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Original Article
The Association of Serum Cystatin C with Glycosylated Hemoglobin in Korean Adults
Eun Hee Sim, Hye Won Lee, Hyun Ju Choi, Dong Wook Jeong, Seok Man Son, Yang Ho Kang
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(1):62-69.   Published online November 27, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.1.62
  • 3,534 View
  • 33 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Cystatin C has been known to be associated not only with early renal impairment but also with the incidence of diabetic conditions (prediabetes plus diabetes). However, it is not clear whether cystatin C levels are associated with the prevalence of diabetic conditions in Asian populations. We evaluated this association using glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels as the definition of diabetes in Korean adults.

Methods

We analyzed data from 1,559 Korean adults (937 men and 622 women) with available serum cystatin C and HbA1c values.

Results

The serum cystatin C levels in subjects with prediabetes and diabetes were significantly increased (0.91±0.14 mg/L in prediabetes and 0.91±0.17 mg/L in diabetes vs. 0.88±0.13 mg/L in patients with normal glucose levels, P=0.001). At increasing cystatin C levels, the prevalence of subjects with prediabetes (30.2% vs. 14.6%, P<0.001) and those with diabetes (10.6% vs. 8.0%, P<0.001) significantly increased in the group with the highest cystatin C levels. The group with the highest cystatin C levels had a significantly increased odds ratio (OR) for the presence of diabetic conditions compared to the group with the lowest values in total subjects (OR, 2.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54 to 3.58; P<0.001) and in women (OR, 4.13; 95% CI, 1.97 to 8.65; P<0.001), though there was no significant increase after adjusting for multiple variables.

Conclusions

Higher levels of serum cystatin C are associated with an increased prevalence of diabetic conditions in Korean adults. Our findings may extend the positive association of cystatin C with diabetes incidence to an Asian population.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    Eon Ju Jeon, Ji Hyun Lee
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2016; 40(1): 32.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Reduced Kidney Function by Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate Using an Equation Based on Creatinine and Cystatin C in Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components in Korean Adults
    Yang Ho Kang, Dong Wook Jeong, Seok Man Son
    Endocrinology and Metabolism.2016; 31(3): 446.     CrossRef
  • Letter: The Association of Serum Cystatin C with Glycosylated Hemoglobin in Korean Adults (Diabetes Metab J 2016;40:62-9)
    Kyung-Soo Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2016; 40(2): 171.     CrossRef
  • Response: The Association of Serum Cystatin C with Glycosylated Hemoglobin in Korean Adults (Diabetes Metab J 2016;40:62-9)
    Yang Ho Kang
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2016; 40(2): 173.     CrossRef
Letter
Letter: Diabetic Retinopathy and Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Diabetes Metab J 2013;37:262-9)
Seok Man Son
Diabetes Metab J. 2013;37(5):391-392.   Published online October 17, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2013.37.5.391
  • 2,599 View
  • 25 Download
PDFPubReader   
Editorial
C-Peptide and Vascular Complications in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects
Seok Man Son
Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(5):345-349.   Published online October 18, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2012.36.5.345
  • 2,985 View
  • 40 Download
  • 3 Crossref
PDFPubReader   

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Correlation Between C-Peptide and Severity of Peripheral Atherosclerosis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    Maisa A Wahab, Alshaymaa Alhabibi, Ahmed Khairy Sakr, Mohamed Yahia Zakaria, Ola I Saleh, Inass Hassan Ahmad, Eman Abdelrahman, Randa Taha, Fayka Karem Abdel Azeem Ahmed, Bothayna Ismail, Lamiaa Hosney Azel, Asmaa S Hassan, Hanaa Mohammed Eid El Sayed, Sa
    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity.2023; Volume 16: 2617.     CrossRef
  • Disordered glycemic control in women with type 2 diabetes is associated with increased TNF receptor-2 levels
    Patricia Pulido-Perez, Enrique Torres-Rasgado, Ricardo Pérez-Fuentes, José Luis Rosales-Encina, Jorge Rodríguez-Antolín, Jose R. Romero
    Journal of Diabetes and its Complications.2021; 35(9): 107974.     CrossRef
  • C-peptide concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with insulin
    Mehmet Uzunlulu, Aytekin Oguz, Müzeyyen Arslan Bahadir, Ayse Naciye Erbakan, Mirac Vural Keskinler, Banu Alpaslan Mesci
    Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews.2019; 13(6): 3099.     CrossRef
Review
Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species in Pathogenesis of Vascular Complications of Diabetes
Seok Man Son
Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(3):190-198.   Published online June 14, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2012.36.3.190
  • 5,424 View
  • 57 Download
  • 83 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   

