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Epidemiology
Dietary Sodium Intake in People with Diabetes in Korea: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2008 to 2010
Myung Shin Kang, Chong Hwa Kim, Su Jin Jeong, Tae Sun Park
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(4):290-296.   Published online June 23, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.4.290
  • 3,375 View
  • 40 Download
  • 16 Web of Science
  • 18 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Diabetics are likely to receive advice from their physicians concerning lifestyle changes. To understand how much sodium is consumed by diabetics in Korea, we compared the average daily sodium intake between diabetics and non-diabetics after controlling for confounding factors.

Methods

We obtained the sodium intake data for 13,957 individuals who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), 2008 to 2010, which consisted of a health interview and behavioral and nutritional surveys. The KNHANES uses a stratified, multistage, probability-sampling design, and weighting adjustments were conducted to represent the entire population.

Results

Our analysis revealed that, overall, diabetics tended to have lower sodium intake (4,910.2 mg) than healthy individuals (5,188.2 mg). However, both diabetic and healthy individuals reported higher sodium intake than is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Stratified subgroup analyses revealed that the sodium intake (4,314.2 mg) among newly diagnosed diabetics was higher among women when compared to patients with known diabetes (3,812.5 mg, P=0.035). Female diabetics with cardiovascular disease had lower average sodium intake compared to those without cardiovascular disease after adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, and total energy intake (P=0.058). Sodium intake among male diabetics with hypercholesterolemia (P=0.011) and female diabetics with hypertriglyceridemia (P=0.067) tended to be higher than that among those who without dyslipidemia.

Conclusion

The average sodium intake of diabetics in Korea was higher than the WHO recommends. Sodium intake in newly diagnosed diabetics was significantly higher than that in non-diabetics and previously diagnosed diabetics among females. Prospective studies are needed to identify the exact sodium intake.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Salt Intake in Adults with Diabetes and Hypertension: The Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-Brasil Study
    Natália Gonçalves Ribeiro, Deborah F. Lelis, Rosane H. Griep, Sandhi M. Barreto, Maria del Carmen B Molina, Maria I. Schmidt, Bruce B. Duncan, Isabela Bensenor, Paulo A. Lotufo, José G. Mill, Marcelo Perim Baldo
    Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Effects of different diets on glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes: A literature review
    Maryam E Al-Adwi, Zinab M Al-Haswsa, Karmen M Alhmmadi, Yasmin A Eissa, Aya Hamdan, Hiba Bawadi, Reema F Tayyem
    Nutrition and Health.2023; 29(2): 215.     CrossRef
  • Dietary salt intake predicts future development of metabolic syndrome in the general population
    Hiroyuki Takase, Kazusa Hayashi, Fumihiko Kin, Suguru Nakano, Masashi Machii, Shin Takayama, Tomonori Sugiura, Yasuaki Dohi
    Hypertension Research.2023; 46(1): 236.     CrossRef
  • High Sodium Intake, as Assessed by Urinary Sodium Excretion, Is Associated with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease or Sarcopenia
    Eugene Han, Mi Kyung Kim, Seung-Soon Im, Hye Soon Kim, Taeg Kyu Kwon, Byoung Kuk Jang
    Gut and Liver.2023; 17(3): 456.     CrossRef
  • Trends of Dietary Intakes and Metabolic Diseases in Japanese Adults: Assessment of National Health Promotion Policy and National Health and Nutrition Survey 1995–2019
    Muhammad Fauzi, Indri Kartiko-Sari, Hemant Poudyal
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2022; 11(9): 2350.     CrossRef
  • Determinants of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Among Adults in Dill-Chora Referral Hospital, Dire Dawa, East Ethiopia
    Tewodros Getnet Amera, Yibekal Manaye Tefera, Tameru Menberu, Aminu Mohammed Yassin
    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy.2022; Volume 15: 3565.     CrossRef
  • Dietary sodium and cardiovascular morbidity/mortality: a brief commentary on the ‘J-shape hypothesis’
    Christiana Tsirimiagkou, Kalliopi Karatzi, Antonios Argyris, Eirini D. Basdeki, Panagiota Kaloudi, Mary Yannakoulia, Athanase D. Protogerou
    Journal of Hypertension.2021; 39(12): 2335.     CrossRef
  • Associations of Dietary Salt and Its Sources with Hemoglobin A1c in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Not Taking Anti-Diabetic Medications: Analysis Based on 6-Month Intervention with a Moderate Low-Carbohydrate Diet
    Hajime Haimoto, Takashi Murase, Shiho Watanabe, Keiko Maeda, Kenji Wakai
    Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy.2021; Volume 14: 4569.     CrossRef
  • Association of rheumatoid arthritis and high sodium intake with major adverse cardiovascular events: a cross-sectional study from the seventh Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Jeong-Hyeon Bae, Min-Young Shin, Eun Ha Kang, Yun Jong Lee, You-Jung Ha
    BMJ Open.2021; 11(12): e056255.     CrossRef
  • Nineteen-year trends in fermented food consumption and sodium intake from fermented foods for Korean adults from 1998 to 2016
    Sang Young Kim, Jeanne H Freeland-Graves, Hyun Ja Kim
    Public Health Nutrition.2020; 23(3): 515.     CrossRef
  • Dietary Sodium Intake and Health Indicators: A Systematic Review of Published Literature between January 2015 and December 2019
    Katherine J Overwyk, Zerleen S Quader, Joyce Maalouf, Marlana Bates, Jacqui Webster, Mary G George, Robert K Merritt, Mary E Cogswell
    Advances in Nutrition.2020; 11(5): 1174.     CrossRef
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    Eugene Han, Nan Hee Cho, Mi Kyung Kim, Hye Soon Kim
    Diabetes & Metabolism Journal.2019; 43(4): 461.     CrossRef
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    Jisook Ko, Kim B. Kim, Gayle M. Timmerman, Angela P. Clark, Miyong Kim
    Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health.2018; 20(3): 641.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of the association between the number of natural teeth and anemia among Korean adults using nationally representative data
    Kyungdo Han, Jun‐Beom Park
    Journal of Periodontology.2018; 89(10): 1184.     CrossRef
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    Kyungdo Han, Jun‑Beom Park
    Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine.2018;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association between underweight and tooth loss among Korean adults
    In-Seok Song, Kyungdo Han, Jae-Jun Ryu, Jun-Beom Park
    Scientific Reports.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The Science of Salt: A regularly updated systematic review of the implementation of salt reduction interventions (March–August 2016)
    Joseph Alvin Santos, Kathy Trieu, Thout Sudhir Raj, JoAnne Arcand, Claire Johnson, Jacqui Webster, Rachael McLean
    The Journal of Clinical Hypertension.2017; 19(4): 439.     CrossRef
  • Salt-sensitive genes and their relation to obesity
    Yong-Pil Cheon, Myoungsook Lee
    Journal of Nutrition and Health.2017; 50(3): 217.     CrossRef
Clinical Care/Education
Glycemic Effects of Rebaudioside A and Erythritol in People with Glucose Intolerance
Dong Hee Shin, Ji Hye Lee, Myung Shin Kang, Tae Hoon Kim, Su Jin Jeong, Chong Hwa Kim, Sang Soo Kim, In Joo Kim
Diabetes Metab J. 2016;40(4):283-289.   Published online June 15, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2016.40.4.283
  • 5,098 View
  • 48 Download
  • 18 Web of Science
  • 19 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFPubReader   
Background

