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Comparison of the Efficacy of Glimepiride, Metformin, and Rosiglitazone Monotherapy in Korean Drug-Naïve Type 2 Diabetic Patients: The Practical Evidence of Antidiabetic Monotherapy Study
Kun Ho Yoon, Jeong Ah Shin, Hyuk Sang Kwon, Seung Hwan Lee, Kyung Wan Min, Yu Bae Ahn, Soon Jib Yoo, Kyu Jeung Ahn, Sung Woo Park, Kwan Woo Lee, Yeon Ah Sung, Tae Sun Park, Min Seon Kim, Yong Ki Kim, Moon Suk Nam, Hye Soon Kim, Ie Byung Park, Jong Suk Park, Jeong Taek Woo, Ho Young Son
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(1):26-33.   Published online February 28, 2011
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  • 31 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Although many anti-diabetic drugs have been used to control hyperglycemia for decades, the efficacy of commonly-used oral glucose-lowering agents in Korean type 2 diabetic patients has yet to be clearly demonstrated.


We evaluated the efficacy of glimepiride, metformin, and rosiglitazone as initial treatment for drug-naïve type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in a 48-week, double-blind, randomized controlled study that included 349 Korean patients. Our primary goal was to determine the change in HbA1c levels from baseline to end point. Our secondary goal was to evaluate changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, body weight, frequency of adverse events, and the proportion of participants achieving target HbA1c levels.


HbA1c levels decreased from 7.8% to 6.9% in the glimepiride group (P<0.001), from 7.9% to 7.0% in the metformin group (P<0.001), and from 7.8% to 7.0% (P<0.001) in the rosiglitazone group. Glimepiride and rosiglitazone significantly increased body weight and metformin reduced body weight during the study period. Symptomatic hypoglycemia was more frequent in the glimepiride group and diarrhea was more frequent in the metformin group.


The efficacy of glimepiride, metformin, and rosiglitazone as antidiabetic monotherapies in drug-naïve Korean type 2 diabetic patients was similar in the three groups, with no statistical difference. This study is the first randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of commonly-used oral hypoglycemic agents in Korean type 2 diabetic patients. An additional subgroup analysis is recommended to obtain more detailed information.


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  • Real-world comparison of mono and dual combination therapies of metformin, sulfonylurea, and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors using a common data model
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    Tomoyuki Saito, Hirotoshi Ohmura, Shuko Nojiri, Hiroyuki Daida
    Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Care and Sciences.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2019; 20(3): 142.     CrossRef
  • Monotherapy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients 2017: A Position Statement of the Korean Diabetes Association
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    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2018; 19(1): 15.     CrossRef
  • Failure of monotherapy in clinical practice in patients with type 2 diabetes: The Korean National Diabetes Program
    Ja Young Jeon, Soo Jin Lee, Sieun Lee, Soo Jin Kim, Seung Jin Han, Hae Jin Kim, Dae Jung Kim, Young Seol Kim, Jeong Taek Woo, Kyu Jeung Ahn, Moonsuk Nam, Sei Hyun Baik, Yongsoo Park, Kwan‐Woo Lee
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  • Women are less likely than men to achieve optimal glycemic control after 1 year of treatment: A multi-level analysis of a Korean primary care cohort
    Seung-Ah Choe, Joo Yeong Kim, Young Sun Ro, Sung-Il Cho, Antonio Palazón-Bru
    PLOS ONE.2018; 13(5): e0196719.     CrossRef
  • Monotherapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Sang Youl Rhee, Hyun Jin Kim, Seung-Hyun Ko, Kyu-Yeon Hur, Nan-Hee Kim, Min Kyong Moon, Seok-O Park, Byung-Wan Lee, Kyung Mook Choi, Jin Hwa Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2017; 41(5): 349.     CrossRef
  • Antihyperglycemic Agent Therapy for Adult Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 2017: A Position Statement of the Korean Diabetes Association
    Seung-Hyun Ko, Kyu-Yeon Hur, Sang Youl Rhee, Nan-Hee Kim, Min Kyong Moon, Seok-O Park, Byung-Wan Lee, Hyun Jin Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Jin Hwa Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2017; 41(5): 337.     CrossRef
  • Monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Sang Youl Rhee, Hyun Jin Kim, Seung-Hyun Ko, Kyu Yeon Hur, Nan-Hee Kim, Min Kyong Moon, Seok-O Park, Byung-Wan Lee, Kyung Mook Choi, Jin Hwa Kim
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2017; 32(6): 959.     CrossRef
  • Antihyperglycemic agent therapy for adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus 2017: a position statement of the Korean Diabetes Association
    Seung-Hyun Ko, Kyu-Yeon Hur, Sang Youl Rhee, Nan-Hee Kim, Min Kyong Moon, Seok-O Park, Byung-Wan Lee, Hyun Jin Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Jin Hwa Kim
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2017; 32(6): 947.     CrossRef
  • Insulin Secretory Capacity and Insulin Resistance in Korean Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients
    Jong-Dai Kim, Won-Young Lee
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2016; 31(3): 354.     CrossRef
  • Trends of antidiabetic drug use in adult type 2 diabetes in Korea in 2002–2013
    Seung-Hyun Ko, Dae-Jung Kim, Jong-Heon Park, Cheol-Young Park, Chang Hee Jung, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Joong-Yeol Park, Kee-Ho Song, Kyungdo Han, Ki-Up Lee, Kyung-Soo Ko
    Medicine.2016; 95(27): e4018.     CrossRef
  • Clinical Practice Guideline 2015: Oral Hypoglycemic Agents for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
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    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2016; 17(2): 83.     CrossRef
  • Efficacy and safety of teneligliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 inhibitor, combined with metformin in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 16‐week, randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled phase III trial
    M. K. Kim, E.‐J. Rhee, K. A. Han, A. C. Woo, M.‐K. Lee, B. J. Ku, C. H. Chung, K.‐A. Kim, H. W. Lee, I. B. Park, J. Y. Park, H. C. Chul Jang, K. S. Park, W. I. Jang, B. Y. Cha
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  • Effect of Yanggyuksanhwa-Tang on non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus unresponsive to oral hypoglycemic agents: A case report
    Jiman Kim, Seungwon Kwon
    Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine.2015; 21(2): 157.     CrossRef
  • Efficacy of glimepiride/metformin fixed‐dose combination vs metformin uptitration in type 2 diabetic patients inadequately controlled on low‐dose metformin monotherapy: A randomized, open label, parallel group, multicenter study in Korea
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    Journal of Diabetes Investigation.2014; 5(6): 701.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of the Association between the Use of Oral Anti-hyperglycemic Agents and Hypoglycemia in Japan by Data Mining of the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) Database
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    YAKUGAKU ZASSHI.2014; 134(2): 299.     CrossRef
  • Comparative efficacy of glimepiride and metformin in monotherapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
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  • A Comparative Study of the Effects of a Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitor and Sulfonylurea on Glucose Variability in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with Inadequate Glycemic Control on Metformin
    Hun-Sung Kim, Jeong-Ah Shin, Seung-Hwan Lee, Eun-Sook Kim, Jae-Hyoung Cho, Ho-Young Son, Kun-Ho Yoon
    Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics.2013; 15(10): 810.     CrossRef
  • Glycemic Effectiveness of Metformin-Based Dual-Combination Therapies with Sulphonylurea, Pioglitazone, or DPP4-Inhibitor in Drug-Naïve Korean Type 2 Diabetic Patients
    Young Ki Lee, Sun Ok Song, Kwang Joon Kim, Yongin Cho, Younjeong Choi, Yujung Yun, Byung-Wan Lee, Eun-Seok Kang, Bong Soo Cha, Hyun Chul Lee
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  • Efficacy and safety of ginsam, a vinegar extract from Panax ginseng, in type 2 diabetic patients: Results of a double‐blind, placebo‐controlled study
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    Journal of Diabetes Investigation.2012; 3(3): 309.     CrossRef
  • What Is the Optimal Monotherapy in Korean Drug-Naïve Type 2 Diabetic Patients?: The Practical Evidence of Antidiabetic Monotherapy Study
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  • Predictive characteristics of patients achieving glycaemic control with insulin after sulfonylurea failure
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The Classification of Diabetic Patients Presenting Diabetic Ketoacidosis: The Characteristics of Fulminant Type 1 Diabetes.
