resistance, a Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge polysaccharide showing good performance in reducing insulin resistance was obtained. The liver total cholesterol (TC) and total triglyceride (TG) levels and the serum levels of free fatty acid, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG, and TC can be significantly reduced through supplementation with LpX-BbV (LB) in NAFLD mice. Interestingly, the function of the probiotic LB can be enhanced by S. miltiorrhiza Bunge polysaccharide. Furthermore, the gut microbiota was modulated by LpX-BbV+S. miltiorrhiza Bunge polysaccharide (LBM). The lipopolysaccharide concentration of the LBM group was decreased by 73.6% compared to the NAFLD group. Ultimately, the mRNA concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β [IL-1β], and IL-6) decreased with LB and LBM treatment.

Conclusion

The results of this this study indicate that the LBM combination can be used as a therapeutic for ameliorating NAFLD via modulating the gut microbiota and improving insulin resistance.

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Epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus and Cause-Specific Mortality: A Population-Based Study
Sen Li, Jiaxin Wang, Biao Zhang, Xinyi Li, Yuan Liu
Diabetes Metab J. 2019;43(3):319-341.   Published online April 19, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2018.0060
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   
Background

To investigate whether diabetes contributes to mortality for major types of diseases.

Methods

Six National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data cycles (1999 to 2000, 2001 to 2002, 2003 to 2004, 2005 to 2006, 2007 to 2008, and 2009 to 2010) and their linked mortality files were used. A population of 15,513 participants was included according to the availability of diabetes and mortality status.

Results

Participants with diabetes tended to have higher all-cause mortality and mortality due to cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic lower respiratory diseases, cerebrovascular disease, influenza and pneumonia, and kidney disease. Confounder-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models showed that both diagnosed diabetes category (yes or no) and diabetes status (diabetes, prediabetes, or no diabetes) were associated with all-cause mortality and with mortality due to cardiovascular disease, chronic lower respiratory diseases, influenza and pneumonia, and kidney disease. No associations were found for cancer-, accidents-, or Alzheimer's disease-related mortality.

Conclusion

The current study's findings provide epidemiological evidence that diagnosed diabetes at the baseline is associated with increased mortality risk due to cardiovascular disease, chronic lower respiratory diseases, influenza and pneumonia, and kidney disease, but not with cancer or Alzheimer's disease.

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