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Comparison of the Efficacy of Glimepiride, Metformin, and Rosiglitazone Monotherapy in Korean Drug-Naïve Type 2 Diabetic Patients: The Practical Evidence of Antidiabetic Monotherapy Study
Kun Ho Yoon, Jeong Ah Shin, Hyuk Sang Kwon, Seung Hwan Lee, Kyung Wan Min, Yu Bae Ahn, Soon Jib Yoo, Kyu Jeung Ahn, Sung Woo Park, Kwan Woo Lee, Yeon Ah Sung, Tae Sun Park, Min Seon Kim, Yong Ki Kim, Moon Suk Nam, Hye Soon Kim, Ie Byung Park, Jong Suk Park, Jeong Taek Woo, Ho Young Son
Diabetes Metab J. 2011;35(1):26-33.   Published online February 28, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2011.35.1.26
  • 56,096 View
  • 89 Download
  • 31 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Although many anti-diabetic drugs have been used to control hyperglycemia for decades, the efficacy of commonly-used oral glucose-lowering agents in Korean type 2 diabetic patients has yet to be clearly demonstrated.

Methods

We evaluated the efficacy of glimepiride, metformin, and rosiglitazone as initial treatment for drug-naïve type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in a 48-week, double-blind, randomized controlled study that included 349 Korean patients. Our primary goal was to determine the change in HbA1c levels from baseline to end point. Our secondary goal was to evaluate changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, body weight, frequency of adverse events, and the proportion of participants achieving target HbA1c levels.

Results

HbA1c levels decreased from 7.8% to 6.9% in the glimepiride group (P<0.001), from 7.9% to 7.0% in the metformin group (P<0.001), and from 7.8% to 7.0% (P<0.001) in the rosiglitazone group. Glimepiride and rosiglitazone significantly increased body weight and metformin reduced body weight during the study period. Symptomatic hypoglycemia was more frequent in the glimepiride group and diarrhea was more frequent in the metformin group.

Conclusion

The efficacy of glimepiride, metformin, and rosiglitazone as antidiabetic monotherapies in drug-naïve Korean type 2 diabetic patients was similar in the three groups, with no statistical difference. This study is the first randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of commonly-used oral hypoglycemic agents in Korean type 2 diabetic patients. An additional subgroup analysis is recommended to obtain more detailed information.