Rebaudioside A and erythritol are nonnutritive sweeteners. There have been several studies of their glycemic effects, but the outcomes remain controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the glycemic effects of rebaudioside A and erythritol as a sweetener in people with glucose intolerance.

Methods

This trial evaluated the glycemic effect after 2 weeks of consumption of rebaudioside A and erythritol as sweeteners in a pre-diabetic population. The patients were evaluated for fructosamine, fasting plasma glucose, C-peptide, insulin, and 2-hour plasma glucose before and after consumption of sweetener. The primary outcome was a change in fructosamine levels from the baseline to the end of treatment. Secondary outcomes were the changes in levels of fasting plasma glucose and 2-hour plasma glucose.

Results

From the baseline to the end of experiment, the changes in fructosamine levels after consumption of rebaudioside A and erythritol, did not differ significantly (244.00±19.57 vs. 241.68±23.39 µmol/L, P=0.366). The change in levels from the baseline to end of the study for rebaudioside A and erythritol were fasting plasma glucose (102.56±10.72 vs. 101.32±9.20 mg/dL), 2-hour plasma glucose (154.92±54.53 vs. 141.92±42.22 mg/dL), insulin (7.56±4.29 vs. 7.20±5.12 IU/mL), and C-peptide (2.92±1.61 vs. 2.73±1.31 ng/mL), respectively, and also did not differ significantly (P>0.05 for all).

Conclusion

Our study suggests that consumption of rebaudioside A and erythritol does not alter the glucose homeostasis in people with glucose intolerance.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Cardiometabolic Impact of Rebaudioside A Exposure during the Reproductive Stage
    Isabella Bracchi, Juliana Morais, João Almeida Coelho, Ana Filipa Ferreira, Inês Alves, Cláudia Mendes, Beatriz Correia, Alexandre Gonçalves, João Tiago Guimarães, Inês Falcão Pires, Elisa Keating, Rita Negrão
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  • Re‐evaluation of erythritol (E 968) as a food additive
    Maged Younes, Gabriele Aquilina, Laurence Castle, Gisela Degen, Karl‐Heinz Engel, Paul J. Fowler, Maria José Frutos Fernandez, Peter Fürst, Ursula Gundert‐Remy, Rainer Gürtler, Trine Husøy, Melania Manco, Wim Mennes, Peter Moldeus, Sabina Passamonti, Romi
    EFSA Journal.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Nutrition and Metabolic Insights.2022; 15: 117863882210769.     CrossRef
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Diabetes Metab J : Diabetes & Metabolism Journal