Macrovascular and microvascular diseases are currently the principal causes of morbidity and mortality in subjects with diabetes. Disorders of the physiological signaling functions of reactive oxygen species (superoxide and hydrogen peroxide) and reactive nitrogen species (nitric oxide and peroxynitrite) are important features of diabetes. In the absence of an appropriate compensation by the endogenous antioxidant defense network, increased oxidative stress leads to the activation of stress-sensitive intracellular signaling pathways and the formation of gene products that cause cellular damage and contribute to the vascular complications of diabetes. It has recently been suggested that diabetic subjects with vascular complications may have a defective cellular antioxidant response against the oxidative stress generated by hyperglycemia. This raises the concept that antioxidant therapy may be of great benefit to these subjects. Although our understanding of how hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress ultimately leads to tissue damage has advanced considerably in recent years, effective therapeutic strategies to prevent or delay the development of this damage remain limited. Thus, further investigation of therapeutic interventions to prevent or delay the progression of diabetic vascular complications is needed.

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Original Articles
The Association between Apolipoprotein A-II and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults: A Comparison Study of Apolipoprotein A-I and Apolipoprotein B
Dong Won Yi, Dong Wook Jeong, Sang Yeoup Lee, Seok Man Son, Yang Ho Kang
Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36(1):56-63.   Published online February 17, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2012.36.1.56
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AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II) is the second-most abundant apolipoprotein in human high-density lipoprotein and its role in cardio metabolic risk is not entirely clear. It has been suggested to have poor anti-atherogenic or even pro-atherogenic properties, but there are few studies on the possible role of apoA-II in Asian populations. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of apoA-II in metabolic syndrome (MetS) compared with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and apolipoprotein B (apoB) in Korean adults.

Methods

We analyzed data from 244 adults who visited the Center for Health Promotion in Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital for routine health examinations.

Results

The mean apoB level was significantly higher, and the mean apoA-I level was significantly lower, in MetS; however, there was no significant difference in apoA-II levels (30.5±4.6 mg/dL vs. 31.2±4.6 mg/dL, P=0.261). ApoA-II levels were more positively correlated with apoA-I levels than apoB levels. ApoA-II levels were less negatively correlated with homocysteine and high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels than apoA-I levels. The differences in MetS prevalence from the lowest to highest quartile of apoA-II were not significant (9.0%, 5.7%, 4.9%, and 6.6%, P=0.279). The relative risk of the highest quartile of apoA-II compared with the lowest quartile also was not significantly different (odds ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.95 to 1.04; P=0.956).

Conclusion

Compared with apoA-I (negative association with MetS) and apoB (positive association with MetS) levels, apoA-II levels did not show any association with MetS in this study involving Korean adults. However, apoA-II may have both anti-atherogenic and pro-atherogenic properties.