Citations

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    Psychiatry Research.2024; 335: 115866.     CrossRef
  • 2023 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes Mellitus of the Korean Diabetes Association
    Jong Han Choi, Kyung Ae Lee, Joon Ho Moon, Suk Chon, Dae Jung Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Ji A Seo, Mee Kyoung Kim, Jeong Hyun Lim, YoonJu Song, Ye Seul Yang, Jae Hyeon Kim, You-Bin Lee, Junghyun Noh, Kyu Yeon Hur, Jong Suk Park, Sang Youl Rhee, Hae J
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2023; 47(5): 575.     CrossRef
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    Bo Xu, Aoxiang Xing, Shuwei Li
    Diabetology International.2022; 13(1): 49.     CrossRef
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    Medicine.2022; 101(8): e28823.     CrossRef
  • 2021 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes Mellitus of the Korean Diabetes Association
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    Mee Kyoung Kim, Seung-Hyun Ko, Bo-Yeon Kim, Eun Seok Kang, Junghyun Noh, Soo-Kyung Kim, Seok-O Park, Kyu Yeon Hur, Suk Chon, Min Kyong Moon, Nan-Hee Kim, Sang Yong Kim, Sang Youl Rhee, Kang-Woo Lee, Jae Hyeon Kim, Eun-Jung Rhee, SungWan Chun, Sung Hoon Yu
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2019; 43(4): 398.     CrossRef
  • Oral Hypoglycemic Agents for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Seung-Hyun Ko
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2019; 20(3): 142.     CrossRef
  • Monotherapy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients 2017: A Position Statement of the Korean Diabetes Association
    Sang Youl Rhee
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2018; 19(1): 15.     CrossRef
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    Ja Young Jeon, Soo Jin Lee, Sieun Lee, Soo Jin Kim, Seung Jin Han, Hae Jin Kim, Dae Jung Kim, Young Seol Kim, Jeong Taek Woo, Kyu Jeung Ahn, Moonsuk Nam, Sei Hyun Baik, Yongsoo Park, Kwan‐Woo Lee
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  • Women are less likely than men to achieve optimal glycemic control after 1 year of treatment: A multi-level analysis of a Korean primary care cohort
    Seung-Ah Choe, Joo Yeong Kim, Young Sun Ro, Sung-Il Cho, Antonio Palazón-Bru
    PLOS ONE.2018; 13(5): e0196719.     CrossRef
  • Monotherapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Sang Youl Rhee, Hyun Jin Kim, Seung-Hyun Ko, Kyu-Yeon Hur, Nan-Hee Kim, Min Kyong Moon, Seok-O Park, Byung-Wan Lee, Kyung Mook Choi, Jin Hwa Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2017; 41(5): 349.     CrossRef
  • Antihyperglycemic Agent Therapy for Adult Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 2017: A Position Statement of the Korean Diabetes Association
    Seung-Hyun Ko, Kyu-Yeon Hur, Sang Youl Rhee, Nan-Hee Kim, Min Kyong Moon, Seok-O Park, Byung-Wan Lee, Hyun Jin Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Jin Hwa Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2017; 41(5): 337.     CrossRef
  • Monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Sang Youl Rhee, Hyun Jin Kim, Seung-Hyun Ko, Kyu Yeon Hur, Nan-Hee Kim, Min Kyong Moon, Seok-O Park, Byung-Wan Lee, Kyung Mook Choi, Jin Hwa Kim
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2017; 32(6): 959.     CrossRef
  • Antihyperglycemic agent therapy for adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus 2017: a position statement of the Korean Diabetes Association
    Seung-Hyun Ko, Kyu-Yeon Hur, Sang Youl Rhee, Nan-Hee Kim, Min Kyong Moon, Seok-O Park, Byung-Wan Lee, Hyun Jin Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Jin Hwa Kim
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2017; 32(6): 947.     CrossRef
  • Insulin Secretory Capacity and Insulin Resistance in Korean Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients
    Jong-Dai Kim, Won-Young Lee
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2016; 31(3): 354.     CrossRef
  • Trends of antidiabetic drug use in adult type 2 diabetes in Korea in 2002–2013
    Seung-Hyun Ko, Dae-Jung Kim, Jong-Heon Park, Cheol-Young Park, Chang Hee Jung, Hyuk-Sang Kwon, Joong-Yeol Park, Kee-Ho Song, Kyungdo Han, Ki-Up Lee, Kyung-Soo Ko
    Medicine.2016; 95(27): e4018.     CrossRef
  • Clinical Practice Guideline 2015: Oral Hypoglycemic Agents for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
    Seung-Hyun Ko
    The Journal of Korean Diabetes.2016; 17(2): 83.     CrossRef
  • Efficacy and safety of teneligliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 inhibitor, combined with metformin in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 16‐week, randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled phase III trial
    M. K. Kim, E.‐J. Rhee, K. A. Han, A. C. Woo, M.‐K. Lee, B. J. Ku, C. H. Chung, K.‐A. Kim, H. W. Lee, I. B. Park, J. Y. Park, H. C. Chul Jang, K. S. Park, W. I. Jang, B. Y. Cha
    Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism.2015; 17(3): 309.     CrossRef
  • Effect of Yanggyuksanhwa-Tang on non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus unresponsive to oral hypoglycemic agents: A case report
    Jiman Kim, Seungwon Kwon
    Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine.2015; 21(2): 157.     CrossRef
  • Efficacy of glimepiride/metformin fixed‐dose combination vs metformin uptitration in type 2 diabetic patients inadequately controlled on low‐dose metformin monotherapy: A randomized, open label, parallel group, multicenter study in Korea