Eun Hee Jang, Jeong Eun Yi, Seung Jae Lee, Sang Hoon Chun, Ki Hyun Baek, Ki Ho Song, Soon Jib Yoo, Jong Min Lee, Kun Ho Yoon, Moo Il Kang, Kwang Woo Lee, Mee Kyung Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(5):428-434.   Published online October 1, 2008
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The aim of the study was to classify newly diagnosed diabetic patients who initially presented with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) into specific types of diabetes and to describe the clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with fulminant type 1 DM in Korea. METHODS: Using data from 4 hospitals of CMC from 1 January 1999 to 1 March 2008, we identified all patients who manifested DKA when they were first diagnosed as diabetes. Clinical and laboratory data were reviewed from medical records. RESULTS: We identified 51 newly diagnosed diabetic patients manifested DKA. Among them, 14 (27.4%) patients were classified as autoimmune type 1 DM, 8 (15.7%) as antibody negative type 1 DM, 5 (9.8%) as fulminant type 1, 16 (31.4%) as type 2 DM and 8 (15.7%) as secondary DM. Five patients who fulfilled the criteria of fulminant type 1 DM were older (32.2 +/- 10.7 vs. 15.7 +/- 4.4 years, P = 0.010), had shorter duration of symptoms (4.2 +/- 2.7 vs.16.7 +/- 15.2 days, P = 0.014) and lower stimulated C-peptide levels (0.1 +/- 0.0 vs. 0.7 +/- 0.6 ng/mL, P = 0.050) compared with patients with autoimmune type 1 DM. CONCLUSION Newly diagnosed diabetic patients presenting with DKA composed of heterogenous types of diabetes. The prevalence of fulminant type 1 diabetes among them was 9.8% and the clinical and biochemical characteristics of these patients were different from those of autoimmune type 1 DM.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A Case of Severe Diabetic Ketoacidosis in a Child with Type 2 Diabetes
    Jaesung Yu, Hyunju Jin, Joontae Ko, Hoseok Kang
    Journal of Korean Society of Pediatric Endocrinology.2011; 16(1): 46.     CrossRef
  • A Case of Fulminant Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Complicated with Ischemic Ileitis
    Se-Won Oh, Ju-Ri Park, Yun-Jeong Lee, Hee-Yeong Kim, Ji-A Seo, Nan-Hee Kim, Kyung-Mook Choi, Sei-Hyun Baik, Dong-Seop Choi, Sin-Gon Kim
    Journal of Korean Endocrine Society.2009; 24(2): 116.     CrossRef
Development of Adult Porcine Islet Isolation Method for Xenotransplantation.
Sung Rae Kim, Kun Ho Yoon, Hyuk Sang Kwon, Sun Hee Suh, Seung Hyun Ko, Jung Min Lee, Soon Jib Yoo, Yoo Bae Ahn, Ki Ho Song, Hyun Shik Son, Moo Il Kang, Bong Yun Cha, Kwang Woo Lee, Ho Young Son, Sung Koo Kang
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(2):75-87.   Published online April 1, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
AND PURPOSE: Xenotransplantation using porcine islet cells might be an alternative to allotransplantation, which has been limited due to the lack of donors. Various researches using porcine islet cells have been performed in foreign countries; however, they have never been studies in Korea. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of thise new treatment for cases of diabetes by establishing of improved islet isolation skill. METHODS: The pancreas and islets were extracted from pigs weighing around 100kg. To establish an islet isolation method, the islet yield, purity and the distribution size of the isolated islets were step wise compared in various ways, and then the superior method adopted. To determine the conveyance method after organ extraction, the conveyance method of pouring collagenase P was compared with the conveyance method of injecting Custidol. For digestion, the mechanical shaking and static incubation methods were also compared. To isolate islets from the digested pancreata, isolation methods were analyzed using 3 and 4 layers' Ficoll. The islet yield was appraised after their isolation using the optimized islet isolation method. To assess the results of the islet isolation, appraised the purity and the survival rates of cells, the insulin secretion resulting from the glucose stimulation test was examined. RESULTS: The method of injecting 4degrees C Custidol was effective for the conveyance and storage of the isolated pancreas in comparison with an injection of collagenase P(3465+/-1488 IEQ/g pancreas vs. 48+/-1.7 IEQ/g pancreas, p<0.01). The digestion method was superior to the mechanical shaking method at keeping a stable condition(3465+/-1488 IEQ/g pancreas vs. 1265+/-141.4 IEQ/g pancreas, p<0.01). Ficoll isolation using 3 layers gave the same results as using 4 layers. The average weights of the isolate Pancreatic islets was 23.8+/-3.3g. The numbers of islets per gram was 3465+/-1488.2(IEQ), with a the purity of 86.3+/-2.0%, and a survival rate of over 95%. The insulin secretion caused by glucose stimulation substantially increased in concentration from 24 to 72 hours(24hr: 5mM 3.12mU/mL --< 20mM 6.79mU/mL(2.17 fold), 72hr: 5mM 2.38mU/mL --< 9.93mU/mL(4.17fold))
The Effects of High Glucose, Insulin and TGF-beta 1 on Proliferation and Differentiation of the Pancreatic Stellate Cells.