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  • Interaction between Apo A-II –265T > C polymorphism and dietary total antioxidant capacity on some oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Banafsheh Jafari Azad, Mehdi Yaseri, Elnaz Daneshzad, Fariba Koohdani
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High Glucose and/or Free Fatty Acid Damage Vascular Endothelial Cells via Stimulating of NAD(P)H Oxidase-induced Superoxide Production from Neutrophils.
Sang Soo Kim, Sun Young Kim, Soo Hyung Lee, Yang Ho Kang, In Ju Kim, Yong Ki Kim, Seok Man Son
Korean Diabetes J. 2009;33(2):94-104.   Published online April 1, 2009
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2009.33.2.94
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Oxidative stress and inflammation are important factors in the pathogenesis of diabetes and contribute to the development of diabetic complications. To understand the mechanisms that cause vascular complications in diabetes, we examined the effects of high glucose and/or free fatty acids on the production of superoxide from neutrophils and their role in endothelial cell damage. METHODS: Human neutrophils were incubated in the media containing 5.5 mM D-glucose, 30 mM D-glucose, 3 nM oleic acid, or 30 microM oleic acid for 1 hour to evaluate superoxide production through NAD(P)H oxidase activation. Human aortic endothelial cells were co-cultured with neutrophils exposed to high glucose and oleic acid. We then measured neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells, neutrophil activation and superoxide production, neutrophil-mediated endothelial cell cytotoxicity and subunits of neutrophil NAD(P)H oxidase. RESULTS: After 1 hour of incubation with various concentrations of glucose and oleic acid, neutrophil adherence to high glucose and oleic acid-treated endothelial cells was significantly increased compared with adhesion to low glucose and oleic acid-treated endothelial cells. Incubation of neutrophils with glucose and free fatty acids increased superoxide production in a dose-dependent manner. High glucose and oleic acid treatment significantly increased expression of the membrane components of NAD(P)H oxidase of neutrophil (gp91(phox)). Endothelial cells co-cultured with neutrophils exposed to high glucose and oleic acid showed increased cytolysis, which could be prevented by an antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that high glucose and/orfree fatty acidsincrease injury of endothelial cells via stimulating NAD(P)H oxidase-induced superoxide production from neutrophils.
Association of Serum Cystatin C with Metabolic Syndrome and Its Related Components in Korean Adults.
Sun Young Kim, Sang Heon Song, Yun Kyung Jeon, Ji Ryang Kim, Jung Ho Bae, Sang Soo Kim, Soo Hyung Lee, Seok Man Son, In Ju Kim, Yong Ki Kim, Yang Ho Kang
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(5):409-417.   Published online October 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.5.409
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Serum cystatin C has been reported as a better marker than serum creatinine for estimation of kidney function and may be associated with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to elucidate the association of serum cystatin C with metabolic syndrome (MS), a constellation of cardiovascular risk factors, and its related components and the usefulness of serum cystatin C for the cardiovascular risk assessment. METHODS: 1,468 healthy subjects (814 men and 655 women), who visited health promotion center of Pusan National University Hospital for routine medical checkup were included. MS was defined by modified, revised National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria. RESULTS: Mean serum cystatin C value was 0.87 +/- 0.17 mg/L. In partial correlation analysis adjusted by age, sex and Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR), cystatin C was associated with most of metabolic parameters and especially had significant positive correlation with waist circumference (r = 0.215), triglyceride (TG) (r = 0.141), diastolic blood pressure (BP) (r = 0.116), and correlated negatively with high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (r = -0.152) (all P < 0.001). There were increasing trends of prevalence of MS with the increase of quartiles of cystatin C and as the number of MS components increased, cystatin C values significantly increased. Serum cystatin C was also significantly increased in MS (0.90 +/- 0.19 mg/L vs. 0.86 +/- 0.16 mg/L). In stepwise multiple regression analysis including the components of MS, Waist circumference, diastolic BP, triglyceride, and HDL cholesterol were independent determinants of serum cystatin C, but with creatinine, only waist circumference was independent determinant. CONCLUSIONS: Serum cystatin C was closely associated with MS and its related cardiovascular risk factors and might be useful as a tool of cardiovascular risk assessment.

