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4 "Nam Han Cho"
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Original Article
Cardiovascular Risk/Epidemiology
Validation of Risk Prediction Models for Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in a Prospective Korean Community-Based Cohort
Jae Hyun Bae, Min Kyong Moon, Sohee Oh, Bo Kyung Koo, Nam Han Cho, Moon-Kyu Lee
Diabetes Metab J. 2020;44(3):458-469.   Published online January 13, 2020
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  • 236 Download
  • 16 Web of Science
  • 16 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary MaterialPubReader   

To investigate the performance of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Pooled Cohort Equations (PCE) in a large, prospective, community-based cohort in Korea and to compare it with that of the Framingham Global Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score (FRS-CVD) and the Korean Risk Prediction Model (KRPM).


In the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KOGES)-Ansan and Ansung study, we evaluated calibration and discrimination of the PCE for non-Hispanic whites (PCE-WH) and for African Americans (PCE-AA) and compared their predictive abilities with the FRS-CVD and the KRPM.


The present study included 7,932 individuals (3,778 men and 4,154 women). The PCE-WH and PCE-AA moderately overestimated the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) for men (6% and 13%, respectively) but underestimated the risk for women (−49% and −25%, respectively). The FRS-CVD overestimated ASCVD risk for men (91%) but provided a good risk prediction for women (3%). The KRPM underestimated ASCVD risk for men (−31%) and women (−31%). All the risk prediction models showed good discrimination in both men (C-statistic 0.730 to 0.735) and women (C-statistic 0.726 to 0.732). Recalibration of the PCE using data from the KOGES-Ansan and Ansung study substantially improved the predictive accuracy in men.


In the KOGES-Ansan and Ansung study, the PCE overestimated ASCVD risk for men and underestimated the risk for women. The PCE-WH and the FRS-CVD provided an accurate prediction of ASCVD in men and women, respectively.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
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Diabetes Epidemiology in Korean.
Nam Han Cho
Korean Diabetes J. 2001;25(1):1-10.   Published online February 1, 2001
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  • 17 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Original Articles
Evaluation of 25% and 50% -75 gm Oral Glucose Tolerance Test - Animal and Clinical Pilot Study: Emphasis on Glucose Kinetics and Preference Evaluation.
Nam Han Cho, Eun Gyoung Hong
Korean Diabetes J. 2000;24(3):385-392.   Published online January 1, 2001
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  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Oral glucose tolerance test to diagnose diabetes was first introduced by Jarney and Isaacson in 1918. This method was advocated because of its diagnostic accuracy and also provides the two hours glucose changing pattern. Twenty-five percent (296 mL) glucose solution has been used as the standard diagnostic method in Korea. However, large volume of the solution frequently cause vomiting during the tests. Thus, 50% solution (150 mL) was recently introduced, but the potential difficulty of gastric emptying caused by its hyperosmolarity, and degree of diagnostic accuracy was questioned. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated two type of solutions by comparing the followings in both an animal and human models: (1) glucose changing pattern during the two hour oral glucose tolerance test, (2) Preference evaluation in human model. METHODS: Fifteen male Sprague-Dawley rats and 15 human subjects underwent 2 hours OGTT after 10~14 hours fasting. Two grams glucose per kg body weight was feed to the SD rat. In human, 75 gm glucose in 296 mL (25%) and 150 mL (50%) glucose solution was ingested at two different time, but testing was done within 24 hours a part. Five blood samples (fasting, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes) were collected and separated for serum. Glucose was assayed using YSI 2300-STAT (Yellow Springs Instrument Co., Ohio, USA) by glucose oxidase method. RESULTS: In animal study, despite the lower fasting glucose level, 30, 60 and 120 minutes glucose level was higher in 50% solution when compared to the 25% but the mean values were not statistically different. The glucose area under the curve (GAUC) in 50% was higher than 25% but not statistically different. The peak glucose level was observed at 60 minutes in both solutions. In human study, although mean values were not statistically different, all glucose values except 30 minutes were higher in 50% solution. Furthermore, GAUC was not statistically different between the two solutions. In preference test, the study subjects significantly (p<0.05) preferred the 50% solution as more favorable amount for the test. No differences in the tolerable level of sweetness, level of thirsty after ingestion, nausea, vomiting, head and stomachache was observed. CONCLUSION: In this study, we found that the gastro-intestinal glucose kinetics of the 25% and 50% glucose solution used during the OGTT was very similar in both an animal and human model. Furthermore, the preference evaluation showed favorable results in 50% solution. The use of 50% solution reconcile vomiting problem during the test but the same diagnostic accuracy was preserved. Therefore, 50% solution merits its scientific value as the diagnostic solution, and hope to contribute to favor the OGTT for diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in the future.
Microvascular Complications and lts Relationship with Obesity in Outpatient Type 2 Diabetics.
Seong Kyu Lee, Bong Nam Chae, Eun Gyoung Hong, Hye Lim Noh, Hyeon Kyoung Cho, Yoon Jung Kim, Mi Deok Lee, Yoon Sok Chung, Kwan Woo Lee, Nam Han Cho, Hyeon Man Kim
Korean Diabetes J. 2000;24(1):60-70.   Published online January 1, 2001
  • 1,160 View
  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Korean type 2 diabetic patients who are frequently non-obese, may be genetically different from Western type 2 diabetics who are frequently obese. Therefore, the diabetic complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korea may be also different from those of Western countries. Until now, most studies reported in Korea did not analyse the microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus according to obesity, and also the criteria in the diagnosis of microvascular complications were different in each study. We investigated the microvascular complications and its relationship with obesity, in type 2 diabetic patients visiting an outpatient clinic. METHODS: The study subjects were type 2 diabetic patients visiting an outpatient clinic of Ajou University Hospital. We selected patients participating in a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, retrospectively. Type 2 diabetes was diagnosed according to the WHO/NDDG classification of diabetes. Biochemical studies including lipid profile, plasma insulin and C-peptide levels were done. Anthropometric measurements were performed. Based on BMI (kg/m2), the patients were divided into the following groups: the lean group, whan the BMI was less than 20kg/m2; the ideal body weight (IBW) group, if the BMI was between 20 kg/m and 25 kg/m in women and 20kg/m and 27 kg/m in men; and the obese group, when the BMI was>25 kg/m in women and >27 kg/m2 in men. RESULTS: 1. Neuropathy (45.2%) was the most frequent among the microvascular complications, and the frequency of retinopathy was 15.1%, and that of nephropathy was 4.9k. Within 5 years of diabetes duration, the frequency of neuropathy, retinopathy, and nephropathy was 43.2%, 11.8%, and 2,9%, respectively. 2. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting blood glucose levels were not different among the three groups. Beta cell function{delta(insulin 30min insulin Omin)/delta(glucose 30min - glucose Omin)} was the highest in the obese group, However, beta cell function(delta/delta G) divided by the basal insulin level, considered insulin resistance, was not different among the three groups. 3. Within 5 years of diabetes duration, retinopathy tended to be the most frequent in the lean group, whereas neuropathy tended to be the most frequent in the obese group, and body mass index influenced the retinopathy and neuropathy, statistically significantly. CONCLUSION: Diabetic neuropathy was the most frequent among microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus in our study subjects. At the time of presentation within 5 years of diabetes duration, the lean group of type 2 diabetics had a tendency of the more frequent retinopathy, the obese group had a tendency of the more frequent neuropathy. These results suggest that type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korea is also not a singie disease entity, as in Western countries and is a heterogenous group of disorders with a diversity of microvascular complications. However, the more studies about this will be required.

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