Oak Kee Hong, Hyuk Sang Kwon, Kyu Hyun Yeom, Marie Lee, Ji Hun Yang, Seung Hyeon Ko, Soon Jib Yoo, Hyun Sik Son, Kun Ho Yoon, Bong Yeon Cha, Kwang Woo Lee, Ho Yong Son, Sung Koo Kang
Korean Diabetes J. 2003;27(3):228-240.   Published online June 1, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Although chronic pancreatitis gives rise to fibrosis of pancreatic exocrine tissue, and type 2 diabetes is accompanied by pancreatic fibrosis, the mechanisms of fibrogenesis in the pancreas have been insufficiently studied. The activated Pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) have recently been identified in human and experimental fibrotic areas from chronic panceatitis tissues. As PSC are similar in their morphology and biochemistry to hepatic stellate cells, they are suspected to play the same role in pancreatic fibrogenesis as the hepatic stellate cells in liver fibrosis. The PSC were isolated from the rat pancreata, and mediators stimulating the proliferation and differentiation identified. METHODS: The pancreatic stellate shaped cells were isolated by a minor modification to the method described by Apte et al (ref), using a Nycodenz gradient. The isolated PSCs were confirmed by phase-contrast and by the immunofluorescence of vimentin, desmin and smooth muscle a-actin (a-SMA). The level of alpha-SMA was quantified by Western blot in the PSCs in the culture, over time, and the cell proliferation was measured by 3[H]-Thymidine incorporation. The effect of the proliferation and differentiation of the PSC were assessed in relation to D-glucose (500 mg/dL), Insulin (10 IU/mL) and TGF-beta (10 ng/mL) treatment of the culture medium. RESULTS: The stellate shaped cells from the rat pancreata grew readily in the culture. Unactivated PSCs, cultured for 3 days, had an angular appearance, contained lipid droplets, manifesting positive vitamin A autofliuorescence, and stained positively for vimentin and desmin, but negatively for alpha-SMA. Within 4~8 days of primary culturing, the PSCs were activated, the sizes and numbers of the fat droplets decreased, the cells flattened, developed long cytoplasmic extensions and expressed alpha-SMA. After 3 passages, almost 100% of the cells were positive for alpha-SMA expression, indicating a myofibroblast type of differentiation in vitro. The addition of high-glucose concentrations and insulin to the activated PSCs significantly stimulated cell proliferation (194.4+/-8.3, 175.0+/-31.0 vs. control), and when the combination of high- glucose and insulin was applied, the cell proliferation was increased to an even greater extent (247.0+/-21.8 vs. control). CONCLUSIONS: Pancreata stellate cells can be isolated, and cultured in vitro, from normal SD rats. High concentrations of glucose and insulin in culture medium activated the PSC proliferation.
Transplantation Source for Islet Replacement.
Soon Jib Yoo
Korean Diabetes J. 2003;27(1):1-14.   Published online February 1, 2003
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Original Articles
3-Dimensional Long Term Culture of Monolayer Cultured Dispersed Neonatal Porcine Pancreas Cells (NPCC).