Citations

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  • Cystatin C in Patients of Metabolic Syndrome and its Correlation with the Individual Components of Metabolic Syndrome
    Sunita Aghade, Jayshree S Bavikar, Pragati S Kadam, Reshakiran J Shendye
    Indian Journal of Medical Biochemistry.2019; 23(2): 293.     CrossRef
  • Cystatin C as a Predictor for Diabetes according to Glycosylated Hemoglobin Levels in Korean Patients
    Eon Ju Jeon, Ji Hyun Lee
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2016; 40(1): 32.     CrossRef
  • Association of Obesity with Serum Cystatin C in Korean Adults
    Yang Ho Kang
    The Korean Journal of Obesity.2015; 24(4): 199.     CrossRef
Review
Oxidative Stress and Cell Dysfunction in Diabetes: Role of ROS Produced by Mitochondria and NAD(P)H Oxidase.
Sang Soo Kim, Seok Man Son
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(5):389-398.   Published online October 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.5.389
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Oxidative stress has been considered to be a major contributor to the pathogenesis of the diabetic macrovascular and microvascular complications. In the absence of an appropriate antioxidant defense mechanism, increased oxidative stress leads to the activation of stress-sensitive intracellular signaling pathways and the formation of gene products that cause damage and contribute to the late complications ofdiabetes. The source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pancreatic beta cells and insulin sensitive cells has postulated to be the mitochondrial electron transport chain. NAD(P)H oxidase-dependent ROS production is also important as the source both in pancreatic beta cells and other cells. NAD(P)H oxidase mediated ROS can alter parameters of signal transduction, insulin secretion, insulin action, cell proliferation and cell death. Additionally, oxidative stress as the pathogenic mechanism linking insulin resistance with dysfunction of both pancreatic beta cells and endothelial cells, eventually leads to diabetes and its complications. Further investigation of the mechanisms and its therapeutic interventions based on focusing NAD(P)H oxidase associated ROS production in the islet cells and other islet cells are needed

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    Bo-Gyeong Yoo, Jun-Pyo Hong, Ha-Yeon Song, Eui-Hong Byun
    Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.2022; 51(12): 1252.     CrossRef
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    Cho In Lee, Hyun Jong Lee, Yun Kyu Lee, Seong Chul Lim, Jae Soo Kim
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  • Effect of Chungkukjang supplementation on oxidative stress and antioxidant nutrients of diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin
    Heyun-Sook Park, Hyun-Joo Kong, Eon-Hee Lee, Eun-Mi Choi, Joung-Hyeon Jang, Myoung-Hee Lee, Ju-Yeon Hong, Su-Jung Hwang, Hyeon-A Jung, Kyung-Mi Yang
    Korean Journal of Food Preservation.2015; 22(2): 281.     CrossRef
  • The Effects of Several Halophytes on Insulin Resistance in Otsuka Long-evans Tokushima Fatty Rats
    Jeong-Yong Cho, Zhangjun Huang, Sun-Young Park, Kyung-Hee Park, Tong-Kun Pai, So-Young Kim, Haeng-Ran Kim, Kyung-Sik Ham
    Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology.2014; 46(1): 100.     CrossRef
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    Byoung Ok Cho, Chang-Wook Lee, Yangkang So, Chang-Hyun Jin, Hong-Sun Yook, Myung-Woo Byun, Yong-Wook Jeong, Jong Chun Park, Il-Yun Jeong
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  • Effect of Dietary Supplementation of β-Carotene on Hepatic Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Glutathione Concentration in Diabetic Rats
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Original Articles
Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by High Glucose is Reactive Oxygen Dependent.
Yong Seong An, Ji Hae Kwon, Yang Ho Kang, In Ju Kim, Yong Ki Kim, Seok Man Son
Korean Diabetes J. 2008;32(3):185-195.   Published online June 1, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/kdj.2008.32.3.185
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Oxidative stress contributes to vascular diseases in patients with diabetes. As the mechanism of development and progression of diabetic vascular complications is poorly understood, this study was aimed to assess the potential role of hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and to determine whether the oxidative stress is a major factor in hyperglycemia-induced migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). METHODS: We treated primary cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells for 72 hours with medium containing 5.5 mM D-glucose (normal glucose), 30 mM D-glucose (high glucose) or 5.5 mM D-glucose plus 24.5 mM mannitol (osmotic control). We measured the migration of VSMCs and superoxide production. Immunoblotting of PKC isozymes using phoshospecific antibodies was performed, and PKC activity was also measured. RESULTS: Migration of VSMCs incubated under high glucose condition were markedly increased compared to normal glucose condition. Treatment with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI, 10 micromol/L) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, 500 U/mL) significantly suppressed high glucose-induced migration of VSMCs. Superoxide production was significantly increased in high glucose condition and was markedly decreased after treatment with DPI and SOD. High glucose also markedly increased activity of PKC-delta isozyme. When VSMCs were treated with rottlerin or transfected with PKC-delta siRNA, nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) staining and NAD(P)H oxidase activity were significantly attenuated in the high glucose-treated VSMCs. Furthermore, inhibition of PKC-delta markedly decreased VSMC migration by high glucose. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that high glucose-induced VSMC migration is dependent upon activation of PKC-delta, which may responsible for elevated intracellular ROS production in VSMCs, and this is mediated by NAD(P)H oxidase.
Oxidative Stress Causes Vascular Insulin Resistance in OLETF Rat Through Increased IRS-1 Degradation.
Jung Lae Park, Young Sil Lee, Bo Hyun Kim, Yang Ho Kang, In Ju Kim, Yong Ki Kim, Seok Man Son
Korean Diabetes J. 2007;31(1):22-32.   Published online January 1, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2007.31.1.22
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Insulin resistance and oxidative stress have been reported to play essential pathophysiological roles in diabetic cardiovascular complication. The relationship between insulin resistance and oxidative stress in vasculature remains unclear. The study was conducted to assess whether oxidative stress induce vascular insulin resistance in OLETF rat, a model of type 2 diabetes METHODS: We used OLETF rats (20/30/40 weeks, n = 5/5/5), as models of type 2 DM, and LETO rats (20/30/40 weeks, n = 5/5/5) as controls. Aortas of each rats were extracted. Superoxide anion production was detected by NBT assay and lucigenin assay. 8-hydroxyguanosine (OHdG) and nitrotyrosine were detected as markers of oxidative stress in 20 and 40 weeks groups. The glucose uptake of aortas was measured by detecting 2-deoxyglucose uptake in both groups. The expression of IR, IRS-1, PI3-K and Akt/PKB were detected by immuno precipitation and immunoblotting in 20, 30 and 40 weeks groups RESULTS: Superoxide anion production and markers of oxidative stress (8-OHdG, nitrotyrosine) were significantly increased in aortas of OLETF rats compared with controls. Aortas of OLETF rats exhibited decreased IRS-1 content and increased phosphorylation of IRS-1 at Ser307 compared with LETO rats. There were no significant differences in expressions of IR, PI3-K and Akt/PKB between two groups CONCLUSION: These results suggest that oxidative stress induces insulin resistance in vasculature of OLETF rat specifically through increasing serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and its degradation by a proteasome-dependent pathway, providing an alternative mechanism that may explain the association with insulin resistance and diabetic vascular complications.