    Hye‐soon Kim, Doo‐man Kim, Bong‐soo Cha, Tae Sun Park, Kyoung‐ah Kim, Dong‐lim Kim, Choon Hee Chung, Jeong‐hyun Park, Hak Chul Jang, Dong‐seop Choi
    Journal of Diabetes Investigation.2014; 5(6): 701.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of the Association between the Use of Oral Anti-hyperglycemic Agents and Hypoglycemia in Japan by Data Mining of the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) Database
    Ryogo Umetsu, Yuri Nishibata, Junko Abe, Yukiya Suzuki, Hideaki Hara, Hideko Nagasawa, Yasutomi Kinosada, Mitsuhiro Nakamura
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  • Comparative efficacy of glimepiride and metformin in monotherapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
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  • A Comparative Study of the Effects of a Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitor and Sulfonylurea on Glucose Variability in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes with Inadequate Glycemic Control on Metformin
    Hun-Sung Kim, Jeong-Ah Shin, Seung-Hwan Lee, Eun-Sook Kim, Jae-Hyoung Cho, Ho-Young Son, Kun-Ho Yoon
    Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics.2013; 15(10): 810.     CrossRef
  • Glycemic Effectiveness of Metformin-Based Dual-Combination Therapies with Sulphonylurea, Pioglitazone, or DPP4-Inhibitor in Drug-Naïve Korean Type 2 Diabetic Patients
    Young Ki Lee, Sun Ok Song, Kwang Joon Kim, Yongin Cho, Younjeong Choi, Yujung Yun, Byung-Wan Lee, Eun-Seok Kang, Bong Soo Cha, Hyun Chul Lee
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2013; 37(6): 465.     CrossRef
  • Metformin Based Dual-Combination Therapies in Drug Naïve Type 2 Diabetic Patients
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  • Assessing Relative Bioactivity of Chemical Substances Using Quantitative Molecular Network Topology Analysis
    Anna Edberg, Daniel Soeria-Atmadja, Jonas Bergman Laurila, Fredrik Johansson, Mats G. Gustafsson, Ulf Hammerling
    Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling.2012; 52(5): 1238.     CrossRef
  • Efficacy and safety of ginsam, a vinegar extract from Panax ginseng, in type 2 diabetic patients: Results of a double‐blind, placebo‐controlled study
    Ji Won Yoon, Seon Mee Kang, Jason L Vassy, Hayley Shin, Yun Hee Lee, Hwa Young Ahn, Sung Hee Choi, Kyong Soo Park, Hak Chul Jang, Soo Lim
    Journal of Diabetes Investigation.2012; 3(3): 309.     CrossRef
  • What Is the Optimal Monotherapy in Korean Drug-Naïve Type 2 Diabetic Patients?: The Practical Evidence of Antidiabetic Monotherapy Study
    Ji Hun Choi, Won-Young Lee
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2011; 35(1): 23.     CrossRef
  • Predictive characteristics of patients achieving glycaemic control with insulin after sulfonylurea failure
    Y.-H. Lee, B.-W. Lee, S. W. Chun, B. S. Cha, H. C. Lee
    International Journal of Clinical Practice.2011; 65(10): 1076.     CrossRef
Incidence of Diabetic Foot and Associated Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Five-year Observational Study.
Shin Ae Park, Seung Hyun Ko, Seung Hwan Lee, Jae Hyoung Cho, Sung Dae Moon, Sang A Jang, Hyun Shik Son, Ki Ho Song, Bong Yun Cha, Ho Young Son, Yu Bae Ahn
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(4):315-323.   Published online August 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.4.315
  • 2,445 View
  • 36 Download
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The frequency of lower extremity amputation due to diabetic foot has been increasing in type 2 diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to observe the incidence, clinical aspects and associated risk factors for diabetic foot. METHODS: We evaluated the incidence of diabetic foot through a five-year observation of type 2 diabetic patients who presented to St. vincent's Hospital between January and December 2003. To identify the risk factors for diabetic foot, we evaluated mean glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) every six months and assessed renal function based on the existence of proteinuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. Patients were also evaluated for retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy and autonomic neuropathy using Ewing's method. RESULTS: From an initial pool of 613 patients, the observational study of 508 patients (82.9%) was completed. The mean age, duration of diabetes and HbA1c were 50.3 +/- 10.6 yrs, 7.2 +/- 6.5 yrs and 8.8 +/- 2.1%, respectively. Diabetic foot occurred in 32 patients (6.3%). The incidence of diabetic foot increased when diabetic retinopathy (OR = 6.707, 2.314~19.439), peripheral neuropathy (OR = 2.949, 1.075~8.090), and autonomic neuropathy (OR = 3.967, 1.476~10.660) were present and when the MDRD GFR (OR = 5.089, 1.712~15.130) decreased. Mean HbA1c (OR = 12.013, 1.470~98.179) was found to be an independent risk factor for diabetic foot. CONCLUSION: The present study confirmed the importance of intensive glycemic control and the role of autonomic dysfunction in the development of diabetic foot. In addition, diabetic retinopathy and impaired renal function proved to be factors associated with the occurrence of diabetic foot. Therefore, intensive glycemic control, as well as periodic examination of renal function, are essential for the prevention of diabetic foot.

