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Original Articles
Relation of Absolute or Relative Adiposity to Insulin Resistance, Retinol Binding Protein-4, Leptin, and Adiponectin in Type 2 Diabetes
You Lim Kim, Tae Kyun Kim, Eun Sun Cheong, Dong Geum Shin, Gyu Sik Choi, Jihye Jung, Kyung-Ah Han, Kyung Wan Min
Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(6):415-421.   Published online December 12, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2012.36.6.415
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  • 30 Download
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Central fat mass (CFM) correlates with insulin resistance and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications; however, peripheral fat mass (PFM) is associated with insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of absolute and relative regional adiposity to insulin resistance index and adipokines in type 2 diabetes.

Methods

Total of 83 overweighted-Korean women with type 2 diabetes were enrolled, and rate constants for plasma glucose disappearance (KITT) and serum adipokines, such as retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4), leptin, and adiponectin, were measured. Using dual X-ray absorptiometry, trunk fat mass (in kilograms) was defined as CFM, sum of fat mass on the lower extremities (in kilograms) as PFM, and sum of CFM and PFM as total fat mass (TFM). PFM/TFM ratio, CFM/TFM ratio, and PFM/CFM ratio were defined as relative adiposity.

Results

Median age was 55.9 years, mean body mass index 27.2 kg/m2, and mean HbA1c level 7.12±0.84%. KITT was positively associated with PMF/TFM ratio, PMF/CFM ratio, and negatively with CFM/TFM ratio, but was not associated with TFM, PFM, or CFM. RBP4 levels also had a significant relationship with PMF/TFM ratio and PMF/CFM ratio. Adiponectin, leptin, and apolipoprotein A levels were related to absolute adiposity, while only adiponectin to relative adiposity. In correlation analysis, KITT in type 2 diabetes was positively related with HbA1c, fasting glucose, RBP4, and free fatty acid.

Conclusion

These results suggest that increased relative amount of peripheral fat mass may aggravate insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Retinol-binding protein-4 and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
    Hangkai Huang, Chengfu Xu
    Chinese Medical Journal.2022; 135(10): 1182.     CrossRef
  • MANF in POMC Neurons Promotes Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis and Protects Against Diet-Induced Obesity
    Qin Tang, Qinhui Liu, Jiahui Li, Jiamin Yan, Xiandan Jing, Jinhang Zhang, Yan Xia, Ying Xu, Yanping Li, Jinhan He
    Diabetes.2022; 71(11): 2344.     CrossRef
  • The relation between body fat distribution, plasma concentrations of adipokines and the metabolic syndrome in patients with clinically manifest vascular disease
    Ilse M Schrover, Yolanda van der Graaf, Wilko Spiering, Frank LJ Visseren
    European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.2018; 25(14): 1548.     CrossRef
  • Visceral Fat Mass Has Stronger Associations with Diabetes and Prediabetes than Other Anthropometric Obesity Indicators among Korean Adults
    Suk Hwa Jung, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Dae Jung Kim
    Yonsei Medical Journal.2016; 57(3): 674.     CrossRef
  • Adipokines, cytokines and body fat stores in hepatitis C virus liver steatosis
    Emilio González-Reimers
    World Journal of Hepatology.2016; 8(1): 74.     CrossRef
  • The effect of resveratrol on the expression of AdipoR1 in kidneys of diabetic nephropathy
    Hongfei Ji, Lina Wu, Xiaokun Ma, Xiaojun Ma, Guijun Qin
    Molecular Biology Reports.2014; 41(4): 2151.     CrossRef
  • Retinol-binding protein 4 and insulin resistance are related to body fat in primary and secondary schoolchildren: the Ouro Preto study
    Ana Paula Pereira Castro, Ana Paula Carlos Cândido, Roney Luiz de Carvalho Nicolato, Ivo Santana Caldas, George Luiz Lins Machado-Coelho
    European Journal of Nutrition.2014; 53(2): 433.     CrossRef
  • The Effects of Marathon Running on Retinol Binding Protein 4 and C-reactive Protein Levels in Healthy Middle-aged Korean Men
    Jisuk Chae, Sungmin Kim, Junga Lee, Justin Y. Jeon
    The Korean Journal of Obesity.2014; 23(3): 203.     CrossRef
  • Modeling metabolic homeostasis and nutrient sensing in Drosophila: implications for aging and metabolic diseases
    Edward Owusu-Ansah, Norbert Perrimon
    Disease Models & Mechanisms.2014; 7(3): 343.     CrossRef
  • Beneficial Effects of Fresh and Fermented Kimchi in Prediabetic Individuals
    So-Yeon An, Min Suk Lee, Ja Young Jeon, Eun Suk Ha, Tae Ho Kim, Ja Young Yoon, Chang-Ok Ok, Hye-Kyoung Lee, Won-Sun Hwang, Sun Jung Choe, Seung Jin Han, Hae Jin Kim, Dae Jung Kim, Kwan-Woo Lee
    Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism.2013; 63(1-2): 111.     CrossRef
  • Regional Adiposity, Adipokines, and Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes
    Jee-Young Oh
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2012; 36(6): 412.     CrossRef
The Effects of Glyburide on Apoptosis and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in INS-1 Cells in a Glucolipotoxic Condition
Min Jeong Kwon, Hye Suk Chung, Chang Shin Yoon, Jung Hae Ko, Hae Jung Jun, Tae Kyun Kim, Soon Hee Lee, Kyung Soo Ko, Byoung Doo Rhee, Mi Kyung Kim, Jeong Hyun Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(5):480-488.   Published online October 31, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.5.480
  • 4,040 View
  • 43 Download
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