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  • Anti-diabetic effects of benfotiamine on an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus
    Kang Min Chung, Wonyoung Kang, Dong Geon Kim, Hyun Ju Hong, Youngjae Lee, Chang-Hoon Han
    Korean Journal of Veterinary Research.2014; 54(1): 21.     CrossRef
High Glucose Modulates Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation Through Activation of PKC-sigma-dependent NAD(P)H oxidase.
Bo Hyun Kim, Chang Won Lee, Jung Lae Park, Yang Ho Kang, In Ju Kim, Yong Ki Kim, Seok Man Son
Korean Diabetes J. 2006;30(6):416-427.   Published online November 1, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/jkda.2006.30.6.416
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Oxidative stress is thought to be one of the causative factors contributing to macrovascular complications in diabetes. However, the mechanisms of development and progression of diabetic vascular complications are poorly understood. We hypothesized that PKC-sigma isozyme contributes to ROS generation and determined their roles in the critical intermediary signaling events in high glucose-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells. METHODS: We treated primary cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells for 72 hours with medium containing 5.5 mmol/L D-glucose (normal glucose), 30 mmol/L D-glucose (high glucose) or 5.5 mmol/L D-glucose plus 24.5 mmol/L mannitol (osmotic control). We then measured cell number, BrdU incorporation, cell cycle and superoxide production in VSM cells. Immunoblotting of PKC isozymes using phoshospecific antibodies was performed, and PKC activity was also measured. RESULTS: High glucose increased VSM cell number and BrdU incorporation and displayed significantly greater percentages of S and G2/M phases than compared to 5.5 mmol/L glucose and osmotic control. The nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) staining in high glucose-treated VSM cell was more prominent compared with normal glucose-treated VSM cell, which was significantly inhibited by DPI (10 micrometer), but not by inhibitors for other oxidases. High glucose also markedly increased activity of PKC-sigma isozyme. When VSM cells were treated with rottlerin, a specific inhibitor of PKC-sigma or transfected with PKC-sigma siRNA, NBT staining and NAD(P)H oxidase activity were significantly attenuated in the high glucose-treated VSM cells. Furthermore, inhibition of PKC-sigma markedly decreased VSM cell number by high glucose. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that high glucose-induced VSM cell proliferation is dependent upon activation of PKC-sigma, which may responsible for elevated intracellular ROS production in VSM cells, and this is mediated by NAD(P)H oxidase.