Citations

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  • Microbiological, Clinical and Radiological Aspects of Diabetic Foot Ulcers Infected with Methicillin-Resistant and -Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus
    Maria Stańkowska, Katarzyna Garbacz, Anna Korzon-Burakowska, Marek Bronk, Monika Skotarczak, Anna Szymańska-Dubowik
    Pathogens.2022; 11(6): 701.     CrossRef
  • Potential of Nanoencapsulated Quercetin Topical Formulations in the Management of Diabetic Foot Ulcer
    Shashank Chaturvedi, Shruti Agrawal, Anuj Garg, Vaibhav Rastogi
    Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia.2022; 33(3): 484.     CrossRef
  • Development of a Diabetic Foot Ulceration Prediction Model and Nomogram
    Eun Joo Lee, Ihn Sook Jeong, Seung Hun Woo, Hyuk Jae Jung, Eun Jin Han, Chang Wan Kang, Sookyung Hyun
    Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing.2021; 51(3): 280.     CrossRef
  • Regional Variation in the Incidence of Diabetes-Related Lower Limb Amputations and Its Relationship with the Regional Factors
    Sung Hun Won, Jahyung Kim, Dong-Il Chun, Young Yi, Suyeon Park, Kwang-Young Jung, Gun-Hyun Park, Jaeho Cho
    Journal of Korean Foot and Ankle Society.2019; 23(3): 121.     CrossRef
  • The Changes of Trends in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcer over a 10-Year Period: Single Center Study
    Choong Hee Kim, Jun Sung Moon, Seung Min Chung, Eun Jung Kong, Chul Hyun Park, Woo Sung Yoon, Tae Gon Kim, Woong Kim, Ji Sung Yoon, Kyu Chang Won, Hyoung Woo Lee
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  • The Relationship between Body Mass Index and Diabetic Foot Ulcer, Sensory, Blood Circulation of Foot on Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients
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    Journal of the Korean Orthopaedic Association.2018; 53(2): 136.     CrossRef
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    Seo Jin Park, Taeyoung Yang, Jun Young Lee, Jinhee Kim
    Korean Journal of Adult Nursing.2018; 30(1): 106.     CrossRef
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    Jae-Ik Bae, Je Hwan Won, Jun Su Kim, Man Deuk Kim, Chang Jin Yoon, Yun Ku Cho
    Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology.2016; 74(3): 169.     CrossRef
  • Diabetic Foot Disease—Incidence and Risk Factors: A Clinical Study
    Rajesh Kapila, Rakesh Sharma, Ashwani K Sharma, Jagsir Mann
    Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery (Asia Pacific).2016; 3(1): 41.     CrossRef
  • Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Korea
    Seung-Hyun Ko, Bong-Yun Cha
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2012; 36(1): 6.     CrossRef
  • Diabetics' Preference in the Design Factors and Performance Requirements of Diabetic Socks
    Ji-Eun Lee, Young-Ah Kwon
    Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles.2011; 35(5): 527.     CrossRef
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The Effect of Gamma-Glutamyltransferase on Impaired Fasting Glucose or Type 2 Diabetes in Korean Men.
Tae Yeon Kim, Do Hoon Kim, Chang Hae Park, Kyung Hwan Cho, Seung Hwan Lee, Hyuk Ga, Hwan cheol Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(3):215-224.   Published online June 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.3.215
  • 2,219 View
  • 20 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
We sought to determine the association between serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels within the normal range and the risk for development of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or type 2 diabetes. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study spanned four years (2002~2006) with 1,717 Korean men who underwent periodic health examinations at a university hospital in Incheon, Korea and were not diagnosed with IFG or type 2 diabetes. Fasting plasma glucose levels were measured at the annual health examination. IFG and diabetes were defined as a serum fasting glucose concentration of 100~125 mg/dL and more than 126 mg/dL, respectively. Cox's proportional hazards model was used to evaluate the association between serum GGT levels and development of IFG or type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: There was a strong dose-response relationship between serum GGT levels and the incidence of IFG and diabetes. A total of 570 cases (33.2%) of incident IFG and 50 cases (2.9%) of diabetes were found. After controlling potential predictors, the relative risks for the incidence of IFG for GGT levels < or = 19, 20~25, 26~34, 35~50 and > or = 51 were 1.00, 0.99, 1.17, 1.23 and 1.38 respectively (P for trend 0.015), and for the incidence of diabetes were 1.00, 1.44, 1.80, 2.55 and 2.58 respectively (P for trend 0.050). CONCLUSION: The risk for development of IFG and type 2 diabetes increased in a dose-dependent manner as serum GGT increased within its normal range in Korean men.

