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Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal



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Regulation of Muscle Microcirculation in Health and Diabetes
Zhenqi Liu, Seung-Hyun Ko, Weidong Chai, Wenhong Cao
Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(2):83-89.   Published online April 17, 2012
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  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Insulin increases microvascular perfusion and substrate exchange surface area in muscle, which is pivotal for hormone action and substrate exchange, by activating insulin signaling cascade in the endothelial cells to produce nitric oxide. This action of insulin is closely coupled with its metabolic action and type 2 diabetes is associated with both metabolic and microvascular insulin resistance. Muscle microvascular perfusion/volume can be assessed by 1-methylxanthine metabolism, contrast-enhanced ultrasound and positron emission tomography. In addition to insulin, several factors have been shown to recruit muscle microvasculature, including exercise or muscle contraction, mixed meals, glucagon-like peptide 1 and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker. On the other hand, factors that cause metabolic insulin resistance, such as inflammatory cytokines, free fatty acids, and selective activation of the AT1R, are capable of causing microvascular insulin resistance. Therapies targeting microvascular insulin resistance may help prevent or control diabetes and decrease the associated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Cardiovascular aging and the microcirculation of skeletal muscle: using contrast-enhanced ultrasound
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    American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology.2018; 315(5): H1194.     CrossRef
  • Direct Activation of Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptors Enhances Muscle Microvascular Perfusion, Oxygenation, and Insulin Delivery in Male Rats
    Fei Yan, Zhaoshun Yuan, Nasui Wang, Robert M Carey, Kevin W Aylor, Li Chen, Xinmin Zhou, Zhenqi Liu
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  • Long-term high-fat diet induces hippocampal microvascular insulin resistance and cognitive dysfunction
    Zhuo Fu, Jing Wu, Tanseli Nesil, Ming D. Li, Kevin W. Aylor, Zhenqi Liu
    American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism.2017; 312(2): E89.     CrossRef
  • GLP-1 Receptor Agonist Exenatide Increases Capillary Perfusion Independent of Nitric Oxide in Healthy Overweight Men
    Mark M. Smits, Marcel H.A. Muskiet, Lennart Tonneijck, Mark H.H. Kramer, Michaela Diamant, Daniël H. van Raalte, Erik H. Serné
    Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology.2015; 35(6): 1538.     CrossRef
  • New insights into insulin action and resistance in the vasculature
    Camila Manrique, Guido Lastra, James R. Sowers
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.2014; 1311(1): 138.     CrossRef
  • Angiotensin-(1–7) Recruits Muscle Microvasculature and Enhances Insulin’s Metabolic Action via Mas Receptor
    Zhuo Fu, Lina Zhao, Kevin W. Aylor, Robert M. Carey, Eugene J. Barrett, Zhenqi Liu
    Hypertension.2014; 63(6): 1219.     CrossRef
  • Insulin Resistance and Skeletal Muscle Vasculature: Significance, Assessment and Therapeutic Modulators
    Camila Manrique, James R. Sowers
    Cardiorenal Medicine.2014; 4(3-4): 244.     CrossRef

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