Citations

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  • High Glucose and/or Free Fatty Acid Damage Vascular Endothelial Cells via Stimulating of NAD(P)H Oxidase-induced Superoxide Production from Neutrophils
    Sang Soo Kim, Sun Young Kim, Soo Hyung Lee, Yang Ho Kang, In Ju Kim, Yong Ki Kim, Seok Man Son
    Korean Diabetes Journal.2009; 33(2): 94.     CrossRef
Cell Cycle Progression of Vascular Smooth Muscle cell Through Modulation of p38 MAPK and GSK-3beta Activities Under High Glucose Condition.
Yang Ho Kang, In Ju Kim, Yong Ki Kim, Seok Man Son
Korean Diabetes J. 2005;29(5):418-431.   Published online September 1, 2005
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGOUND: Macroangiopathy, with atherosclerosis, is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in diabetic patients. Vascular smooth muscle cells play a crucial role in atherosclerosis, as they proliferate, migrate and express genes that encode inducible growth factors. However, the mechanisms induced by hyperglycemia that accelerate the proliferative change of vascular smooth muscle cells in diabetes remain unclear. This study was aimed at clarifying the respective roles of hyperglycemia in the acceleration of vascular complications in diabetes, examine the effects of hyperglycemia on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and the possible underlying mechanisms, including cell cycle progression. METHODS: Primary cultured rat aortic RASMs were exposed to normal glucose(5 mmol/L D-glucose), high glucose(30 mmol/L D-glucose) or an osmotic control (5mmol/L D-glucose plus 24.5 mmol/L mannitol) for 72 hours. The effect of high glucose on cell proliferation was determined by assessing the cell count and BrdU incorporation. Proteins involved in the cell proliferation pathway (PDK1, Akt/PKB, p42/44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, GSK-3beta) and those in cell cycle progression (cdk4, cyclin D, cdk2, cyclin E and ppRb phosphorylation) were determined by Western blot analysis. cdk4 kinase and PKC activity assays were also performed. RESULTS: A high level of glucose increased both the cell count(P<0.01) and BrdU incorporation(P<0.01). The PDK1, Akt/PKB and p42/44 MAPK activities were not significantly increased. A high level of glucose significantly increased the activities of p38 MAPK (P<0.01) and GSK-3beta(P<0.05) and the expressions of cdk4, cyclin D and ppRb phosphorylation. The cdk4 (P<0.01) and PKC (P<0.05) activities were also significantly increased. The inhibition of protein kinase C with GF109203X markedly reduced the phosphorylations of p38 MAPK and GSK-3betaand the expressions of cdk4 and cyclin D. In addition, pretreatment with GF109203X decreased the cell number in response to a high glucose level. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that a high level of glucose increases vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, with the possible mechanism further increases the G1 to S phase cell cycle progression via the activation of PKC, p38 MAPK and GSK-3beta.
The Effect of High Glucose on the Proliferation and Migration of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.
Mi Kyoung Kim, Yang Ho Kang, Seok Man Son, In Ju Kim, Yong Ki Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2004;28(5):407-415.   Published online October 1, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Oxidative stress contributes to vascular diseases for patients with diabetes by promoting vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, monocyte/macrophage infiltration, and vascular tone alteration. As the mechanism of development and progression of diabetic vascular complications is poorly understood, this study was aimed to assess the potential role of hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and to determine whether thise oxidative stress is a major factor in hyperglycemia-induced migration and proliferation of VSMCs. METHODS: Rat aortic VSMCs were incubated for 48 hours in either a normal glucose (NG, 5.5 mM) or a high glucose (HG, 30 mM) condition. We then measured the proliferation and migration of VSMCs and the superoxide production. RESULTS: The migration and proliferation of VSMCs incubated under a HG condition were markedly increased compared to the NG condition. Treatment with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI, 10 M) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, 500 U/mL) significantly suppressed the HG-induced migration and proliferation of VSMCs. Superoxide production was significantly increased in the HG condition, and it was markedly decreased after a treatment with DPI and SOD. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that HG-induced VSMC migration and proliferation are related to the production of superoxide anion that is derived from NAD(P)H oxidase.