Citations

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  • Evaluation of Serum Gamma Glutamyl Transferase Levels in Diabetic Patients With and Without Retinopathy
    Neda Valizadeh, Rasoul Mohammadi, Alireza Mehdizadeh, Qader Motarjemizadeh, Hamid Reza Khalkhali
    Shiraz E-Medical Journal.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
Average Daily Risk Range-Index of Glycemic Variability-Related Factor in Type 2 Diabetic Inpatients.
Shin Ae Park, Seung Hyun Ko, Seung Hwan Lee, Jae Hyung Cho, Sung Dae Moon, Sang A Jang, Ki Ho Song, Hyun Shik Son, Kun Ho Yoon, Bong Yun Cha, Ho Young Son, Yu Bae Ahn
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(1):31-39.   Published online February 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.1.31
  • 2,375 View
  • 26 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
It is known that chronic sustained hyperglycemia and its consequent oxidative stress causes diabetic complication in type 2 diabetes. It has been further proven that glycemic variability causes oxidative stress. The aim of this study is to measure the average daily risk range (ADDR)-index of glycemic variability, and to evaluate relevant variables. METHODS: We measured the blood glucose level of type 2 diabetic patients who were treated with multiple daily injections from January to July, 2008. The blood glucose levels were checked four times a day for 14 days and were conversed according to the ADRR formula. The degree of glycemic variability was categorized into non-fluctuation and fluctuation groups. We collected patient data on age, sex, duration of diabetes, body mass index, HOMA(IR), HOMA(betacell) and HbA1c. RESULTS: A total of 97 patients were enrolled in this study. The mean age, duration of diabetes, HbA1c and mean ADRR were 57.6 +/- 13.4, 11.5 +/- 8.5 years, 10.7 +/- 2.5%, and 26.6 +/- 9.8, respectively. We classified 18.5% of the patients to the non-fluctuation group, and 81.5% to the fluctuation group. ADRR was significantly correlated with duration of diabetes, fasting and postprandial glucose, fructosamine, HbA1c and BMI and HOMAbetacell. In addition, this study confirmed that BMI, HOMAbetacell and HbA1c were ADRR-related independent variables. CONCLUSION: ADRR can be used as an index for blood glucose fluctuation in type 2 diabetic patients. Measuring ADRR in patients with low BMI and a long duration of diabetes is helpful to improve the effectiveness of their care.

Citations

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  • Relationships between Thigh and Waist Circumference, Hemoglobin Glycation Index, and Carotid Plaque in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
    Myung Ki Yoon, Jun Goo Kang, Seong Jin Lee, Sung-Hee Ihm, Kap Bum Huh, Chul Sik Kim
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2020; 35(2): 319.     CrossRef
  • Reversal of Hypoglycemia Unawareness with a Single-donor, Marginal Dose Allogeneic Islet Transplantation in Korea: A Case Report
    Hae Kyung Yang, Dong-Sik Ham, Heon-Seok Park, Marie Rhee, Young Hye You, Min Jung Kim, Ji-Won Kim, Seung-Hwan Lee, Tae Ho Hong, Byung Gil Choi, Jae Hyoung Cho, Kun-Ho Yoon
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2015; 30(7): 991.     CrossRef
Cystatin C is a Valuable Marker for Predicting Future Cardiovascular Diseases in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.
Seung Hwan Lee, Kang Woo Lee, Eun Sook Kim, Ye Ree Park, Hun Sung Kim, Shin Ae Park, Mi Ja Kang, Yu Bai Ahn, Kun Ho Yoon, Bong Yun Cha, Ho Young Son, Hyuk Sang Kwon
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(6):488-497.   Published online December 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.6.488
  • 2,412 View
  • 22 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Recent studies suggest that serum Cystatin C is both a sensitive marker for renal dysfunction and a predictive marker for cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to evaluate the association between Cystatin C and various biomarkers and to find out its utility in estimating risk for cardiovascular diseases in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: From June 2006 to March 2008, anthropometric measurements and biochemical studies including biomarkers for risk factors of cardiovascular diseases were done in 520 type 2 diabetic patients. A 10-year risk for coronary heart diseases and stroke was estimated using Framingham risk score and UKPDS risk engine. RESULTS: The independent variables showing statistically significant associations with Cystatin C were age (beta = 0.009, P < 0.0001), hemoglobin (beta = -0.038, P = 0.0006), serum creatinine (beta = 0.719, beta < 0.0001), uric acid (beta = 0.048, P = 0.0004), log hsCRP (beta = 0.035, P = 0.0021) and homocysteine (beta = 0.005, P = 0.0228). The levels of microalbuminuria, carotid intima-media thickness, fibrinogen and lipoprotein (a) also correlated with Cystatin C, although the significance was lost after multivariate adjustment. Calculated risk for coronary heart diseases increased in proportion to Cystatin C quartiles: 3.3 +/- 0.4, 6.2 +/- 0.6, 7.6 +/- 0.7, 8.4 +/- 0.7% from Framingham risk score (P < 0.0001); 13.1 +/- 0.9, 21.2 +/- 1.6, 26.1 +/- 1.7, 35.4 +/- 2.0% from UKPDS risk engine (P < 0.0001) (means +/- SE). CONCLUSIONS: Cystatin C is significantly correlated with various emerging biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases. It was also in accordance with the calculated risk for cardiovascular diseases. These findings verify Cystatin C as a valuable and useful marker for predicting future cardiovascular diseases in type 2 diabetic patients.