β-cell death due to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been regarded as an important pathogenic component of type 2 diabetes. The possibility has been suggested that sulfonylurea, currently being used as one of the main oral hypoglycemic agents of type 2 diabetes, increases ER stress, which could lead to sulfonylurea failure. The authors of the present study examined ER stress of β-cells in a glucolipotoxic condition using glyburide (GB) in an environment mimicking type 2 diabetes.

Methods

Apoptosis was induced by adding various concentrations of GB (0.001 to 200 µM) to a glucolipotoxic condition using 33 mM glucose, and the effects of varied concentrations of palmitate were evaluated via annexin V staining. The markers of ER stress and pro-apoptotic markers were assessed by Western blotting and semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, the anti-apoptotic markers were evaluated.

Results

Addition of any concentration of GB in 150 µM palmitate and 33 mM glucose did not increase apoptosis. The expression of phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF-2α) was increased and cleaved caspase 3 was decreased by adding GB to a glucolipotoxic condition. However, other ER stress-associated markers such as Bip-1, X-box binding protein-1, ATF-4 and C/EBP-homologous protein transcription factor and anti-apoptotic markers phosphor-p85 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and phosphorylation of Akt did not change significantly.

Conclusion

GB did not show further deleterious effects on the degree of apoptosis or ER stress of INS-1 cells in a glucolipotoxic condition. Increased phosphorylation of eIF-2α may attenuate ER stress for adaptation to increased ER protein load.

Citations

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  • The antagonistic atorvastatin-glibenclamide interactions suppressed the atorvastatin-induced Bax/cytochrome c/p53 mRNA expressions and increased Rho A mRNA expression in B16f10 melanoma cell culture
    Maryam Malek, Nasim Dana, Ahmad Ghasemi, Maedeh Ghasemi
    Gene Reports.2021; 23: 101156.     CrossRef
  • Expression profiles of stress-related genes in islets from donors with progressively impaired glucose metabolism
    Marcus Lundberg, Anton Stenwall, Angie Tegehall, Olle Korsgren, Oskar Skog
    Islets.2018; 10(2): 69.     CrossRef
  • Pharmacological Modulators of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Metabolic Diseases
    Tae Jung, Kyung Choi
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2016; 17(2): 192.     CrossRef
  • The TRPA1 channel and oral hypoglycemic agents
    Carlos Manlio Diaz-Garcia
    Channels.2013; 7(6): 420.     CrossRef
  • Dimethyl sulfoxide reduces hepatocellular lipid accumulation through autophagy induction
    Young Mi Song, Sun-Ok Song, Yong-Keun Jung, Eun-Seok Kang, Bong Soo Cha, Hyun Chul Lee, Byung-Wan Lee
    Autophagy.2012; 8(7): 1085.     CrossRef
  • The Duration of Sulfonylurea Treatment Is Associated withβ-Cell Dysfunction in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Mi-Seon Shin, Jee Hee Yu, Chang Hee Jung, Jenie Yoonoo Hwang, Woo Je Lee, Min-Seon Kim, Joong-Yeol Park
    Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics.2012; 14(11): 1033.     CrossRef
Bone Mineral Density in Prediabetic Men
Ju Hee Lee, Yun Hyeong Lee, Kyoung Hye Jung, Min Kyeong Kim, Hye Won Jang, Tae Kyun Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Young Suk Jo, Minho Shong, Tae Yong Lee, Bon Jeong Ku
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(5):294-302.   Published online October 31, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.5.294
  • 4,559 View
  • 30 Download
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

There are many studies regarding the effects of insulin on bone metabolism and changes in bone mineral density (BMD) in the setting of diabetes. The effect of prediabetes on BMD is not known.

Methods

A total of 802 men participated in the Korea Rural Genomic Cohort Study (in Geumsan County). According to the results of an oral glucose tolerance test, subjects were classified into normal, prediabetic, and diabetic categories. One hundred twenty-four subjects diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were excluded, leaving 678 subjects for the study inclusion. BMD was estimated with a quantitative ultrasonometer.

Results

The average BMD T scores of normal and prediabetic subjects were -1.34 ± 1.42 and -1.33 ± 1.30, respectively; there was no significant difference in the BMD T scores between these groups. The BMD T score was inversely associated with age and positively correlated with body weight, body mass index, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and HbA1c. On multiple linear regression analysis, low density lipoprotein cholesterol was the only statistically significant variable for prediabetes (β = 0.007, P = 0.005). On the stepwise regression analysis, age (β = -0.026, P < 0.001), the body mass index (β = 0.079, P < 0.001), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (β = 0.004, P = 0.016) were significant variables for prediabetes.

Conclusions

There was no significant difference in the BMD T score between the normal and prediabetic subjects. Further studies are needed regarding the association of fracture risk and changes in BMD with the development of overt diabetes.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • More Rapid Bone Mineral Density Loss in Older Men With Diabetes: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study
    Flavia Tramontana, Nicola Napoli, Stephanie Litwack-Harrison, Douglas C Bauer, Eric S Orwoll, Jane A Cauley, Elsa S Strotmeyer, Ann V Schwartz
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Prediabetes and skeletal health
    Catherine Lindsay, Albert Shieh
    Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes & Obesity.2023; 30(4): 200.     CrossRef
  • Serum levels of sclerostin in prediabetes and its correlation with bone mineral density
    Ajay Chauhan, Manoj Kumar Bhakhar, Parul Goyal
    Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care.2023; 12(11): 2702.     CrossRef
  • The risk of hip fractures in individuals over 50 years old with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes – A longitudinal nationwide population-based study
    Ho Youn Park, Kyoungdo Han, Youngwoo Kim, Yoon Hwan Kim, Yoo Joon Sur
    Bone.2021; 142: 115691.     CrossRef
  • Bone health in diabetes and prediabetes
    Silvia Costantini, Caterina Conte
    World Journal of Diabetes.2019; 10(8): 421.     CrossRef
  • Bone mineral density in obese children with prediabetes
    Ala ÜSTYOL, Mehmet Emre ATABEK
    Ege Tıp Dergisi.2018; 57(2): 94.     CrossRef
  • The Prevalence of Osteopenia and Osteoporosis Among Malaysian Type 2 Diabetic Patients Using Quantitative Ultrasound Densitometer
    Shaymaa Abdalwahed Abdulameer, Mohanad Naji Sahib, Syed Azhar Syed Sulaiman
    The Open Rheumatology Journal.2018; 12(1): 50.     CrossRef
  • An association between bone mineral density and anabolic hormones in middle-aged and elderly men with prediabetes
    Michał Rabijewski, Lucyna Papierska, Paweł Piątkiewicz
    The Aging Male.2017; : 1.     CrossRef
  • Amplification of transcutaneous and percutaneous bone-conduction devices with a test-band in an induced model of conductive hearing loss
    Marn Joon Park, Jae Ryung Lee, Chan Joo Yang, Myung Hoon Yoo, In Suk Jin, Chi Ho Choi, Hong Ju Park
    International Journal of Audiology.2016; 55(11): 653.     CrossRef
  • Osteoporosis in Men with Diabetes Mellitus
    Claire Issa, Mira S. Zantout, Sami T. Azar
    Journal of Osteoporosis.2011; 2011: 1.     CrossRef
  • Response: Bone Mineral Density in Prediabetic Men (Korean Diabetes J 2010;34:294-302)
    Ju Hee Lee, Hyun Jin Kim, Bon Jeong Ku
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2010; 34(6): 386.     CrossRef
  • Letter: Bone Mineral Density in Prediabetic Men (Korean Diabetes J 2010;34:294-302)
    Chul-Hee Kim
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2010; 34(6): 384.     CrossRef
The Effect of Glucose Fluctuation on Apoptosis and Function of INS-1 Pancreatic Beta Cells
Mi Kyung Kim, Hye Sook Jung, Chang Shin Yoon, Jung Hae Ko, Hae Jung Jun, Tae Kyun Kim, Min Jeong Kwon, Soon Hee Lee, Kyung Soo Ko, Byoung Doo Rhee, Jeong Hyun Park
Korean Diabetes J. 2010;34(1):47-54.   Published online February 28, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2010.34.1.47
  • 3,983 View
  • 30 Download
  • 18 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Blood glucose level continuously fluctuates within a certain range in the human body. In diabetes patients, the extent of such fluctuation is large, despite the strict control of blood glucose. Blood glucose fluctuation has been shown to mediate more adverse effects on vascular endothelial cells and diabetes complications than chronic hyperglycemia, which has been explained as due to oxidative stress. As few previous studies have reported the effects of chronic and intermittent hyperglycemia on the apoptosis and function of pancreatic beta cells, this study reported herein was performed to investigate such effects on these cells.

Methods

For chronic hyperglycemia, INS-1 cells were cultured for 5 days with changes of RPMI 1640 medium containing 33 mM glucose every 12 hours. For intermittent hyperglycemia, the medium containing 11 mM glucose was exchanged with the medium containing 33 mM glucose every 12 hours. Apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL assay Hoechst staining and cleaved caspase 3. Insulin secretory capacity was assessed, and the expression of Mn-SOD and Bcl-2 was measured by Western blotting.

Results

In comparison to the control group, INS-1 cells exposed to chronic hyperglycemia and intermittent hyperglycemia showed an increase in apoptosis. The apoptosis of INS-1 cells exposed to intermittent hyperglycemia increased significantly more than the apoptosis of INS-1 cells exposed to chronic hyperglycemia. In comparison to the control group, the insulin secretory capacity in the two hyperglycemic states was decreased, and more with intermittent hyperglycemia than with chronic hyperglycemia. The expression of Mn-SOD and Bcl-2 increased more with chronic hyperglycemia than with intermittent hyperglycemia.

Conclusion

Intermittent hyperglycemia induced a higher degree of apoptosis and decreased the insulin secretory capacity more in pancreatic beta cells than chronic hyperglycemia. This activity may be mediated by the anti-oxidative enzyme Mn-SOD and the anti-apoptotic signal Bcl-2.

Citations

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  • Association between hemoglobin glycation index and diabetic kidney disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus in China: A cross- sectional inpatient study
    Sixu Xin, Xin Zhao, Jiaxiang Ding, Xiaomei Zhang
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Plant polyphenols mechanisms of action on insulin resistance and against the loss of pancreatic beta cells
    Camelia Papuc, Gheorghe V. Goran, Corina N. Predescu, Liliana Tudoreanu, Georgeta Ștefan
    Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition.2022; 62(2): 325.     CrossRef
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    Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences.2022; 10(B): 944.     CrossRef
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    Islets.2016; 8(3): 57.     CrossRef
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    Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism.2013; 62(1): 14.     CrossRef
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    Wang Yanjun, Xiao Yue, Li Shixing
    Regulatory Peptides.2011;[Epub]     CrossRef

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