Mechanism of Impaired Endothelium-dependent Vasodilation in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) Rats .
Kook Jin Chun, Seok Man Son, In Ju Kim, Chi Dae Kim, Seok Dong Yoo, Yong Ki Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2002;26(1):47-57.   Published online February 1, 2002
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Impaired vascular endothelium-dependent relaxation and augmented contractile responses have been reported in several long-term animals hyperglycemia models and human diabetic patients. Since oxidative stress has been implicated as a contributor to impaired vascular function, the mechanism of an impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats was investigated. METHODS: This present study was undertaken to characterize both the vascular production and the enzymatic source of the superoxide anion in the type 2 diabetic rats. RESULTS: In the thoracic aortas of OLETF rats, endothelium-dependent relaxation was markedly attenuated compared to that of the control rats (LETO, Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka) in association with a significant increase in superoxide production (2421.39+/-07.01 nmol/min/mg). There was no difference in eNOS expression between the OLETF rats and LETO rats. The increased production of superoxide anion was significantly attenuated by diphenyleneiodonium (DPI, 10 mol/L), NAD (P)H oxidase inhibitor. In line with these results, studies using various enzyme inhibitors such as DPI, allopurinol, rotenone and L-NMMA suggest that the main source of superoxide anions in the aorta is NAD (P)H oxidase. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that enhanced NAD(P)H oxidase activity and reduced nitric oxide (NO) availability through an interaction between NO and superoxide anion contribute to the impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in OLETF rats.
Study on the Mechanism of Neutrophil Adhesion to Retinal Capillary Endothelial Cells under High Glucose Condition.
Seok Man Son, Young Sil Lee, Chang Won Lee, Seok Dong Yoo, In Ju Kim, Yong Ki Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2001;25(1):35-49.   Published online February 1, 2001
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Diabetic retinopathy is a leading cause of adult vision loss and blindness. Much of the retinal damage that characterizes the disease results from retinal vascular leakage and occlusion. Capillary occlusion is the result of microvascular thrombi in which erythrocytes, platelets and leukocytes each may play a major role. Thus, we investigated the pathogenesis of leukocyte stasis by exposing bovine retinal capillary endothelial cells (BRCECs) for high glucose concentration. METHODS: We examined the adhesion of neutrophils to BRCECs incubated in media containing 5.5-30 mmol/L D-glucose for 24 hours. We also measured the expression of E-selectin on endothelial cells and the activation of NF(nuclear transcription factor)-kappaB in nuclear fractions of endothelial cells by using electrophoretic mobility shift assay. RESULTS: We observed that 30 mmol/L D-glucose significantly increased the adhesion of neutrophils to BRCECs (12.5% vs. 3.0%, p<0.01) and migration of neutrophil across cultured BRCEC monolayers (41.0% vs. 21.0%, p<0.05) in respect to 5.5 mmol/L D-glucose. The expression of E-selectin was increased incubated with 30 mmol/L D-glucose compared with 5.5 mmol/L D-glucose (1.45 OD vs. 0.54 OD, p<0.01). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay of nuclear extracts of BRCECs exposed for 24 h to 30 mmol/L D-glucose revealed an intense NF-kappaB activation compared with cells cultured in 5.5 mmol/L D-glucose (8.72x104 countsxmm2 vs.1.88x104 countsxmm2, p<0.01). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that high glucose concentration promote neutrophil adhesion to the BRCECs through upregulation of cell surface expression of E-selectin, possibly depending on NF-kappaB activation and may have implications for the induction of microvasculopathy of diabetic retinopathy.

Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
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