Citations

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  • Lack of Association between Serum Cystatin C Levels and Coronary Artery Disease in Diabetic Patients
    Eun Hee Kim, Ji Hee Yu, Sang Ah Lee, Eui Young Kim, Won Gu Kim, Seung Hun Lee, Eun Hee Cho, Eun Hee Koh, Woo Je Lee, Min-Seon Kim, Joong-Yeol Park, Ki-Up Lee
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2010; 34(2): 95.     CrossRef
  • Insulin resistance and inflammation may have an additional role in the link between cystatin C and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients
    Seung-Hwan Lee, Shin-Ae Park, Seung-Hyun Ko, Hyeon-Woo Yim, Yu-Bae Ahn, Kun-Ho Yoon, Bong-Yun Cha, Ho-Young Son, Hyuk-Sang Kwon
    Metabolism.2010; 59(2): 241.     CrossRef
The Effects of Exendin-4 on IRS-2 Expression and Phosphorylation in INS-1 Cells.
Ji Hyun Kim, Ji Won Kim, Sung Yoon Jeon, Heon Seok Park, Dong Sik Ham, Young Hye You, Seung Hwan Lee, Jae Hyoung Cho, Mi Ja Kang, Kang Woo Lee, Hyuk Sang Kwon, Kun Ho Yoon, Bong Yun Cha, Kwang Woo Lee, Sung Koo Kang, Ho Young Son
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(2):102-111.   Published online April 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.2.102
  • 2,617 View
  • 31 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS-2) is a key regulator of beta cell proliferation and apoptosis. This study was aimed to investigate effect of the glucolipotoxicity on apoptosis in INS-1 cell, and the effect of Exendin-4, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, on IRS-2 expression in the glucolipotoxicity induced INS-1 cell. The goal was to discover the new action mechanism and function of Exendin-4 in beta cell apoptosis. METHOD: INS-1 cells were cultured in glucolipotoxic condition for 2, 4 or 6 days and were categorized as G groups. Another group in which 50 nM Exendin-4 was added to INS-1 cells, cultured in glucolipotoxic condition, were named as Ex-4 groups. We investigated the expression of IRS-2 by RT-PCR, phosphorylated IRS-2 and phosphorylated Akt protein levels by western blot. We measured the apoptosis ratio of INS-1 cell in glucolipotoxic condition by TUNEL staining in both groups. RESULT: IRS-2 expression of INS-1 cells decreased with correlation to the time of exposure to glucolipotoxic condition. pIRS-2 and pAkt protein levels decreased in the similar pattern in glucolipotoxicity group. However, this effect of glucolipotoxicity on INS-1 cell was inhibited by the Exendin-4 treatment. In the Ex-4 groups, IRS-2 expression, pIRS-2 and pAkt protein levels remained at the similar level to low glucose condition state. Also, apoptosis induced by glucolipotoxicity was suppressed by Exendin-4 treatment significantly. CONCLUSION: We showed that the long-term treatment of Exendin-4 inhibited the apoptosis of beta cells significantly in glucolipotoxic condition and that this effect of Exendin-4 was related with IRS-2 and Akt among the beta cell's intracellular signal transduction pathway.
PDX-1/VP16 Overexpression Induce the Transdifferentiation of Canine Adult Pancreatic Cells into Beta-cells.
Young Hye You, Sun Cheol Park, Seung Hwan Lee, Heon Seok Park, Dong Sik Ham, Marie Rhee, Ji Won Kim, Ki Ho Song, Kun Ho Yoon
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(1):51-62.   Published online January 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2007.31.1.51
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
A major obstacle of islet transplantation is an inadequate supply of insulin-producing tissue. Ad-PDX-1/VP16 overexpression and Exendin-4 treatment have been proved the effects on differentiation and proliferation of pancreatic stem cells. But, the study is insufficient using adult animal pancreatic stem cells. METHODS: Pancreatic cells were prepared from the non-endocrine fraction of canine pancreases. This cells were cultivated free floating state and monolayer culture after dispersion. The floating pancreatic cells were transplanted under the kidney capsule of normoglycaemic nude mice. The dispersed pancreatic cells were infected with Ad-PDX-1/VP16 or Ad-GFP. After infection, those cells were transplanted of nude mice. After transplantation, mice were treated with either 1 nmol/kg exendin-4 or saline solution by intraperitoneal