Sun Hee Suh, Kun Ho Yoon, Hyuk Sang Kwon, Ok Ki Hong, Jung Min Lee, Ki Ho Song, Soon Jib Yoo, Hyun Sik Son, Moo Il Kang, Bong Yun Cha, Kwang Woo Lee, Ho Young Son, Sung Koo Kang
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(5):383-395.   Published online October 1, 2002
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AbstractAbstract PDF
We have reported porcine neonatal pancreas cell clusters (NPCCs) to be useful clinical alternative due to their growth potential and convenience. However, to apply the porcine NPCCs in human islet transplantation, there is a need to achieve in vitro maturation of porcine pancreas duct cells for the immediate cure of diabetes, and to escape hyperacute rejection. We have established a long-term 3D culture system of porcine pancreas duct cells for their in vitro induction in differentiated beta-cells. METHOD: For making NPCCs, pancreata from 1~3 days old pigs were minced, digested and cultured for 8 days. After 8 days, the cells were layered with Matrigel. After 50 days, the 3 dimensional cultures, the components of the reconstructed cell clusters were confirmed by three approaches: immunofluorescent staining, mea-surement of glucose stimulated insulin secretion and semiquantitative RT-PCR. RESULT: The monolayers of epithelial cells formed three-dimensional structures of cysts from which 50~200 micro meter diameter islet-like clusters of pancreas cells budded. The insulin and DNA contents, and the ratio of insulin/DNA, did not change significantly, even after 50 days of culturinge. The levels of insulin and galactosyl transferase mRNA showed a tendency to increase in the monolayer culture of the duct cells until day 8, after which the levels significantly decreased. However, the level of glucagon mRNA was maintained until day 50. Compared with their basal secretion at 5mM glucose, the cysts/cultivated porcine islet buds exposed to stimulatory 20mM glucose did not show difference in insulin secretion. CONCLUSION: We have shown the expansion of dispersed porcine neonatal pancreas cells in vitro, and the reconstruction of a three-dimensional structure, following Matrigel overlaying, but were unable to observe the transition of duct cells to beta cells, as observed in human duct cells. Further studies will be required to elucidate this difference.
The Effect of Long-term Treatment of Ramipril on Glucose Tolerance and Pancreatic Islets in Type 2 Diabetes Animal Model (OLETF Rats).
Seung Hyun Ko, Kun Ho Yoon, Myung Mi Kim, Yu Bae Ahn, Ki Ho Song, Soon Jib Yoo, Hyun Shik Son, Bong Yun Cha, Kwang Woo Lee, Ho Young Son, Sung Koo Kang
Korean Diabetes J. 2001;25(6):469-482.   Published online December 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In a Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation HOPE study, ramipril, a long- acting angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, significantly reduced the death rates the number of myocardial infarctions, strokes, heart failure as well as the risk of complications related to diabetes and of diabetes itself. However, it is known that ACE inhibitors improve glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity or reduce the incidence of diabetes. METHODS: 24 week-old OLETF (Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty) rats weighing 400~450 g were used in this study. 4 groups of rats were examined in parallel for 40 weeks. The OLETF rats were randomized for treatment with an aqueous solution of ramipril ( 5mg/Kg) daily [OL (RMP), n=10)] and with saline [OL(CON), n=10)]. The LETO rats were also randomized in the same was as the OLETF rats (LT (RMP), n=10, LT (CON), n=10). The blood glucose level, body weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was assessed every month. At 3 and 6 months, the 24hrs urinary protein concentration was measured, and as insulin tolerance test and oral glucose tolerance test were conducted in all experimental groups. After 6 months, the body weight was matched for 2 months in each corresponding group. Subsequently, a 15% sucrose loading was done for 2 months. After the glucose tolerance test, the pancreas was excised and immunohistochemical staining was conducted for insulin to quantify the beta cell mass by a point-counting method. In addition, the islet morphology was evaluated in the pancreas. RESULTS: Ramipril treatment for a period of 6 months improved the 2hr blood glucose level, the area under the glucose curve in the oral glucose tolerance test, insulin sensitivity in addition to lowering significantly systolic and diastolic blood pressure and 24hrs urinary protein level significantly in OLETF rats. Of note, a lower weight gain was observed in both the ramipril-treated animals at 6 months. After weight matching, the AUCg and 2hr blood glucose level values were similar between the corresponding groups, but a 15% sucrose loading worsened the AUCg value. Histologically, the islets were less disorganized and the extent of fibrosis was lower in the ramipril- treated OLETF rats in the trichrome stain. CONCLUSION: Long-term treatment of ramipril, a long acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor may be useful for suppressing weight gain and proteinuria in addition to having aprotective effect on the islet to harmful stimuli such as hyperglycemia.