injection for 10 days. RESULTS: The relative volume of the beta-cells in the grafts of the free floating cultured pancreatic cells were 23.4 +/- 13.1% at two weeks and 5.2 +/- 2.0% at eight weeks. At two weeks after transplantation, the relative volume of insulin-positive cells in the grafts of dispersed pancreatic cells were 28 +/- 5.7%, 20.5 +/- 0.7% and 31 +/- 1.4% in control, GFP and PDX-1/VP16 treated groups respectively. At eight weeks after transplantation, the relative volume of insulin-positive cells in the grafts were 11.8 +/- 5.9%, 8 +/- 7.3% and 16.6 +/- 7.4% in control, GFP and PDX-1/VP16 treated groups respectively. Exendin-4 treatment didn't show any additive effects on transdifferentiation of pancreas stem cell into beta-cells. CONCLUSION: The expansion and transdifferentiation were not observed after the transplantation of the free floating cultured pancreatic cells. PDX-1/VP16 overexpression induces the transdifferentiation of adult pancreatic cells into beta-cells. However Exendin-4 treatment hasn't any effects on the expansion and transdifferentiation of the cells in the grafts.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Generation of Functional Insulin-Producing Cells from Neonatal Porcine Liver-Derived Cells by PDX1/VP16, BETA2/NeuroD and MafA
    Dong-Sik Ham, Juyoung Shin, Ji-Won Kim, Heon-Seok Park, Jae-Hyoung Cho, Kun-Ho Yoon, Kathrin Maedler
    PLoS ONE.2013; 8(11): e79076.     CrossRef
  • Adenoviruses Expressing PDX-1, BETA2/NeuroD and MafA Induces the Transdifferentiation of Porcine Neonatal Pancreas Cell Clusters and Adult Pig Pancreatic Cells into Beta-Cells
    Young-Hye You, Dong-Sik Ham, Heon-Seok Park, Marie Rhee, Ji-Won Kim, Kun-Ho Yoon
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2011; 35(2): 119.     CrossRef
  • Transdifferentiation of Enteroendocrine K-cells into Insulin-expressing Cells
    Esder Lee, Jun Mo Yu, Min Kyung Lee, Gyeong Ryul Ryu, Seung-Hyun Ko, Yu-Bae Ahn, Sung-Dae Moon, Ki-Ho Song
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2009; 33(6): 475.     CrossRef
Randomized Controlled Trial
Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of Glimepiride/Metformin Fixed Combination Versus Free Combination in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Multicenter, Randomized, Controlled Trial.
Seung Hwan Lee, In Kyu Lee, Sei Hyun Baik, Dong Seop Choi, Kyong Soo Park, Ki Ho Song, Kwan Woo Lee, Bong Soo Cha, Chul Woo Ahn, Hyoung Woo Lee, Choon Hee Chung, Moon Suk Nam, Hong Sun Baek, Yong Ki Kim, Hyo Young Rhim, Ho Young Son
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(6):466-475.   Published online November 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.6.466
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Failure to manage diabetes mellitus receiving monotherapy increases as the duration of the disease is protracted, and in many cases it becomes inevitable to introduce combined therapies. However, compliance of the patients tends to decrease. We conducted a clinical study to compare the efficacy and safety of preconstituted and fixed combination therapy of glimepiride plus metformin to those of free combination therapy. METHODS: Two hundred and thirteen patients with type 2 diabetes who had been diagnosed at least six months ago were randomly assigned either to a fixed group or a free group. The initial dosage was chosen according to the previous treatment history and then adjusted every two weeks following a predefined titration algorithm to meet the target mean fasting glucose levels (140 mg/dL). The medications were given for 16 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in HbA1c level from baseline to week 16. Various parameters were checked as secondary outcome measures and safety criteria. RESULTS: HbA1c level of the fixed group and the free group decreased by 1.09% and 1.08%, respectively. The 95% CI of the changes' difference between the two groups (-0.21%, +0.19%) was within the predefined equivalence interval (-0.5%, +0.5%). Secondary outcome measures (the changes of fasting and postprandial plasma glucose level, response rate and compliance) and safety criteria (frequency of hypoglycemia and adverse reactions) were similar between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Fixed combination of glimepiride/metformin is as effective and safe therapy as free combination in type 2 diabetes patients.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Efficacy and safety of glimepiride/metformin sustained release once daily vs. glimepiride/metformin twice daily in patients with type 2 diabetes
    Y.-C. Hwang, M. Kang, C. W. Ahn, J. S. Park, S. H. Baik, D. J. Chung, H. C. Jang, K.-A. Kim, I.-K. Lee, K. W. Min, M. Nam, T. S. Park, S. M. Son, Y.-A. Sung, J.-T. Woo, K. S. Park, M.-K. Lee
    International Journal of Clinical Practice.2013; 67(3): 236.     CrossRef
  • Pharmacokinetic comparison of a new glimepiride 1-mg + metformin 500-mg combination tablet formulation and a glimepiride 2-mg + metformin 500-mg combination tablet formulation: A single-dose, randomized, open-label, two-period, two-way crossover study in
    Bo-Hyung Kim, Kwang-Hee Shin, JaeWoo Kim, Kyoung Soo Lim, Kyu-pyo Kim, Jung-Ryul Kim, Joo-Youn Cho, Sang-Goo Shin, In-Jin Jang, Kyung-Sang Yu
    Clinical Therapeutics.2009; 31(11): 2755.     CrossRef
Case Report
A Case of Hepatic Glycogenosis in a Patient with Uncontrolled Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.
Seung Hwan Lee, Hyuk Sang Kwon, Jung Ah Shin, Won Chul Kim, Jeong Hoon Kim, Yoon Hee Choi, Kun Ho Yoon, Bong Yun Cha, Kwang Woo Lee, Ho Young Son, Sung Koo Kang
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(1):82-86.   Published online January 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.1.82
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AbstractAbstract PDF
When a patient with diabetes presents with hepatomegaly and increased level of liver enzymes, glycogenosis or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) should be considered. Glycogenosis is mainly developed in patients with type 1 diabetes, when blood glucose level is poorly controlled, when a high dosage of insulin is administered in ketoacidosis, or when glucose is given to control hypoglycemia caused by high dosage of insulin. On the other hand, the main causes of NASH, which are known to mainly affect type 2 diabetes patients, are obesity, dyslipidemia or insulin resistance. Glycogenosis differs from NASH, the former being a reversible change that improves with the control of blood glucose level and the minimum dosage requirement of insulin, and the latter being a progressive disease that may lead to fibrosis or cirrhosis of the liver. However, clinical differentiation of the two diseases is difficult and liver biopsy is helpful for making a definite diagnosis. We present a type 1 diabetes patient with poorly controlled blood glucose level, who have had a frequent history of diabetic ketoacidosis, showing hepatomegaly and a slight increase in liver enzyme level. The patient was diagnosed as diabetic glycogenosis, confirmed by liver biopsy. Strict control of the blood glucose level resulted in rapid improvement showing the reversible nature of the disease.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Four cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus showing sharp serum transaminase increases and hepatomegaly due to glycogenic hepatopathy
    Yuichi Ikarashi, Tomomi Kogiso, Etsuko Hashimoto, Kuniko Yamamoto, Kazuhisa Kodama, Makiko Taniai, Nobuyuki Torii, Hiroko Takaike, Yasuko Uchigata, Katsutoshi Tokushige
    Hepatology Research.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Glycogenic hepatopathy in a Korean girl with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus
    Hwal Rim Jeong, Young Seok Shim, Young Bae Kim, Hae Sang Lee, Jin Soon Hwang
    Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism.2014; 19(1): 49.     CrossRef
  • Three cases of glycogenic hepatopathy mimicking acute and relapsing hepatitis in type I diabetes mellitus
    Jae Hwang Cha, Sang Ho Ra, Yu Mi Park, Yong Kwan Ji, Ji Hyun Lee, So Yeon Park, Soon Koo Baik, Sang Ok Kwon, Mee Yon Cho, Moon Young Kim
    Clinical and Molecular Hepatology.2013; 19(4): 421.     CrossRef
  • Hepatic glycogenosis in a patient with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus
    Hye Young Jin, Dae-Young Kang, Jin-Ho Choi
    Korean Journal of Pediatrics.2009; 52(11): 1279.     CrossRef

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