Effects of Cilostazol on Insulin Resistance in OLETF Rats.
Sung Rae Kim, Ki Hyun Baek, Seung Hyun Ko, Jung Min Lee, Sang Ah Chang, Yoo Bae Ahn, Soon Jib Yoo, Jong Min Lee, Hyun Shik Son, Kun Ho Yoon, Moo Il Kang, Bong Yun Cha, Kwang Woo Lee, Ho Young Son, Sung Koo Kang
Korean Diabetes J. 2001;25(1):63-70.   Published online February 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Insulin resistance is one of the major pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is reported that cilostazol and cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor has the anti-platelet effect as well as an improvement of hypertriglyceridemia in addition to vasodilatation. Furthermore, the previous reports indicated that there is a positive relationship between insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Thus, we investigated the effects of cilostazol on insulin resistance in OLETF rats using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp technique, and lipid levels. METHODS: Fifteen five months old OLETF rats were fed for 4 weeks(8 treated with cilostazol and 7 were control), and compare to 20 same aged LETO rats (8 treated with cilostazol and 12 were control) through the glucose infusion rate on euglycemic hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp and lipid profiles. RESULTS: The glucose infusion rate was higher in the cilostazol treated OLETF rats than in the non-cilostazol treated OLETF rats (0.021+/-0.0031 vs 0.027+/-0.0036 mL/min). The levels of free fatty acids (2424.8+/-652.7 vs 1061.8+/-223.2 Eq/L), total cholesterol (145.7+/-17.9 vs 115.4+/-7.6 mg/dL) and triglyceride (146.5+/-46.6 vs 76.1+/-12.5 mg/dL) of cilostazol treated OLETF rats were significantly lower than those of non-cilostazol treated OLETF rats. CONCLUSION: This study result suggest that cilostazol may improve the insulin resistance through the improvement of dyslipidemia in OLETF rats.
The Changes of Beta Cell Mass and Islet Morphology in OLETF (Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty) Rats After Partial Pancreatectomy .
Seung Hyun Ko, Kun Ho Yoon, Sun Hee Suh, Yu Bae Ahn, Soon Jib Yoo, Ki Ho Song, Hyun Shik Son, Moo Il Kang, Bong Yun Cha, Kwang Woo Lee, Ho Young Son, Sung Koo Kang
Korean Diabetes J. 2001;25(1):50-62.   Published online February 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Insulin resistance and incomplete beta cell compensation play a major role for development of type 2 diabetes. When insulin resistance were induced by any cause, appropriate beta-cell proliferation is a key factor for maintaining the normal glucose metabolism. Compensatory beta-cell proliferation for adapting to increased insulin resistance might be achieved by neogenesis of beta-cell from duct cells, replication of preexisting beta-cells and also inhibition of beta-cell apoptosis. Previously incomplete beta-cell compensation was observed in OLETF rat, animal model of type 2 diabetes, after partial pancreatectomy, but there were no reports about the underlying pathogenesis. Therefore, this study was designed to study on the mechanism of incomplete beta-cell compensation in OLETF rat after partial pancreatectomy especially focus on beta-cell proliferation. METHODS: 12 week-old OLETF (Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty) rats weighing 280-320 g were used. 80% partial pancreatectomy was done. Experimental animals were divided into the 4 subgroups by date of killing after surgery: 0, 3, 90 days. After glucose tolerance test, pancreas remnant was excised and immunohistochemical staining was done for insulin to quantify the beta cell mass by point-counting method and also observed the amount of fibrosis of the islets after Masson's trichrome staining of the pancreas. RESULTS: We observed that impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes were developed after 80% pancreatectomy. We observed rapidly proliferating duct cells in the adjacent area of common pancreatic duct and main duct even up to 90 days after partial pancreatectomy. In OLETF rats, beta cell mass was not increased enough compared to LETO rats and some destructive features of islet architectures were noted at 90 days after pancreatectomy. CONCLUSION: The changes of beta cell mass seems to be a dynamic process adjusting to metabolic demand. Severe hyperglycemia and islet disorganization were apparent in OLETF rats despite of existence of beta cell regeneration and renewal process. So it seemed that hyperglycemia accelerated aging process or senescence of beta cells in OLETF rats.
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Polymorphism in Korean Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Macroangiopathy.
Ki Won Oh, Won Young Lee, Yoo Bae Ahn, Ki Ho Song, Soon Jib Yoo, Kun Ho Yoon, Moo Il Kang, Bong Yun Cha, Kwang Woo Lee, Ho Young Son, Sung Koo Kang
Korean Diabetes J. 1999;23(5):625-634.   Published online January 1, 2001
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Hyperhomocysteinemia is an inde-pendent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Recently, a mutation (677CT) was identified in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, leading to the substitution of valine (V) for alanine (A). This mutation causes a reduced folate-dependent enzyme activity which leads to increased homocysteine. In this study, we examined the association between the V allele of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and macroangiopathy in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: In 54 type 2 diabetic patients with macroangiopathy and 198 normal subjects, the MTHFR genotypes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by Hinfl digestion. To confirm the detection of the MTHFR polymorphism by the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, DNA Sequencing was performed on the PCR products. RESULT: The allele frequency of the V mutation was slightly higher in the patients than in the normal subjects, but that was statistically not significant. The crude ORs and 95% CIs for the allele frequency of the V mutation were 1.16 (0.76~1.79). Genotype frequencies were 35.9% for AA, 48.4% for AV, and 15.7% for VV in the normal subjects. And they were 31.5% for AA, 50.0 % for AU, and 18.5 % for VV in the patients. The crude ORs and 95% CIs for the VV genotype were 1.22 (0.56~2.67). In multiple regressian model, the VV genotype was not associated with diabetic macroangiopathy. CONCLUSION: Although, the frequencies of VV genotype in Korean normals (=16%) are higher than those of other thical populations (=12%), this mutation is not associated with macroangiopathy in type 2 diabetic patients. But, our sample size was too small and larger cohort studies will be needed to confirm the effect of MTHFR polymorphism on the development of macroangiopathy in diabetic patients.
Fasting Serum Insulin Levels in Relation to Age and Body Mass Index and Serum Glucose Level in Healthy Subjects in Korea.
Sang Ah Chang, Ho Young Son, Bong Yun Cha, Sung Dae Moon, Ki Ho Song, Soon Jib Yoo, Kun Ho Yoon, Moo Il Kang, Kwang Woo Lee, Sung Ku Kang
Korean Diabetes J. 1997;21(4):433-443.   Published online January 1, 2001
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Ethnic variability in the relationship between glucose tolerance and insulin secretion has been reported. Clinical characteristics of Korean diabetic patients are different from that of diabetic patients in Western countries. It is generally assumed that typical IDDM or obese diabetic patients are relatively rare among Korean subjects. This study attempted to define the characteristics of fasting serum insulin levels of healthy Korean adult subjects. Futhermore, we tried to evaluate the relationship between fasting serum insulin level and age, body mass index, serum glucose. METHODS: We examined 1917 Korean subjects who had fasting blood glucose within normal range (3.6~6.4mmol/L). The fasting insulin levels, total choiesterol, triglyceride concentrations and anthropometric characteristics(body weight, height and body mass index(BMI)) of these subjects were measured. RESULTS: 1) Mean fasting insulin levels were 33.9+0.5pmol/ L, the fasting insulin levels in men and women were 34.9+0.6 and 31.8+0.6pmol/L, respectively. 2) The fasting insulin levels of obese(BMI>25) subjects were significantly higher than those of non-obese subjects(43.2+ 1.2 pmol/L vs. 30.6+0.6 pmol/L, p<0.001). 3) There were significant differences in the basal insulin levels among the age groups, and fasting blood glucose levels were increased with aging. 4) In a multiple stepwise regression analysis, insulin levels were positively correlated with serum triglycerides, fasting blood glucose, body mass index and negatively correlated with age. Conclusion : The fasting insulin levels of healthy subjects in Korea were relatively lower than the previously measured value of Caucasians. The insulin levels were decreased with aging and increased with the elevation of BMI, fasting blood glucose and triglyceride.
Effect of calcium upon insulin inhibition induced by hydrocortisonein perfused rat pancreas.
Kun Ho Yoon, Soon Jib Yoo, Hyun Sik Son, Moo Il Kang, Kwan Soo Hong, Bong Youn Cha, Kwang Woo Lee, Ho Young Son, Sung Koo Kang
Korean Diabetes J. 1991;15(2):205-212.   Published online January 1, 2001
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Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal